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Turismo urbano na cidade de São Paulo: o deslocamento do CBD e seus reflexos na hotelaria; Turismo urbano na cidade de São Paulo: o deslocamento do CBD e seus reflexos na hotelaria

Teles, Reinaldo Miranda de Sá
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Este trabalho discute o Turismo Urbano na cidade de São Paulo e a estreita relação dessa modalidade turística com os deslocamentos do CBD Central Business District. Ao tratar dessa questão, verifica-se que, assim como as outras grandes metrópoles do mundo, São Paulo indica uma tendência a ser palco de um complexo movimento turístico. No entanto, a falta de reflexão e de promoção para o turismo, aliada à falta de políticas públicas, faz com que a cidade não se revele enquanto destino turístico. Este estudo, fundamentado na literatura de ordem geral e específica e no trabalho de campo que resultou no mapeamento de áreas, buscou entender o movimento dos CBD e sua relação com o Turismo Urbano. Os centros de negócios, acompanhados de infra-estrutura como hotéis e espaços para eventos, norteou as investigações para esclarecer a dinâmica do turismo na cidade. Com base na conectividade existente entre a hotelaria, os espaços para eventos e os atrativos, essa pesquisa revela a riqueza da infra-estrutura e de equipamentos existente em São Paulo, revelando uma estreita relação entre parte da oferta e a migração do CBD.; This work is based in Urban Tourism in the city of Sao Paulo and the relation of its tourist mode with the displacements of CBD Central Business District. Based in this point...

Modelo de desenvolvimento monocentrico urbano : estudo de caso para Porto Alegre de 2005 a 2010

Freitas, Thiago Corana de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
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O modelo monocentrico de crescimento urbano prevê que uma cidade se desenvolve e expande a partir de uma região dentro de si chamada central business distric (CBD). O CBD é a área da cidade onde estão concentrados os empregos e a atividade econômica da região (MCDOANLD, 2008). Com o desenvolvimento da cidade, há uma expansão a partir deste centro gerando a ocupação de novas áreas, mas o custo para se estabelecer em determinado local muda de acordo com a distância em relação ao CBD. Uma análise do modelo monocentrico urbano e seus principais pressupostos, tanto para o uso da terra pelas empresas quanto para fins de moradia, é realizado junto com uma breve revisão das teorias predecessoras que colocaram os elementos terra e localização como fatores também determinantes da economia. Para tanto as teorias sobre o uso da terra de autores como Ricardo e Von Thünen são revisadas. O comportamento do mercado imobiliário de residências verticais novas durante o período de 2005 a 2010 em Porto Alegre é levantado através dos censos imobiliários realizados pelo Sindicato da Construção Civil do Rio Grande do Sul (SINDUSCON-RS). Tamanho, comportamento e tendências deste mercado são analisados através destes relatórios. Os censos anuais do SINDUSCON-RS constituem também a base de dados necessária para o cruzamento do modelo monocentrico urbano e o comportamento da oferta imobiliária de residências verticais novas em Porto Alegre. Procura-se identificar a presença de um CBD em Porto Alegre e como uma região pode ter uma maior ou menor valorização à medida que há uma variação na distância em relação ao CBD.; The monocentric model of urban growth provides that a city develops and expands from a region within it called central business distric (CBD). The CBD is the area of the city where jobs are concentrated in the region and economic activity (MCDOANLD...

Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya

Kinney, Patrick L.; Gichuru, Michael Gatari; Volavka-Close, Nicole; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter K.; Law, Anna; Gachanja, Anthony; Gaita, Samuel Mwaniki; Chillrud, Steven N.; Sclar, Elliott
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM2.5 was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1 μg/m3 on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM2.5 concentration from 128.7 to 18.7 μg/m3 over 100 meters downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5 μg/m3 at street level to 42.8 μg/m3 on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines...

