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Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon

GALFORD, Gillian L.; MELILLO, Jerry M.; KICKLIGHTER, David W.; MUSTARD, John F.; CRONIN, Timothy W.; CERRI, Carlos E. P.; CERRI, Carlos C.
Fonte: ECOLOGICAL SOC AMER Publicador: ECOLOGICAL SOC AMER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO(2) to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining intact ecosystems, especially tropical forests, may be sequestering a large amount of carbon from the atmosphere in response to global environmental changes including climate changes and an increase in atmospheric CO(2). Here we use an approach that integrates census-based historical land use reconstructions, remote-sensing-based contemporary land use change analyses, and simulation modeling of terrestrial biogeochemistry to estimate the net carbon balance over the period 1901-2006 for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is one of the most rapidly changing agricultural frontiers in the world. By the end of this period, we estimate that of the state`s 925 225 km(2), 221 092 km(2) have been converted to pastures and 89 533 km(2) have been converted to croplands, with forest-to-pasture conversions being the dominant land use trajectory but with recent transitions to croplands increasing rapidly in the last decade. These conversions have led to a cumulative release of 4.8 Pg C to the atmosphere, with similar to 80% from forest clearing and 20% from the clearing of cerrado. Over the same period...

Modeling the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of deforestation-driven carbon emissions: the INPE-EM framework applied to the Brazilian Amazon

Dutra Aguiar, Ana Paula; Ometto, Jean Pierre; Nobre, Carlos; Lapola, David Montenegro; Almeida, Claudio; Vieira, Ima Celia; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alvala, Regina; Saatchi, Sassan; Valeriano, Dalton; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3346-3366
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
We present a generic spatially explicit modeling framework to estimate carbon emissions from deforestation (INPE-EM). The framework incorporates the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region under study. We build an emission model for the Brazilian Amazon combining annual maps of new clearings, four maps of biomass, and a set of alternative parameters based on the recent literature. The most important results are as follows: (a) Using different biomass maps leads to large differences in estimates of emission; for the entire region of the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, emission estimates of primary forest deforestation range from 0.21 to 0.26 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. (b) Secondary vegetation growth presents a small impact on emission balance because of the short duration of secondary vegetation. In average, the balance is only 5% smaller than the primary forest deforestation emissions. (c) Deforestation rates decreased significantly in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, from 27 similar to Mkm2 in 2004 to 7 similar to Mkm2 in 2010. INPE-EM process-based estimates reflect this decrease even though the agricultural frontier is moving to areas of higher biomass. The decrease is slower than a non-process instantaneous model would estimate as it considers residual emissions (slash...

Carbon Offsets with Endogenous Environmental Policy

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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56.63%
Interests in obtaining carbon offsets in host countries for Clean Development Mechanism projects may serve as an obstacle to implementing more stringent general environmental policies in the same countries. A relatively lax environmental policy, whereby carbon emissions remain high, can be advantageous for such countries as it leaves them with a higher than otherwise scope for future emissions reductions through Clean Development Mechanism and other offset projects. In this note, the potential to affect the availability of future Clean Development Mechanism projects is shown to distort environmental and energy policies of Clean Development Mechanism host countries in two ways. Measures to reduce use of fossil energy are weakened. Because this weakens private sector incentives to switch to lower-carbon technology through Clean Development Mechanism projects, host governments then also find it attractive to subsidize this switch, in order to maximize the country s advantage from the Clean Development Mechanism.

Tax Policy to Reduce Carbon Emissions in South Africa

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Go, Delfin S.; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Noting that South Africa may be one of the few African countries that could contribute to mitigating climate change, the authors explore the impact of a carbon tax relative to alternative energy taxes on economic welfare. Using a disaggregate general-equilibrium model of the South African economy, they capture the structural characteristics of the energy sector, linking a supply mix that is heavily skewed toward coal to energy use by different sectors and hence their carbon content. The authors consider a "pure" carbon tax as well as various proxy taxes such as those on energy or energy-intensive sectors like transport and basic metals, all of which achieve the same level of carbon reduction. In general, the more targeted the tax to carbon emissions, the better the welfare results. If a carbon tax is feasible, it will have the least marginal cost of abatement by a substantial amount when compared to alternative tax instruments. If a carbon tax is not feasible, a sales tax on energy inputs is the next best option. Moreover...

