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Enhanced Spatial Planning as a Precondition for Sustainable Urban Development

Ionescu-Heroiu, Marcel; Neagu, Marina; Taralunga, Nicolae; Ortiz, Pedro; Petrovici, Norbert; Moldovan, Ciprian; Panescu, Eugen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report provides an analysis of the spatial planning system in Romania and suggests ways in which it can be improved. Romania has recently experienced a proliferation of plans, strategies, and policies developed at all administrative levels. Adding to this, the analysis of territorial and urban development in Romania reveals important dynamics and challenges, such as uncontrolled expansion of built perimeters, increased pressures on transport infrastructure and utilities, and aggressive urban interventions causing disruptions and redundancies in the urban fabric. Such dynamics require new system architecture, including the design and implementation of new instruments, enhancing and mainstreaming existing ones, as well as building capacity. This report provides recommendations for: 1) the correlation and harmonization of different types of plans; 2) the simplification of the framework of planning in Romania; and 3) the development of a planning system that will better integrate national and European Union (EU)-funded initiatives.

Public participation in planning: an intellectual history

Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: Carfax Publishing Publicador: Carfax Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This paper tracks the changing role of public participation in planning thought. In doing so, the paper shows that the role of public participation in planning is largely determined by the nature of the planning enterprise being undertaken. The definition of the planning problem, the kinds of knowledge used in planning practice, and the conceptualisation of the planning and decision-making context are the important determinants of the extent of participation offered to the public. The paper therefore contributes to thinking about how to evaluate public participation by showing that it can only be understood in terms of the decision-making context in which it is embedded. Specifically, it makes little sense to evaluate public participation in terms that are not shared by the planning model itself.; Marcus B. Lane

Constructing a market economy - Diverse paths from central planning in Asia and Europe

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; Glensanda House, Montpellier Pde, Cheltenham GL50 1UA Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; Glensanda House, Montpellier Pde, Cheltenham GL50 1UA
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%

Central Asia after two decades of independence

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Palgrave; England Publicador: Palgrave; England
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
After becoming independent in 1991, the five Central Asian countries pursued differing transition paths from the defunct central planning. This paper analyses the connection between economic policies and performance during the 1990s and 2000s. Performance over the two decades has been determined by resource endowments rather than by policy. International relations, which were predicted to centre on a new Great Game among external powers, have been more muted than anticipated, centring on geopolitics and pipelines, and with a consequence of hampering desirable economic cooperation within Central Asia. Prospects for significant change in the near future are limited because by the end of the 1990s the window of opportunity for policy initiatives had shut and entrenched political regimes had little incentive to sponsor major reforms.; Richard Pomfret; Invalid ISBN 9789292302903 as shown on the publication

Assessment of I-125 seed implant accuracy when using the live-planning technique for low dose rate prostate brachytherapy

Moorrees, J.; Lawson, J.; Marcu, L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Background: Low risk prostate cancers are commonly treated with low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy involving I-125 seeds. The implementation of a ‘live-planning’ technique at the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) in 2007 enabled the completion of the whole procedure (i.e. scanning, planning and implant) in one sitting. ‘Live-planning’ has the advantage of a more reliable delivery of the planned treatment compared to the ‘traditional pre-plan’ technique (where patient is scanned and planned in the weeks prior to implant). During live planning, the actual implanted needle positions are updated real-time on the treatment planning system and the dosimetry is automatically recalculated. The aim of this investigation was to assess the differences and clinical relevance between the planned dosimetry and the updated real-time implant dosimetry. Methods: A number of 162 patients were included in this dosimetric study. A paired t-test was performed on the D90, V100, V150 and V200 target parameters and the differences between the planned and implanted dose distributions were analysed. Similarly, dosimetric differences for the organs at risk (OAR) were also evaluated. Results: Small differences between the primary dosimetric parameters for the target were found. Still...