Análise de preços hedônicos no mercado imobiliário de apartamentos em Curitiba

John, Erik Miguel Chee
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 31f. : il. algumas color., mapas, tabs.; application/pdf
Português
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Orientador : Prof. Dr. Alexandre Alves Porsse; Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento Ecônomico. Defesa : 11/11/2014; Inclui referências; Resumo: Através da Teoria dos Preços Hedônicos e de técnicas de Análise Exploratória de Dados Espaciais (AEDE), este trabalho busca realizar uma avaliação dos efeitos da localização e das amenidades urbanas sobre os preços imobiliários de apartamentos da cidade de Curitiba e, assim, poder contribuir para o progresso de outros estudos da mesma natureza que possa beneficiar as comunidades acadêmicas e profissionais da área. Os resultados deste primeiro trabalho revelam um formato tipo Central Business District (CBD) da capital paranaense e da existência de dois padrões de aglomeração espacial local dos preços dos imóveis: um do tipo Alto-Alto; e outro do tipo Baixo-Baixo. Palavras-chave: Teoria dos Preços Hedônicos. Apartamentos. Curitiba. AEDE. I de Moran.; Abstract: Under the Hedonic Price Theory and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) techniques, this paper seeks evaluate the effects of location and urban amenities on housing prices of apartments in the city of Curitiba to contribute to the progress of other similar studies that can benefit the academic and professional communities. The results of this first study revealed a Central Business District (CBD) format in the referred town and the existence of two patterns of local spatial clustering of real state pricing: one high-high type; and another Low-Low type. Keywords: Theory of Hedonic Price. Apartments. Curitiba. ESDA. I Moran.

Development of 13 Mozambican Municipalities in Central and Northern Mozambique : Summary report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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The objective of this study on the Development of 13 Mozambican Municipalities in Central and Northern Mozambique is to assess the impact that the 2008 reforms on own-source revenues is having on the municipal revenue potential. To do so, it calculates the revenue potential of four fiscal and three non-fiscal revenue sources. The analysis shows that there is substantial untapped revenue potential at the municipal level, with estimates indicating that -in the case of the most buoyant local revenue sources- municipalities are only collecting about half of the revenue potential. In the worst cases, municipalities are collecting far less than 10 percent of the total revenue potential of a local revenue source. The fact that a revenue gaps exists is not only an indication of weak municipal performance. Municipalities have relatively recently been created and it takes time, capacity, and effort, to consolidate their revenue functions. Tax administration is overall still weak and a series of vacuums exist on the municipal fiscal legislation. The analysis reveals that the current revenue instruments at the disposal of municipalities are generally appropriate municipal revenue instruments...

Indonesia - Investing in the future of Papua and West Papua : Infrastructure for sustainable development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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The remote and sparsely populated provinces of Papua and West Papua face a time of great change. Monetary transfers from Jakarta have grown extraordinarily in recent years, by more than 600 percent in real terms and 1300 percent in nominal terms since 2000, greatly increasing demand for goods and services. The high price of imports in the interior is producing pressure to improve roads in order to lower transport costs. Pressure is mounting to open up the interior of the region to commercial interests that would like to extract resources: copper, gold, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and, above all, timber. Investment in infrastructure, especially in road transport, is seen as the means to make dreams of development a reality. Building infrastructure in Papua and West Papua also is challenging because of physical (i.e. topographical and geological) conditions. Much of the region has either poorly drained peat soils or steep slopes with thin soils subject to landslides and erosion. Most of Papua and West Papua also receive heavy seasonal rainfall. The cost of building a good...

INGENS - Income Generation through Energy and Complementary Services : Status Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This is an internal status report to ESMAP and Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) which summarizes their ongoing work under a joint energy study entitled INGENS - Income Generation through Energy and. Complementary Services. INGENS has proposed (and started to test) a pragmatic, low-cost approach to improve impact evaluation for future electrification programs: a simple Add-on Electricity Impact Evaluation Instrument (AddIE) for the specific case of firm level productivity which shall be applicable to a broad range of electrification programs (EP), and cost well under US$100k per EP. This tool allows EP managers to move from simple monitoring and reporting of numerical targets achieved to evaluation of the (pro-poor) impact achieved among an important segment of the target group. Five countries were studied: Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, and South Africa. This report discusses the overall results of the studies and lessons learned. Finally, it presents next steps and a funding request. There are five annexes at the end of the report...