Economic Implications of Reducing Carbon Emissions from Energy Use and Industrial Processes in Brazil

Chen, Y.-H. Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The overall impacts on the Brazilian economy of reducing CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes can be assessed using a recursive dynamic general equilibrium model and a hypothetical carbon tax. The study projects that in 2040 under a business-as-usual scenario, CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. Current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If policy is implemented as planned and continued to 2040, CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would not have to be cut until 2035 as reductions of emissions through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet emission targets. The study also finds evidence that supports the double dividend hypothesis: using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax significantly lowers the gross domestic product impacts of the carbon tax. Using carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the output of wind power in the country...

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008

Capoor, Karan; Ambrosi, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The carbon market is the most visible result of early regulatory efforts to mitigate climate change. Regulation constraining carbon emissions has spawned an emerging carbon market that was valued at US$64 billion (Euro 47 billion) in 2007. Its biggest success so far has been to send market signals for the price of mitigating carbon emissions. This, in turn, has stimulated innovation and carbon abatement worldwide, as motivated individuals, communities, companies and governments have cooperated to reduce emissions. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) market has been successful in its mission of reducing emissions through internal abatement at home, and of stimulating emission reductions abroad. The European Commission, learning from the experience of Phase I, has strengthened several important design elements for EU ETS Phase II. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) accounted for the vast majority of project-based transactions (at 87 percent of volumes and 91percent of values) and JI saw transacted volumes doubling and values tripling in 2007 over the previous year. The CDM alone saw primary transactions worth US$7.4 billion (Euro 5.4 billion), with demand coming mainly from private sector entities in the EU, but also from EU governments and Japan.

Energy Intensive Infrastructure Investments with Retrofits in Continuous Time : Effects of Uncertainty on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions

Framstad, Nils Christian; Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
Energy-intensive infrastructure may tie up fossil energy use and carbon emissions for a long time after investments, making the structure of such investments crucial for society. Much or most of the resulting carbon emissions can often be eliminated later, through a costly retrofit. This paper studies the simultaneous decision to invest in such infrastructure, and retrofit it later, in a model where future climate damages are uncertain and follow a geometric Brownian motion process with positive drift. It shows that greater uncertainty about climate cost (for given unconditional expected costs) then delays the retrofit decision by increasing the option value of waiting to invest. Higher energy intensity is also chosen for the initial infrastructure when uncertainty is greater. These decisions are efficient given that energy and carbon prices facing the decision maker are (globally) correct, but inefficient when they are lower, which is more typical. Greater uncertainty about future climate costs will then further increase lifetime carbon emissions from the infrastructure...

Designing Contracts for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Cordero Salas, Paula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
Reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation has been identified as a cost effective element of the post-Kyoto strategy to achieve long-term climate objectives. Its success depends primarily on the design and implementation of a financial mechanism that provides land-holders sufficient incentives to participate in such scheme. This paper proposes self-enforcing contracts (relational contracts) as a potential solution for the constraints in formal contract enforcement derived from the stylized facts of the implementation because relational contracting relies upon mutual private self-enforcement in a repeated transaction framework. The paper derives an opportunity cost function for land use and characterizes the optimal self-enforcing contract as well as provide the parameters under which private enforcement is sustainable. The optimal payment scheme suggests that all payments should be made contingent on the carbon offsets delivered, that is, at the end of the contracting period. Thus...

The Low Carbon City Development Program Guidebook

World Bank; DNV KEMA
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
According to the United Nations population fund, the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history, with more people now living in cities than in rural areas. Cities are also responsible for a high proportion of global carbon emissions, which are the main driver of anthropogenic climate change. By taking the lead on low carbon development, cities have the opportunity to engage in an important dialogue about sustainable development, directly address local issues, and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low carbon development strategies allow cities to position themselves as major players in climate change mitigation, as well as set an example for the development of national emission reduction policies. The systematic approach offered by a low carbon city development program (LCCDP) enables a city to overcome the barriers faced in single project implementation and pursue an integrated low carbon pathway. It provides a common framework to identify, implement, and measure low carbon interventions that will not only contribute to lower emissions...

Estimating Global “Blue Carbon” Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems

Pendleton, Linwood; Donato, Daniel C.; Murray, Brian C.; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W. Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Marbà,, Núria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, Davi
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems—marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses—that may be lost with habitat destruction (‘conversion’). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this ‘blue carbon’ can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15–1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3–19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6–42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently...

