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Fluxo de caixa livre para o cidadão: uma aplicação da teoria residual dos dividendos para evidenciação da distribuição de renda gerada pelo estado; Free cash flow to citizen: an application of the residual theory of dividends to the disclosure of income generated distribution by the state

Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2009 Português
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A crescente atuação da sociedade nos processos de discussão e de tomada de decisões relacionados com as políticas públicas incentiva a gestão pública no Brasil a buscar mecanismos para demonstrar eficiência e transparência na aplicação de recursos. Dentro da esfera pública, o gasto social destinado às ações compensatórias é destaque em termos de alocação de recursos, por isso apresenta acentuada necessidade de planejamento, avaliação e prestação de contas. Diante deste contexto, este trabalho adotou o modelo conceitual da Teoria Residual dos Dividendos, estabelecido por Modigliani e Miller (1958) e revisitado por de Jensen (1986) na Teoria Free Cash Flow, e teve como objetivo principal evidenciar o Fluxo de Caixa Livre para o Cidadão (FCLC) gerado e distribuído por uma entidade pública, segundo os preceitos do resultado econômico. Para consecução deste propósito, conduziu-se um levantamento bibliográfico crítico, constatando similaridade e aderência nas discussões conceituais e nos estudos aplicados acerca da relação/trade-off entre distribuição de excedentes de caixa e capacidade de reinvestimento nas esferas público e privada. Além disso, foi constatado que a Teoria Residual dos Dividendos e sua discussão sobre o Fluxo de Caixa Livre do Acionista podem ser consideradas aplicáveis à mudança do objeto de foco (acionista para cidadão)...

O militante e o pedagogo Antonio de Sampaio Doria: a formação do cidadão republicano; The militant and the pedagogue Antonio de Sampaio Doria: the making of the republican citizen

Mathieson, Louisa Campbell
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2012 Português
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Antonio de Sampaio Doria (1883-1964) é lembrado na história da educação brasileira por ter efetuado a Reforma de 1920, a qual, visando à alfabetização de todos e levada a cabo com escassos recursos financeiros, foi alvo de muitas polêmicas por ter proposto a reestruturação do ensino primário mediante a redução de sua duração de quatro para dois anos e tornando-o obrigatório. A Reforma foi muito criticada à época porque alterava radicalmente as concepções que até então haviam balizado o ensino em São Paulo, o ensino enciclopédico. Devido aos embates e à incompreensão que a Reforma provocou, ela tornou-se um marco na história da educação brasileira. A partir desse quadro, optou-se na presente dissertação por deslocar a figura do Sampaio Doria reformador do ensino para a do Sampaio Doria militante da Liga Nacionalista e professor da Escola Normal, óptica esta abordada por poucos estudiosos, não obstante a riqueza de informações que pode ocultar. Com intuito de dar continuidade aos trabalhos iniciados por Heládio Antunha (1976) e ampliados por Marta Carvalho (2010), o objetivo geral desta dissertação é reconstruir a trajetória política e pedagógica de Sampaio Doria, pois se supõe que percorrendo os temas centrais ao seu pensamento poderão ser encontradas as bases que um dia lhe serviram para estruturar as 44 medidas que compuseram a Reforma. Os objetivos específicos encontram-se...

Unidades de Atendimento Integrado (UAI): um estudo de políticas públicas para o fortalecimento da cidadania no estado de Minas Gerais; Citizen Assistance Units (UAI): a public policy study for strengthening of citizenship in state of Minas Gerais