Turkmenistan : An Assessment of Leasehold-based Farm Restructuring

Lerman, Zvi; Brooks, Karen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Turkmenistan's unique approach to land reform and farm restructuring has produced a significant shift to individual or household-based farming, with more than three-quarters of the arable land leased to individual households or small groups. Most leaseholders consider this land to be rightfully theirs, and they expect to keep it in the future, either as private owners, or through extension of their leasehold. However, individual production is administratively circumscribed by a pervasive system of state orders and central planning. The lease contracts rigidly specify the crop that each leaseholder is required to produce (typically cotton or wheat) and set a specific quantity target for delivery to the state at prices much below the level of prices on international markets. Managers and leaseholders universally express the view that the prices they receive from the state for wheat and cotton are too low, and identify the chance to sell freely at open market proces as a key factor that would improve the economic situation on farms. Both managers and leaseholders expressed enthusiasm for the reform at the time of the survey. This is a natural psychological reaction to the dramatic transition to a new system...

How Accession to the European Union Has Affected External Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in Central European Economies

Kaminski, Bartlomiej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
The collapse of central planning set in motion the reintegration of the Central European countries into the world economy. The European Union (EU), because of its proximity, economic weight, and policy-induced deep integration, has shaped these countries' politics, and economics. The process of accession to the EU - which began with the signing of the European Association Agreements in 1991 - has influenced their economic institutions, policies, and performance. The author traces the emerging architecture of commercial relations in Europe, and argues that the accession process had its greatest impact on capital flows, and later on good flows. The countries that have benefited most from accession, are those that followed the path of radical liberal reform. Radical liberal reform, combined with preferential access to EU markets, attracted foreign direct investment. The European Union provided an outlet, initially for Central European countries' unskilled-labor intensive products, and more recently for skilled-labor intensive...

Coping with the Cold : Heating Strategies for Eastern Europe and Central Asia's Urban Poor

Lampietti, Julian A.; Meyer, Anke S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Heating is a critical issue for the livelihoods of Eastern Europe and Central Asia's people. The region's gold climate, the legacy of central planning, and the drop in household incomes over the past 10 years, influence profoundly the design of heating strategies for the urban poor. This paper provides new insights into how much energy people demand for heating, and how much they pay for it. Recommendations are suggested on how to design policies, and investment planning, that would enable all people (poor and non-poor) to access clean, affordable heating.

Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and the Caucasus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Combating pollution needs to be based on standards supported by enforced regulatory, and physical infrastructure, not always in place in countries in transition from central planning to a market economy. Policymakers in the Central Asia and the Caucus region, however, are recognizing the need for such steps against pollution, demonstrated by their commitment to phase out lead from gasoline. To support these efforts, the Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This lead to this study's observations, and recommendations. The establishment of continuous monitoring of the "classical" pollutants, should permit comparison with international standards...

Incorporating Energy Cycle Externality Costs and Benefits in India's Power System Planning Mechanisms

Powell, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The power sector in India plays a fundamental role in the economic development process. The country faces formidable challenges in meeting its energy needs in an environmentally sustainable manner and at reasonable costs. The planning and operation of the sector has hitherto been conducted without due regard to the environmental consequences. As a result, additions to capacity in recent years have been sub-optimal. Moreover different types of capacity are treated differently. Hydropower is required directly to bear more of its external environmental costs than other sources. The recent Supreme Court ruling has reinforced this tendency. Looking forward, much of the large capacity additions required over the next few years are likely to be coal-fired, with concomitant effects on the country's environment. Against that background, the paper looks at India's power generation planning process; whether and how it might adapt in the light of increased attention to environmental costs and benefits; and if there are other...

Technical Assistance and Training in Integrated Provincial Planning : Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Traditionally both national and regional development planning in Vietnam has been driven by 'top-down' Central Government social and economic targets based on limited analytical investigation. However, with the advent of the free market economy in Vietnam since the late 1980s, vigorous global economic competitiveness and Vietnam's membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO), changes in national policy in Vietnam have now required a more decentralized approach to development planning based on the preparation of integrated regional development strategies. This change in policy direction requires the application of new and innovative approaches to development planning underpinned by 'best practice' tools and techniques. This new way of planning will more effectively manage current and future investment opportunities at the provincial and regional levels in Vietnam. This report is the culmination of the findings and recommendations of the project over this three month period noting that the training program itself involved a total of 45 participants from relevant provincial government and district level authorities in Quang Nam Province (QNP). Appendix two is a list of participants. It is emphasized that the method of training adopted in this technical assistance project was very interactive...

