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Development of rapid methodologies for the isolation and quantitation of drug metabolites by differential mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry

Hall, Adam B.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon; Vouros, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.05%
Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are inundated with thousands of samples requiring lengthy chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometry. Here, we employ differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) interfaced to nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to provide a rapid ion filtration technique for the separation of ions in gas phase media prior to mass spectral analysis on a DMS-integrated AB SCIEX API 3000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. DMS is efficient at the rapid separation of ions under ambient conditions and provides many advantages when used as an ion filtration technique in tandem with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS. Our studies evaluated DMS-MS/MS as a rapid, quantitative platform for the analysis of drug metabolites isolated from urine samples. In targeted applications, five metabolites of common drugs of abuse were effectively and rapidly separated using isopropanol and ethyl acetate as transport gas modifiers, eliminating the gas chromatography or liquid chromatography-based separations commonly employed in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. Calibration curves were prepared for the selected drug metabolites utilizing deuterated internal standards for quantitative purposes. The feasibility of separating and quantitating drug metabolites in a rapid fashion was evaluated by compensation voltage stepping followed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Rapid profiling of clinical and forensic toxicology samples could help to address an urgent need within the scientific community by developing high-throughput analytical methodologies...

South Africa’s protracted struggle for equal distribution and equitable access – still not there

van Rensburg, Hendrik CJ
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
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The purpose of this contribution is to analyse and explain the South African HRH case, its historical evolution, and post-apartheid reform initiatives aimed at addressing deficiencies and shortfalls. HRH in South Africa not only mirrors the nature and diversity of challenges globally, but also the strategies pursued by countries to address these challenges. Although South Africa has strongly developed health professions, large numbers of professional and mid-level workers, and also well-established training institutions, it is experiencing serious workforce shortages and access constraints. This results from the unequal distribution of health workers between the well-resourced private sector over the poorly-resourced public sector, as well as from distributional disparities between urban and rural areas. During colonial and apartheid times, disparities were aggravated by policies of racial segregation and exclusion, remnants of which are today still visible in health-professional backlogs, unequal provincial HRH distribution, and differential access to health services for specific race and class groups.

Identification of performance indicators for nuclear power plants

Sui, Yu, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 175 p.; 6941876 bytes; 6941683 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Performance indicators have been assuming an increasingly important role in the nuclear industry. An integrated methodology is proposed in this research for the identification and validation of performance indicators for assessing and predicting nuclear power plant overall performance (i.e., both economic and safety performance) in a systematic and quantitative way. The methodology consists of four steps: the selection of target sites/plants, the identification and refinement of candidate indicators, the collection of historical operating records of selected indicators, and the identification and evaluation of correlations between selected indicators and plant performance through data analysis. The methodology is centered upon individual plants, using plant-specific operation records to identify and validate plant-specific correlations. It can also be applied to multiple plants and the results from different plants can be compared to identify and analyze commonalities and differences in plant operations across-plant. Case studies of the proposed methodology were performed at three target plants. A list of candidate performance indicators was identified through a sensitivity analysis on a quantitative model of nuclear power plant operation. The list was validated and supplemented through interviews with plant personnel and a refined...

Uganda - Legal and Judicial Sector Study Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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46.51%
This study examines and evaluates developments in the Justice Law and Order Sector (JLOS) institutions, noting both the achievements and continuing challenges of reform under first phase Sector Investment Plan (SIP I) and SIP II. It pays particular attention to the SIP guidelines and objectives and to the outstanding challenges described in various reviews of the JLOS institutions, more specifically: (a) the commercial court; (b) the impact of the establishment of the centre for arbitration and dispute resolution on case backlogs; (c) the adequacy of legal education to meet the needs of the sector in view of recent reforms, and (d) the provision of legal aid services to the poor to increase their access to justice. The study also touches on the challenges identified by the JLOS Medium Term Evaluation (MTE), which warranted detailed study and which informed the development of SIP II. They include law reform, legal education, and access to justice for the poor and particularly in the conflicted areas of Uganda.

“No Way Out” : The Lack of Efficient Insolvency Regimes in the MENA Region

Uttamchandani, Mahesh
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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26.17%
This paper provides a comparative summary of the payout phase of insolvency systems in the MENA Region. Countries in the region generally have weaker restructuring and liquidation systems than those in most other regions. The paper summarizes many of the weaknesses common across the region.