Oliveira, Denis Renato de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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A estruturação de redes como suporte organizacional à gestão de políticas públicas tem se apresentado, no contexto do Welfare State, como um novo paradigma de organização da ação do Estado frente às constatadas imperfeições do modelo burocrático. Embora se possa relacionar os ganhos decorrentes dessa formação, ainda não se possui uma estrutura conceitual precisa que possibilite a identificação de um padrão gerencial ou determine os elementos de análise essenciais das formas de interação entre os atores, a natureza das atividades envolvidas e a configuração das relações de poder no Modelo de Gestão do Atendimento Integrado (MGAI). Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar a dinâmica processual de institucionalização da gestão de políticas públicas em rede e as formas de cooperação existentes nas Unidades de Atendimento Integrado (UAI). Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa de natureza exploratória e descritiva. Os dados foram coletados por meio de fontes primárias, entrevistas semiestruturadas, e também, por meio de fontes secundárias, com a consulta de decretos-lei, manuais, cadernos e publicações temáticas, releases de encontros e reuniões, relatórios gerenciais e artigos científicos. O embasamento teórico foi feito a partir da abordagem de quatro temas centrais: a formação do Estado democrático moderno...

Educação cidadã a distância: uma perspectiva emancipatória a partir de Paulo Freire; Distance citizen education: an emancipatory perspective from Paulo Freire

Carvalho, Jaciara de Sá
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/03/2015 Português
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Esta tese foi motivada por desconfianças quanto à possibilidade de uma Educação emancipadora ser atendida pela modalidade a distância. O trabalho situa a problemática na perspectiva de Educação que orienta o ensino-aprendizagem e não na modalidade em si. E discute condições e desafios para uma Educação emancipadora a distância tendo como recorte a formação para a cidadania, uma das finalidades da Educação de acordo com a Constituição Federal (BRASIL, 1988) e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (BRASIL, 1996). A formação para a cidadania foi adotada como expressão-chave para a discussão de uma Educação cidadã, comprometida com a formação humana e a construção de novas realidades, contra sua subordinação a fins instrumentais, de caráter utilitário. A investigação, desenvolvida sob uma perspectiva crítica, está fundamentada na filosofia e teoria de conhecimento do educador Paulo Freire, reconhecido em diversos países por suas contribuições para uma Educação democrática e libertadora. O percurso bibliográfico aborda 1) cidadania, pela questão dos direitos, deveres e participação ativa em sociedade, a partir de Freire e sob o paradigma da planetaridade; 2) Educação cidadã...

O artifice e a ferramenta : a participação publica na gestão ambiental areas da Serra do Japi - Jundiai/SP; The craftsmann and th tool the citizen participation in the management of protected areas Japi mountains - Jundiai/SP

Sinesio Scarabello Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2005 Português
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As vantagens e a conveniência da participação pública na gestão de áreas naturais têm sido intensamente discutidas. A grande maioria dos administradores, empresas e órgãos públicos que fomentam este debate apontam a participação pública como algo vantajoso, conveniente e até necessário. No entanto, as dificuldades para se incorporar a participação pública nos processos de tomada de decisão são muitas e igualmente reconhecidas, o que tem mantido o assunto sob intenso debate. Este trabalho parte do pressuposto de que a participação pública é, de fato, necessária. Contudo, procura identificar os requisitos para que ela ocorra de forma positiva e efetiva e, principalmente, investigar a possibilidade de manutenção de uma aliança estável entre os atores sociais. Para tanto, foi instalado e observado um processo de participação pública, orientado por um modelo designado MOD - Modelo de Organização do Diálogo, concebido a partir de considerações e conclusões extraídas da bibliografia pesquisada. Três aspectos foram especialmente focalizados: a forma de organização da participação pública, o estabelecimento da articulação entre os atores sociais e as dificuldades para a tomada de decisão diante de questões complexas...

Citizen Report Card Surveys : A Note on the Concept and Methodology

Waglé, Swarnim; Singh, Janmejay; Shah, Parmesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This note provides a short summary of the concept and key phases involved in implementing a citizen report card (CRC) survey. CRCs are client feedback surveys that provide a quantitative measure of user perceptions on the quality, efficiency and adequacy of different public services. They have been applied to numerous contexts in different regions. Beyond the process of executing a survey, CRCs involve efforts at dissemination and institutionalization that make them effective instruments to exact public accountability.