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008

Capoor, Karan; Ambrosi, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The carbon market is the most visible result of early regulatory efforts to mitigate climate change. Regulation constraining carbon emissions has spawned an emerging carbon market that was valued at US$64 billion (Euro 47 billion) in 2007. Its biggest success so far has been to send market signals for the price of mitigating carbon emissions. This, in turn, has stimulated innovation and carbon abatement worldwide, as motivated individuals, communities, companies and governments have cooperated to reduce emissions. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) market has been successful in its mission of reducing emissions through internal abatement at home, and of stimulating emission reductions abroad. The European Commission, learning from the experience of Phase I, has strengthened several important design elements for EU ETS Phase II. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) accounted for the vast majority of project-based transactions (at 87 percent of volumes and 91percent of values) and JI saw transacted volumes doubling and values tripling in 2007 over the previous year. The CDM alone saw primary transactions worth US$7.4 billion (Euro 5.4 billion), with demand coming mainly from private sector entities in the EU, but also from EU governments and Japan.

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This report summarizes the results for the transportation sector from a larger study, the low carbon study for Brazil, developed by the World Bank as part of its initiative to support the integrated efforts of Brazil to reduce global and national greenhouse gases emissions, while promoting long-term development. The study covers four key areas with potential low carbon options: 1) Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation, 2) transport systems, 3) production and use of energy, particularly electricity, oil, gas and bio fuels, and 4) municipal waste, solids and liquids. This study aims to underpin Brazil's efforts to explore methods for reducing total emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) arising from all areas of human activity. More specifically, this study seeks to highlight low-carbon alternatives for Brazil´s transport sector. These alternatives could contribute positively to the world's climate, as well as benefit Brazil's socio-economic development. The technical inputs for evaluating potential carbon emissions reduction will be submitted to the Brazilian government to assist it in the design and deployment of joint planning strategies in key sectors...

Assessing Low-Carbon Development in Nigeria : An Analysis of Four Sectors

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Dvorak, Irina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and the World Bank have agreed to carry out a Climate Change Assessment (CCA) within the framework of the Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Nigeria (2010-13). The CCA includes an analysis of options for low-carbon development in selected sectors, including power, oil and gas, transport, and agriculture. The goal of the low-carbon analysis is to define likely trends in carbon emissions up to 2035, based on government sector development plans, and to identify opportunities for achieving equivalent development objectives with a reduced carbon footprint. This study comprises the following components: (i) development of a reference scenario of greenhouse gas (GHG) net emissions for the agriculture sector, consistent with vision 20: 2020 and other government plans; (ii) identification of opportunities for reduced net emissions- reduced emissions and or enhanced carbon sequestration- while achieving the same development objectives as in the reference scenario; and (iii) economic assessment of low-carbon options in order to help the Nigerian government to prioritize policy options. The study evaluates costs and benefits in a partial equilibrium setting...

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions from Diesel Vehicles : Impacts, Control Strategies, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
A 2013 scientific assessment of black carbon emissions and impacts found that black carbon is second to carbon dioxide in terms of its climate forcing. High concentrations of black carbon in the atmosphere can change precipitation patterns and reduce the amount of radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, which affects local agriculture. Acute and chronic exposures to particulate matter are associated with a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as premature deaths from cardiopulmonary disease, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections. The transportation sector accounted for approximately 19 percent of global black carbon emissions in the year 2000. This report aims to inform efforts to control black carbon emissions from diesel-based transportation in developing countries. It presents a summary of emissions control approaches from developed countries, while recognizing that developing countries face a number of on-the-ground implementation challenges. This study applies a new cost-benefit analysis methodology to four simulated diesel black carbon emissions control projects - diesel retrofit in Istanbul...

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminucion de emisiones de carbono

Johnson, Todd M.; Alatorre, Claudio; Romo, Zayra; Liu, Feng
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the rise in global mean temperatures to less than two degree Celsius will require that global greenhouse gas emissions peak within the next 10-15 years and then fall by 2050 to levels about 50 percent lower than in 1990. Although many countries recognize the need to curtail carbon emissions, there is considerable uncertainty about how much this will cost in individual countries, what measures can be undertaken in both the short and longer term, and how cost-effective specific interventions are in reducing emissions. This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries...

Low-Carbon Development : Opportunities for Nigeria

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Henrion, Max
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has formulated an ambitious strategy, known as Vision 20: 2020, which aims to make Nigeria the world s 20th largest economy by 2020. This book argues that there are many ways that Nigeria can achieve the Vision 20: 2020 development objectives for 2020 and beyond, but with up to 32 percent lower carbon emissions. A lower carbon path offers not only the global benefits of reducing contributions to climate change, but also net economic benefits to Nigeria, estimated at about 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The FGN and the World Bank agreed, as part of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010-13, to conduct an analysis of the implications of climate change for Nigeria's development agenda. The current volume focuses on low-carbon development. Building on the work under way on Nigeria's nationally appropriate mitigation actions, the authors evaluate opportunities to pursue national development priorities using technologies and interventions that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)...