Mobilizing Urban Infrastructure Finance within a Responsible Fiscal Framework : South African Case

van Ryneveld, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Since South Africa held its first democratic elections in 1994, it has given significant attention to building an effective system of decentralization including provincial and local government. While provincial governments are responsible mainly for the implementation of social services such as health and education, the provision of much of the urban infrastructure is the responsibility of local government. Although many challenges remain, the country has made significant progress over the past decade in addressing urban service backlogs in poor areas. At the same time, it has greatly improved macroeconomic fundamentals. The system of financing local government seeks to place accountability firmly at the local level, with most revenues in the larger urban centers raised locally through a combination of local taxes and fees for services, while poorer regions are predominantly grant funded. The objective has been to encourage the financing of capital infrastructure through local borrowing based on sustainable, transparent local finances rather than national repayment guarantees, which are outlawed. There is some indirect subsidization of loans through the state-owned Development Bank of Southern Africa. But the emphasis is on achieving redistribution through transparent...

Settling Out of Court : How Effective is Alternative Dispute Resolution?

Love, Inessa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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26.05%
Alternative dispute resolution can help the justice system in a country function more efficiently. It often saves costs and time and increases user satisfaction. For cases that go back to court, however, the total cost and time may increase. Alternative dispute resolution can also have indirect benefits. It can increase the effectiveness of courts by reducing bottlenecks. And it can improve trust in the legal system, which may increase foreign investment.

Case Flow Management : Key Principles and the Systems to Support Them

Gramckow, Heike P.; Nussenblatt, Valerie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.27%
It has become increasingly clear that courts across the globe must do more to better organize and manage their caseload and that automation alone is not the answer. In response to this need, case flow management has emerged to become the central method of promoting greater court responsibility and accountability for efficient case processing. For over thirty years court case management concepts have evolved, starting in the United States (U.S.), spreading to other industrialized common law countries initially. Yet, for many judicial systems, the concept, techniques, and supporting systems of case flow management are still relatively new ideas that need to be more fully understood. This paper helps develop a basic understanding of case flow management by defining the concept, outlining the various techniques used, presenting in general the different case management information systems that support those techniques, and outlining the core steps a judicial system can take to plan for, select, and implement case management software. The aim is to provide an introduction for assisting judiciaries in developing a case flow management approach that works best in their own environment. This paper is organized as follows: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two answers the question to what is case flow management within a court environment?; chapter three answers what are case management information systems?; chapter four focuses on planning for...

Measureable Results! Doing Business Project Encourages Economies to Reform Insolvency Frameworks

Saltane, Valentina; Chen, Rong; Guzman, Nuria Moya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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26.05%
Over the past 10 years, nearly 100 economies have reformed their insolvency regimes as a result of many factors, such as financial crises and to some extent the International Finance Corporation, or IFC and World Bank doing business project. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, governments around the world implemented extensive insolvency reforms aimed at strengthening regulatory mechanisms for resolving insolvency cases, to stimulate entrepreneurship and generate a more efficient allocation of market resources. This smart lesson discusses two of the main best practices that stem from the key reform areas: determination of business viability, and introduction of reorganization proceedings.

Finite Backlog Effects on Downlink Scheduling

Ahmed, Nasir; Khojastepour, Mohammad; Sabharwal, Ashutosh; Aazhang, Behnaam; Ahmed, Nasir; Khojastepour, Mohammad; Sabharwal, Ashutosh; Aazhang, Behnaam
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper
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16.53%
Conference Paper; In a multi-user downlink system, the use of channel estimates in the scheduling process can significantly improve the spectral efficiency. Recent work has shown that from a sum rate capacity standpoint, and assuming infinite queue backlogs, the optimal transmission scheme is to select the user with the largest instantaneous channel gain. A more realistic scenario is considered in this work, in which the downlink scheduling problem with finite queue backlogs is analyzed. It is shown that although time division scheduling is optimal for infinite backlogs, this is not the case for finite buffer sizes. In fact, a simple broadcast scheduler is shown to be more power efficient than the maximum rate time division scheduler under such a scenario.

Analysis of privatization of the Jacksonville MIlitary Complex's potable water distribution systems

Cox, Deborah P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xi, 78 p.
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Privatization of Department of Defense utility systems has become a central issue. It is seen as a way to relieve the Services of their current burden of huge maintenance and repair backlogs for aging systems. This thesis performs an economic analysis to determine whether it is economically feasible to privatize the Jacksonville Military Complex's potable water distribution systems. To address this issue, current legislation affecting utilities privatization was studied. Interviews were conducted with representatives of the Army, Navy, and Air Force regarding their current utilities privatization efforts. A case study of NAVWEPSTA Earle was used to provide the framework in which the Jacksonville decision should be made. Data was gathered from NAS jacksonville, NAS Cecil Field, and NAVSTA Mayport to calculate their annual water consumptions and the current plant value of their water systems. The systems' current plant value was obtained from NAVFAC's P-164 and adjusted for accumulated depreciation to provide the net current cost of the systems. These figures were used to derive the net present value of both the status quo scenario and the privatization scenario. Based upon the net present value calculations, privatization of the systems is recommended.; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