Bicycle facilities map for North Central Florida

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
Fonte: North Central Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: North Central Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 53 x 68 cm., on sheet 55 x 72 cm., folded to 19 x 9 cm.
Publicado em //1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Shows bicycle facilities and routes.; Panel title.; County names in title depicted by coloration of locator map.; "Prepared by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council for the Florida Department of Transportation."; Includes recreational facilities index, topographical relief map, and Florida bicycle safety laws.; Includes locator map on panel.; Includes map covering all North Central Florida counties (ca. 1:400,000) showing bicycle facilities and routes, text and locator map on verso.; "October 1998."; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.

Bicycle facilities map for North Central Florida

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
Fonte: North Central Florida Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville FL ) Publicador: North Central Florida Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville FL )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 53 x 68 cm., on sheet 55 x 72 cm., folded to 19 x 9 cm.
Publicado em //1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Shows bicycle facilities and routes.; Panel title.; County names in title depicted by coloration of locator map.; "Prepared by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council for the Florida Department of Transportation."; Includes recreational facilities index, topographical relief map, and Florida bicycle safety laws.; Includes locator map on panel.; Includes map covering all North Central Florida counties (ca. 1:400,000) showing bicycle facilities and routes, text and locator map on verso.; "October 1998."; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.

Bicycle facilities map for North Central Florida

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council; Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
Fonte: North Central Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: North Central Regional Planning Council ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 53 x 68 cm., on sheet 55 x 72 cm., folded to 19 x 9 cm.
Publicado em //1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Panel title.; County names in title depicted by coloration of locator map.; "Prepared by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council for the Florida Department of Transportation."; Includes recreational facilities index, topographical relief map, and Florida bicycle safety laws.; Includes locator map on panel.; Includes map covering all North Central Florida counties (ca. 1:400,000) showing bicycle facilities and routes, text and locator map on verso.; "October 1998."; Shows bicycle facilities and routes.; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.

The potential for trickle up : how local actors' experiments influence national forest policy planning

Blockhus, Jill M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot provinces in 1998, with the handing over of forest land and management responsibility to communities. The initial outcomes of this switch and the policy learning that took place as a result of experimentation with community forestry are examined. I show that learning from and sharing these experiences contributed to policy-oriented learning and influenced the formulation of new policy. I review how lessons learned from the field (e.g. local experimentation, project learning and bottom-up planning) can redefine national forest policy priorities. I present preliminary lessons from adaptation of methods of forest land allocation, forest protection regulations and community forest management planning. I share experiences from pilot provinces where, with the involvement of policy innovators (local and external), the results led to the development of an enabling legal framework for community forestry, in the new Land Law and Forest Law. This dissertation suggests how learning from experiments can lead to better policy options in developing countries.; (cont.) I explore the critical roles that development of methodologies (combined with networking and training) play in advancing the lessons learned from the district and province levels in two directions - first...

The planning and analysis implications of automated data collection systems : rail transit OD matrix inference and path choice modeling examples

Zhao, Jinhua, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 leaves; 6267605 bytes; 6281675 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
(cont.) by presenting two case studies both in the context of the Chicago Transit Authority. One study proposes an enhanced method of inferring the rail trip OD matrix from an origin-only AFC system to replace the routine passenger survey. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the pattern of a person's consecutive transit trip segments. In particular the study examines the rail-to-bus case (which is ignored by prior studies) by integrating AFC and AVL data and utilizing GIS and DBMS technologies. A software tool is developed to facilitate the implementation of the algorithm. The other study is of rail path choice, which employs the Logit and Mixed Logit models to examine revealed public transit riders' travel behavior based on the inferred OD matrix and the transit network attributes. This study is based on two data sources: the rail trip OD matrix inferred in the first case study and the attributes of alternative paths calculated from a network representation in Trans CAD. This study demonstrates that a rigorous traveler behavior analysis can be performed based on the data source from ADC systems. Both cases illustrate the potential as well as the difficulty of utilizing these systems and more importantly demonstrate that at relatively low marginal cost...