Central-Local Government Relations in Thailand : Improving Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Português
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Addressing regional disparities in access to public services is an emerging development challenge for Thailand. A well-functioning system of Central-Local Government Relations and proactive expenditure policy can help achieve this goal. Providing responsive and accountable public services are necessary for maintaining trust of the citizens in government and fostering cohesion within a unitary state like Thailand. Without a reversal of current regional disparities in access to public services and addressing tensions that are present in the central-local architecture, Thailand runs the risk of eroding public trust in government and leading to further polarization. Thailand has a significant opportunity to improve delivery of public services by: (i) making access to public services more uniform across the country; (ii) transitioning fully to a unitary decentralized form of government with clearly demarcated roles and accountability structures between different levels of government (especially within health and education sectors) and to administratively consolidate Laos into larger more financially viable entities; and (iii) establishing national service delivery standards...

Autonomy with Equity and Accountability : Toward a More Transparent, Objective, Predictable and Simpler (TOPS) System of Central Financing of Provincial-Local Expenditures in Indonesia

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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During the past decade, Indonesia has transformed itself from centralized governance to decentralized local governance. Local governments were given extensive expenditure responsibilities while keeping the tax system centralized. To finance decentralized provincial-local expenditures, Indonesia implemented a new system of intergovernmental finance. This paper provides a review of the equity and efficiency implications of the current system of central-provincial-local transfers. It finds that the system of intergovernmental finance represents one of the most complex systems ever implemented by any government in the world. The system is primarily focused on a gap-filling approach to provincial-local finance to ensure revenue adequacy and local autonomy but without accountability to local residents for service delivery performance. This is done through a great degree of academic rigor using highly complex procedures. The complexity leads to a lack of transparency, inequity and uncertainty in allocation as well as creating incentives for jurisdictional fragmentation and reducing own-tax effort. Simpler alternatives are available that have the potential to address equity objectives while also enhancing efficiency and citizen-based accountability. Such alternatives would represent a move away from complex gap filling and special allocation approaches to simple...

Jobs and Land Use within Cities; A Survey of Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Goswami, Arti Grover; Lall, Somik V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Over the last century, the urban spatial structure of cities has transformed dramatically from the traditional monocentric configuration to varying forms of decentralized organization. This paper reviews the theory and empirical evidence to understand the urban morphology of jobs and land use within a city. This survey highlights four broad insights: (i) The evolution of monocentric to polycentric centers has been accompanied by structural changes in the city. (ii) The internal geography of a city is an outcome of the trade-off between the pull from agglomeration economies and the push from congestion. (iii) The presence of externalities implies that the equilibrium spatial organization achieved by profit-maximizing firms may not necessarily be optimal. This justifies the role of public policy in addressing the associated market failures. (iv) The productive edge and competitiveness of a city can be enhanced by introducing policies that increase the overall connectivity to take advantage of economic opportunities across the metropolitan area. The survey also puts together a wide range of policy instruments that are useful in closing the gap between equilibrium urban spatial structure and the optimal outcome.

Aden - Commercial Capital of Yemen : Local Economic Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Aden has a number of widely recognized unique assets, which are critical inputs to its emerging strategic positioning within Yemen and the region. Most notable is its natural deep-water harbor on the Red Sea, striking landscapes and distinctive topography, abundance of raw materials, and rich urban heritage. In addition, the residents of Aden are known for their hospitable nature and openness to diversity. Today, leadership in Aden, both public and private, are motivated to create prosperity. Despite a broad portfolio of assets and existence of key infrastructure, the city must address constraints that are holding back economic growth. Aden has much of the basic infrastructure required for businesses to compete, with a few areas requiring major investment. The city is spread across 6,980 square kilometers and is composed of eight districts, each with its own commercial center. The city developed on a peninsula and subsequently expanded along the coast, following the main radial route inland. The city of Aden is differentiated from the rest of the country in several important ways. First...

Land and Urban Policies for Poverty Reduction : Proceedings of the Third International Urban Research Symposium Held in Brasilia, April 2005, Volume 1

Freire, Mila; Lima, Ricardo; Cira, Dean; Ferguson, Bruce; Kessides, Christine; Mota, Jose Aroudo; Motta, Diana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brasilia Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brasilia
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The first paper of this section (Durand-Laserve) documents how increasing pressures on urban land and the 'commodification' of shelter and settlement has increased 'market evictions' of families holding intermediate tide to property, although international declarations and pressures have contributed to reducing 'forced evictions.' The second paper (Mooya and Cloete) uses the tools of the New Institutional Economics to analyze the argument in Hernando DeSoto's path-breaking book, The Mystery of Capital, that full legal tide is the key to turning 'dead capital' in the form of informal property held by many low-income families into an economic asset and to detonating broad-based economic growth. The paper concludes that intermediate forms of tenure can have the virtues of full legal tide if properly constructed, and then examines the case of Namibia in this context. The third paper (Fernandes) documents and assesses the recent efforts of the Brazilian federal Ministry of Cities to develop a comprehensive approach for regularizing title throughout that country. In the fourth paper...