Republic of Croatia Justice Sector Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Resourcing the Justice Sector for Efficiency and Performance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
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36.22%
Croatia, the newest member-state of the European Union (EU), undertook significant justice reforms during the last decade. Many were part of its justice-related EU accession process, including the enactment and implementation of new laws and amendment of others, improved case management and enforcement and computerization of land registers. Benchmarking Croatia's justice sector indicates that it compares well with other European countries on several aspects of performance including resource indicators important for a functioning justice sector. However, the positive achievements and the deployment of significant resources have been offset by less-than-expected levels of overall performance, with high and growing demand for justice services facing an inadequate supply response. This report tries to lift the veil on the reasons behind justice sector underperformance despite relatively adequate budgetary allocations, comparatively high staffing levels, and a dense network of courts and prosecution offices. It provides a snapshot of Croatia's justice sector and of different aspects of its performance. It reviews the evolution of and trends in justice sector expenditures. It gives an assessment of sector expenditure management policies and practices. The report examines demand and supply issues in depth...

Working with the Market : Approach to Reducing Urban Slums in India

Annez, Patricia Clarke; Bertaud, Alain; Patel, Bimal; Phatak, V. K.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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This paper examines the policy options for India as it seeks to improve living conditions of the poor on a large scale and reduce the population in slums. Addressing the problem requires first a diagnosis of the market at the city level and a recognition that government interventions, rather than thwarting the operations of the market, should seek to make it operate better. This can substantially reduce the subsidies required to assist low income households to attain decent living standards. The authors show that government programs that directly provide housing would cost, in conservative estimates, about of 20 to 30 percent of GDP, and cannot solve a problem on the scale of India's. Using two case studies, for Mumbai and Ahmedabad, the paper offers a critical examination of government policies that shape the real estate market and make formal housing unaffordable for a large part of the population. It illustrates how simple city level market diagnostics can be used to identify policy changes and design smaller assistance programs that can reach the poor. The linkage between chronic infrastructure backlogs and policies makes housing unnecessarily expensive. Increasing the carrying capacity of cities is essential for gaining acceptance of real estate policies suited to Indian cities. The authors propose approaches for funding major investments to achieve this.

Court Auctions : Effective Processes and Enforcement Agents

Gramckow, Heike
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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26.19%
This paper considers the historical origins and efficacy of enforcement of civil court judgments, with a special focus on court auctions. It reviews the procedural and practical options available to courts and associated agencies for the identification of assets that may be used to satisfy a judgment debt and the processes for court-supervised asset seizure and sale by public auction. The efficiencies of public court auction processes are considered, including the elements of enforcement systems that can produce sub-optimal returns on sold assets and higher incentives for corrupt practices. Also considered is the trend in some systems for greater use of private agents as a means by which the cost of court enforcement processes can be reduced and for overcoming sometimes lengthy delays in enforcement. The paper concludes by identifying alternatives to public auction that in some cases can offer better prospects of assuring full payment of a judgment debt.

Kyrgyz Republic Judicial System Diagnostic : Measuring Progress and Identifying Needs

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
Português
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26.13%
The Joint Country Support Strategy for the Kyrgyz Republic (2007-2010) (JCSS), extended in 2008 to cover the period 2009-2011, identified the weak and inefficient Kyrgyz legal and judicial system as contributing to a poor business environment and weak governance. As a result, JCSS partners identified 'comprehensive judicial reform' as a program focus and a goal of the JCSS which was enlarged to include independence for the judicial budget. As part of the JCSS, the World Bank program included the preparation of a 'judicial reform study'. In order to implement this program, the World Bank and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) agreed to fund this judicial system diagnostic conducted by a World Bank diagnostic team complemented by international experts in specific sectors. The diagnostic's objective is to provide an analysis of the institutional and operational issues and obstacles that constrain the functioning of Kyrgyzstan's legal and judicial system. The diagnostic provides recommendations for overcoming key constraints both at the policy and the implementation levels.