Solidere : the battle for Beirut's Central District; Battle for Beirut's Central District

Mango, Tamam, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.; 9869882 bytes; 9869689 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The Beirut Central District was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War which extended from 1975 to 1990. Unable to reconstruct the center itself, the Lebanese government turned to a private Real Estate Holding Company (REHCO), known by the acronym Solidere, to take over the task of rebuilding. In 1991 Solidere was granted expropriation rights over the Beirut Central District area, a space of approximately 150 hectares. The government's decision to mandate such a large private-to-private transfer was a controversial one that was unprecedented in Lebanese development history. Solidere has been characterized by two very different views. The company's proponents attributed the reconstruction of the city center solely to Solidere. The opposition denounced the firm as an illegal assault on property rights. This thesis traces the company's history. Its survival strategies, in terms of securing government endorsement and gaining public approval, are discussed. Solidere is examined through the lens of secular property rights, evaluating the firm in terms of the two conditions of contribution to the "public benefit," and the compensation provided to the original property owners. Solidere's case is also explored in the context of Islamic property rights...

A growing space for dialogue : the case of street vending in Nairobi's Central Business District

Kamunyori, Sheila Wanjiru
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The tension in Nairobi between the desired modernization of the city and the ongoing "un-modern" activity of street vending is replicated in many cities in developing countries, often pitting the city's local government and formal businesses against street vendors. However, informal sector activities, such as street vending, provide sustenance for many citizens and contribute substantially to the economy. Therefore, for these cities to truly develop economically, it has become critical to understand how the local government, formal businesses and street vendors can work together. In Nairobi's Central Business District, while on the surface the cat-and-mouse game still continues between the two sides over the tug-of-war for "modern" streets, a growing space for dialogue between the different parties is emerging. This dialogue space has brought street vendors in touch with policy-makers for the first time. This thesis explores the factors that have led to this growing space.; (cont.) Four associations emerge as key elements in linking the street vendors to the discourse on policy; one city-level formal business association, Nairobi Central Business District Association (NCBDA), one city-level street vendors' association, Nairobi Informal Sector Confederation (NISCOF)...

Business leadership in city planning : the case of the Central Artery

Agarwal, Anjali, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77, [20] leaves; 5396353 bytes; 5400372 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
This thesis has been motivated by my interest in the Artery Business Committee (ABC), which was formed in 1989 with a mission to collectively represent the business community's interests in the fear and opportunity presented by the Central Artery Project in Boston. ABC's objectives were to ensure access to the downtown business district during the project and to market the city of Boston as a place to visit, do business in and invest in. This example of ABC presents an interesting paradigm in city planning where business groups recognize their relationship and role in planning for the city future. The same trend can also be found in several other cities. Two leading examples, which have been chosen for detail study, are the Commercial Club of Chicago and the Central Houston Inc. Both the business led civic groups have an agenda similar to that of ABC and promote a better future for their cities. Owing to their efforts, both the business groups now hold a strategic position of influence in their city's planning process and decision-making. Their study offers several important lessons, which can further be used as criteria to judge ABC's role in the planning of the Central Artery Project in Boston.; (cont.) In 2005, as the Central Artery project nears completion...

Seismic microzoning in the urban planning process. Case study: Chacao municipality

Padrón,Carlos; Mendes A,Ketty C; Schmitz,Michael; Hernández,Julio J
Fonte: Universidad Central de Venezuela Publicador: Universidad Central de Venezuela
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Based on the results of Caracas Seismic Microzoning Project, carried out in the years 2005 until 2009, in which were identified zones with similar seismic response, the interest of determining how those results could support the urban planning process of the city arises. In order to contribute to the discussion over this issue, the main features of the seismic hazard, as well as other types of hazard, vulnerability aspects and the urban planning regulation frame of Chacao municipality, in which four buildings collapsed during 1967 earthquake, were studied. The study revealed that the hazard levels presented in the seismic microzonation do not rule neither establish conditions to the land use planning nor the urban design, except for economics effects, and it is a necessary improvement to the in force code for seismic-resistant buildings. The seismic microzonation, together with an appropriate urban planning and management process including structural upgrading, urban renovation, greater law enforcement and socio-technical accompaniment, could reduce significantly the seismic risk levels.