Urbanization and the Geography of Development

Henderson, J. Vernon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies have a big-city bias? If so, what does this imply for growth and inequality, and what are appropriate place-based policies? Should countries have policies concerning optimal city sizes or city-size distributions? Urbanization is central to the development process. Employment shifts out of agriculture into industry, and industrial production proceeds most effectively in cities, with their agglomeration economies. Cities are thus viewed as engines of growth. While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only weakly with changes in urbanization. This suggests that policy and institutional factors may also influence the urbanization process...

A growing space for dialogue : the case of street vending in Nairobi's Central Business District

Kamunyori, Sheila Wanjiru
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 p.
Português
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The tension in Nairobi between the desired modernization of the city and the ongoing "un-modern" activity of street vending is replicated in many cities in developing countries, often pitting the city's local government and formal businesses against street vendors. However, informal sector activities, such as street vending, provide sustenance for many citizens and contribute substantially to the economy. Therefore, for these cities to truly develop economically, it has become critical to understand how the local government, formal businesses and street vendors can work together. In Nairobi's Central Business District, while on the surface the cat-and-mouse game still continues between the two sides over the tug-of-war for "modern" streets, a growing space for dialogue between the different parties is emerging. This dialogue space has brought street vendors in touch with policy-makers for the first time. This thesis explores the factors that have led to this growing space.; (cont.) Four associations emerge as key elements in linking the street vendors to the discourse on policy; one city-level formal business association, Nairobi Central Business District Association (NCBDA), one city-level street vendors' association, Nairobi Informal Sector Confederation (NISCOF)...

Business leadership in city planning : the case of the Central Artery

Agarwal, Anjali, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77, [20] leaves; 5396353 bytes; 5400372 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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This thesis has been motivated by my interest in the Artery Business Committee (ABC), which was formed in 1989 with a mission to collectively represent the business community's interests in the fear and opportunity presented by the Central Artery Project in Boston. ABC's objectives were to ensure access to the downtown business district during the project and to market the city of Boston as a place to visit, do business in and invest in. This example of ABC presents an interesting paradigm in city planning where business groups recognize their relationship and role in planning for the city future. The same trend can also be found in several other cities. Two leading examples, which have been chosen for detail study, are the Commercial Club of Chicago and the Central Houston Inc. Both the business led civic groups have an agenda similar to that of ABC and promote a better future for their cities. Owing to their efforts, both the business groups now hold a strategic position of influence in their city's planning process and decision-making. Their study offers several important lessons, which can further be used as criteria to judge ABC's role in the planning of the Central Artery Project in Boston.; (cont.) In 2005, as the Central Artery project nears completion...

Enumeration of Sex Workers in the Central Business District of Nairobi, Kenya

Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T. Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts.

Huella de carbono de vivienda y movilidad en Concepción, Chile. Uso del cálculo de huella de carbono para concretar y solucionar problemáticas sociales en barrios desfavorecidos. El caso de Pedro de Valdivia Bajo y Cerro Centinela

Filipe, Mariana; Quintana, Marc; Muñiz, Iván; Rojas, Carolina
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
En este proyecto se ha calculado la huella de carbono parcial, es decir, únicamente se ha tenido en cuenta la movilidad y la energía usada en la vivienda. Se ha aplicado la metodología creada por Mathis Wackernagel y William Rees en 1997 para el cálculo de la huella ecológica. Diferentes barrios distribuidos a distintas distancias del CBD (Central Business District) de Concepción (Chile), han sido los objetos de estudio de la Huella de Carbono y en concreto se ha focalizado la atención en dos barrios de bajas rentas (Cerro Centinela y Pedro de Valdivia Bajo). En ellos se ha propuesto mejoras tanto ecológicas como sociales para aumentar la calidad de vida de los vecinos.; En aquest projecte s’ha calculat la petjada de carboni parcial, és a dir, únicament s’ha tingut en compte la mobilitat i l’energia de la vivenda. S’ha aplicat la metodologia creada per Mathis Wackernagel i William Rees l’any 1997 pel càlcul de la petjada ecològica. Diferents barris distribuïts a diverses distàncies del CBD (Central Business District) de Concepció (Chile) han sigut els objectes d’estudi de la petjada de carboni i en concret s’ha focalitzat l’atenció en dos barris de baixa renta (Cerro Centinela i Pedro de Valdivia Bajo). En aquests s’han proposat mesures de millora tant ecològiques com socials per augmentar la qualitat de vida dels veïns.; In this project has been calculated the partial Carbon Footprint...