Cross-Layer Scheduling for Cooperative Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks

Xue, Dongyue; Ekici, Eylem
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/06/2011 Português
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16.05%
The paper aims to design cross-layer optimal scheduling algorithms for cooperative multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), where secondary users (SUs) assist primary user (PU)'s multi-hop transmissions and in return gain authorization to access a share of the spectrum. We build two models for two different types of PUs, corresponding to elastic and inelastic service classes. For CRNs with elastic service, the PU maximizes its throughput while assigning a time-share of the channel to SUs proportional to SUs' assistance. For the inelastic case, the PU is guaranteed a minimum utility. The proposed algorithm for elastic PU model can achieve arbitrarily close to the optimal PU throughput, while the proposed algorithm for inelastic PU model can achieve arbitrarily close to the optimal SU utility. Both algorithms provide deterministic upper-bounds for PU queue backlogs. In addition, we show a tradeoff between throughput/utility and PU's average end-to-end delay upper-bounds for both algorithms. Furthermore, the algorithms work in both backlogged as well as arbitrary arrival rate systems.; Comment: 10 pages

A General Class of Throughput Optimal Routing Policies in Multi-hop Wireless Networks

Naghshvar, Mohammad; Zhuang, Hairuo; Javidi, Tara
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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16.36%
This paper considers the problem of throughput optimal routing/scheduling in a multi-hop constrained queueing network with random connectivity whose special case includes opportunistic multi-hop wireless networks and input-queued switch fabrics. The main challenge in the design of throughput optimal routing policies is closely related to identifying appropriate and universal Lyapunov functions with negative expected drift. The few well-known throughput optimal policies in the literature are constructed using simple quadratic or exponential Lyapunov functions of the queue backlogs and as such they seek to balance the queue backlogs across network independent of the topology. By considering a class of continuous, differentiable, and piece-wise quadratic Lyapunov functions, this paper provides a large class of throughput optimal routing policies. The proposed class of Lyapunov functions allow for the routing policy to control the traffic along short paths for a large portion of state-space while ensuring a negative expected drift. This structure enables the design of a large class of routing policies. In particular, and in addition to recovering the throughput optimality of the well known backpressure routing policy, an opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity is proved to be throughput optimal.; Comment: 31 pages (one column)...

Performance bounds in wormhole routing, a network calculus approach

Farhi, Nadir; Gaujal, Bruno
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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16.05%
We present a model of performance bound calculus on feedforward networks where data packets are routed under wormhole routing discipline. We are interested in determining maximum end-to-end delays and backlogs of messages or packets going from a source node to a destination node, through a given virtual path in the network. Our objective here is to give a network calculus approach for calculating the performance bounds. First we propose a new concept of curves that we call packet curves. The curves permit to model constraints on packet lengths of a given data flow, when the lengths are allowed to be different. Second, we use this new concept to propose an approach for calculating residual services for data flows served under non preemptive service disciplines. Third, we model a binary switch (with two input ports and two output ports), where data is served under wormhole discipline. We present our approach for computing the residual services and deduce the worst case bounds for flows passing through a wormhole binary switch. Finally, we illustrate this approach in numerical examples, and show how to extend it to feedforward networks.; Comment: 26 pages

On Effectiveness of Backlog Bounds Using Stochastic Network Calculus in 802.11

Wang, Yue
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2012 Português
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16.61%
Network calculus is a powerful methodology of characterizing queueing processes and has wide applications, but few works on applying it to 802.11 by far. In this paper, we take one of the first steps to analyze the backlog bounds of an 802.11 wireless LAN using stochastic network calculus. In particular, we want to address its effectiveness on bounding backlogs. We model a wireless node as a single server with impairment service based on two best-known models in stochastic network calculus: Jiang's and Ciucu's. Interestingly, we find that the two models can derive equivalent stochastic service curves and backlog bounds in our studied case. We prove that the network-calculus bounds imply stable backlogs as long as the average rate of traffic arrival is less than that of service, indicating the theoretical effectiveness of stochastic network calculus in bounding backlogs. From A. Kumar's 802.11 model, we derive the concrete stochastic service curve of an 802.11 node and its backlog bounds. We compare the derived bounds with ns-2 simulations and find that the former are very loose and we discuss the reasons. And we show that the martingale and independent case analysis techniques can improve the bounds significantly. Our work offers a good reference to applying stochastic network calculus to practical scenarios.

Automated Inference of Past Action Instances in Digital Investigations

James, Joshua I.; Gladyshev, Pavel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2014 Português
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26.13%
As the amount of digital devices suspected of containing digital evidence increases, case backlogs for digital investigations are also increasing in many organizations. To ensure timely investigation of requests, this work proposes the use of signature-based methods for automated action instance approximation to automatically reconstruct past user activities within a compromised or suspect system. This work specifically explores how multiple instances of a user action may be detected using signature-based methods during a post-mortem digital forensic analysis. A system is formally defined as a set of objects, where a subset of objects may be altered on the occurrence of an action. A novel action-trace update time threshold is proposed that enables objects to be categorized by their respective update patterns over time. By integrating time into event reconstruction, the most recent action instance approximation as well as limited past instances of the action may be differentiated and their time values approximated. After the formal theory if signature-based event reconstruction is defined, a case study is given to evaluate the practicality of the proposed method.; Comment: International Journal of Information Security