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
This report presents the partial results related to land use, land-use change and the forestry sector from a larger multisectoral low-carbon study for Brazil. Since the 1992 Kyoto Accord, Brazil has been committed to reducing its carbon emissions. The overall aim of this study was to support Brazil's efforts to identify opportunities to reduce its emissions in ways that foster economic development. The primary objective was to provide the Brazilian government with the technical inputs needed to assess the potential and conditions for low-carbon development in key emitting sectors. To this end, the World Bank study adopted a programmatic approach in line with the Brazilian government's long-term development objectives. These are: to anticipate the future evolution of Brazil's emissions to establish a Reference Scenario; identify and quantify lower carbon-intensive options to mitigate emissions, as well as potential options for carbon uptake; assess the costs of these low-carbon options, identify barriers to their adoption...

Minimizing Carbon Emissions in Metal Forming

NAVA, PAOLO
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2668339 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The present work deals with the calculation and the investigation of possible reductions of CO2 emissions in manufacturing a metal formed product. The industrial sector plays a significant role in the recent increase of the oncentration of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere, which is responsible for the advancing global warming. As an answer to fiscal and financial intervention of government policies aimed at counteracting this phenomenon, the environmental impact of products became a key aspect of a company’s strategy. However, literature still lacks effective methods and quantitative studies that look into the details of a single manufacturing process, discussing its environmental aspects and how they can be influenced by changes in the technological parameters. In an attempt to do that, an example of quantification and minimization of the carbon emissions occurring during the two manufacturing steps of the fabrication of an Al 6061 disc is provided. Electrical energy consumption occurring during the shearing and the upset forging of a billet was found by means of nonlinear finite element analysis and converted into CO2 emissions with a carbon emission signature value (CES). Environmental impact and frictional properties of both traditional lubrication and two non-conventional ecologically benign lubricants (palm oil ester and used cooking oil ester) were experimentally tested and are included in the study. A gradient-based optimization algorithm was implemented to determine the optimal geometry of the billet before the compression as well as the lubricant that minimize the total carbon emissions...

Heat Reductions and Carbon Emissions: A Policy Mechanism for Regulating Coal Plants under 111(d) of the Clean Air Act

Hansel, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases to protect public health and welfare. Currently the agency is in the process of developing standards for existing coal power plants under section 111(d) of the CAA and are expected to issue the proposed rule this summer. These regulations have the potential to drastically reduce emissions in the United States. Of the policy proposals and recommendations that have been submitted to the EPA, most advocate for including flexibility mechanisms, such as emissions trading, crediting and offsets, in the guidance policy. However, such broad mechanisms have limited precedence under 111(d) and their legality is untested. This paper explores a more conservative approach by regulating coal units within-the-fence-line. Specifically, the proposed policy would require uniform mandatory heat rate reductions for all coal units, regardless of initial heat rate. All coal units would be required to lower heat rates by 740-810 Btu/kWh, resulting in an 8% fleet-wide average. Inefficient units would be allowed to continue to operate alongside more efficient ones as long as each reduces their heat rate by the given amount. The policy was modeled and this analysis finds that despite costs associated with installing heat-rate reducing technology...

Heat Rate Reductions and Carbon Emissions: A Policy Mechanism for Regulating Coal Plants under 111(d) of the Clean Air Act

Hansel, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases to protect public health and welfare. Currently the agency is in the process of developing standards for existing coal power plants under section 111(d) of the CAA and are expected to issue the proposed rule this summer. These regulations have the potential to drastically reduce emissions in the United States. Of the policy proposals and recommendations that have been submitted to the EPA, most advocate for including flexibility mechanisms, such as emissions trading, crediting and offsets, in the guidance policy. However, such broad mechanisms have limited precedence under 111(d) and their legality is untested. This paper explores a more conservative approach by regulating coal units within-the-fence-line. Specifically, the proposed policy would require uniform mandatory heat rate reductions for all coal units, regardless of initial heat rate. All coal units would be required to lower heat rates by 740-810 Btu/kWh, resulting in an 8% fleet-wide average. Inefficient units would be allowed to continue to operate alongside more efficient ones as long as each reduces their heat rate by the given amount. The policy was modeled and this analysis finds that despite costs associated with installing heat-rate reducing technology...