Improving Freight Movement in Delaware Central Business Districts

Scott, Marcia; Anderka, Sebastian; O'Donnell, Edward
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Outros
Português
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Freight movement by trucks within a central business district (CBD) is often problematic for delivery drivers, pedestrians, automobile traffic, and downtown merchants. Freight pickup and delivery by trucks both contribute to and suffer from downtown traffic congestion. While the revitalization and economic sustainability of central business districts is paramount, the need for efficient freight movement, pedestrian access, traffic flow, and overall safety is equally important.A scan of federal, state, and local government freight-movement policies indicates that the regulatory focus has been primarily at the macro, rather than micro, level. Additional guidelines are needed to govern design and demarcation of downtown loading zones and facilities, development and enforcement of downtown loading zone/parking regulations, and development and placement of regulatory signage. To observe freight-movement issues first hand, field visits were made to ten Delaware municipalities with active CBDs. Many of Delaware’s small, historic CBDs are constrained by their physical environment and existing infrastructure that cannot be easily retrofitted for off-street loading bays or onstreet loading zones. Issues observed in Delaware CBDs included design problems (lack and condition of loading-zone facilities)...

The internationalisation of the economy and its effects on regional economic policies.

Eich, Frank E.O
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 Português
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35.9%
This thesis studies the effects of the internationalisation of the economy on various regional economic policies and is organised as follows: Chapter 1 provides a general introduction. Chapter 2 studies the effects of industrial policy on manufacturing firms' location decisions. Industrial policy provides a productive local public good, financed by locally-raised tax revenues. Building on the 'new economic geography' literature, two new, opposing agglomeration forces are described: first, taxation reduces the market size - making a region less attractive - second, production cost fall - making a region more attractive for firms. We analyse the conditions under which a less-developed region can attract industry from a more-developed region. Chapter 3 incorporates ideas of the 'new international trade' literature into a 'fiscal federalism' framework with local public goods. In a two-region model, local public goods are underprovided if they are productive in nature and financed by domestic tax revenues. The degree of underprovision depends on the volume of trade between the two regions. This result arises as the benefit of provision has to be shared with the other region's citizens whereas the cost of provision falls entirely on the local citizens. Finally we show that delegating tax policies to a supra-regional body solves this problem. Chapter 4 analyses zoning policies on an urban level. We show that welfare under zoning is higher than in the market equilibrium if residents and monopolistically-competitive firms compete for land in a fixed-sized city with one central business district (CBD). Assuming an additional out-of-town business district (SBD)...

Are the Mexican States and the United States Business Cycles Synchronized?: Evidence from the Manufacturing Production

Mejía-Reyes,Pablo; Campos-Chávez,Jeanett
Fonte: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas Publicador: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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This paper analyses the degree of synchronization between the Mexican states and the US business cycles by using a growth cycle approach for the period 1997-2007. The business cycle indicators are obtained from seasonally-adjusted monthly manufacturing production. Our results confirm that the Mexican aggregate cycle is highly synchronized with the US business cycle. However, although specific Mexican state cycles are pro-cyclical with respect to the US business cycle, their synchronization is very heterogeneous. In particular, it is strong and robust only for the states of Baja California, Jalisco, Nuevo León and the Federal District, and at least moderate for the state of Mexico and Querétaro. The results are robust with respect to three different detrending methods. Synchronization may be explained by the high volumes of international trade carried out by foreign firms in the case of the central and traditionally industrialized states, and by the "maquila" production in the Northern bordering states. This synchronization may be explained by the vertical integration of the productive processes resulting from the internationalization of production of multinational firms.