Strategic Framework for Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in World Bank Group Operations

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The objective of this strategic framework is to mainstream citizen engagement in World Bank Group (WBG)-supported policies, programs, projects, and advisory services and analytics to improve their development results and within the scope of these operations, contribute to building sustainable national systems for citizen engagement with governments and the private sector. This framework will capture the diverse experiences, assess lessons learned, and outline methods and entry points to provide a more systematic and results-focused approach for the WBG. Progress toward this objective will be assessed using indicators included in program, project, and corporate results frameworks. The WBG strategy incorporates citizen engagement, including beneficiary feedback, specifically in its treatment of inclusion, which entails empowering citizens to participate in the development process and integrating citizen voice in development programs as key accelerators to achieving results. This framework builds on stocktaking and lessons learned from WBG-financed operations across regions and sectors. A key lesson is the importance of country context...

Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Bousquet, Franck; Bhatt, Nina; Yamouri, Najat; Agarwal, Sanjay; Grandvoinnet, Helene; Thindwa, Jeff; Fall, Marieta; Singh, Janmejay; Ahuja, Preeti; Manroth, Astrid
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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This brief provides an introduction to the issue of citizen engagement (CE) as well as the piloting of the agenda in the Banks Middle East and North Africa (MNA) region. The objective is to develop sustainable country systems for CE. It includes participation of citizens in all spheres of development, whether the making of policies and decisions that affect citizens, the formulation and execution of budgets, or delivery of public services. At the policy, program, and project level, CE work includes strengthening government-citizen interaction and results through citizen-beneficiary consultation, participation, and collaboration in all aspects of projects, programs, or policies. As part of its new strategy, the World Bank Group (WBG) has committed to mainstreaming CE in country engagements and operations to achieve improved development results through participatory planning, management and monitoring, participatory budgeting, and grievance mechanisms. Citizen movements globally and in MNA have mobilized to demand greater voice and participation in decisions affecting their lives in places where they are not heard or given opportunities to engage. CE brings dividends at the national and subnational...

Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

Sequeira, A.M.M.; Roetman, P.E.J.; Daniels, C.B.; Baker, A.K.; Bradshaw, C.J.A.
Fonte: John Wiley and Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus ) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ~ 1) included all vari- ables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%)...

The ECJ between the Individual Citizen and the Member States: A plea for a judge-made European law on remedies

MICKLITZ, Hans-Wolfgang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Time and again the ECJ comes under fire, from the Member States who fear the loss of sovereignty, as well as from trade unions and public interest groups who fear the downgrading of ‘The Social’. The overall message then may be condensed into the plea for a court which takes a more cautious stance. I am arguing the exact opposite, at least with regard to remedies in the social and the citizen rights order. Only more judicial activism can overcome the lacunae which results from a rights-remedyprocedure mechanism that is too much designed to enforce economic freedoms.; Introduction..........................................................................................................1 I. The ECJ between the individual citizen and the autonomy of the Member States ......................................1 II. RRP in a ‘new’ European legal order having its ‘own’ legal system ................................................2 1. The EU legal order autonomous and/or integrated ...................................................................3 2. Three European legal orders – economic, social and citizen? .......................................................6 3. A rights based order – economic, fundamental, social, human...

Citizen-Officers: The Union and Confederate Volunteer Junior Officer Corps in the American Civil War, 1861-1865

Bledsoe, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
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This dissertation engages the historiography of American citizenship and identity, republican traditions in American life and thought, and explores the evolution of military leadership in American society during the American Civil War. The nature, experiences and evolution of citizen-soldiers and citizen-officers, both Union and Confederate, reveal that the sentimental, often romantic expectations and ideologies forged in the American Revolution and modified during the antebellum era were recast, adapted, and modified under the extreme pressures of four years of conflict. Civil War citizen-officers experienced extreme pressures to emulate the professional officers of the regular army and to accommodate the ideological expectations of the independent, civic-minded volunteers they led. These junior leaders arrived at creative, often ingenious solutions to overcome the unique leadership challenges posed by the tension between antebellum democratic values and the demands of military necessity. Though the nature and identity of the officers in both armies evolved over time, the ideological foundations that informed Civil War Americans’ conceptions of military service persisted throughout the conflict. The key to the persistence of the citizen-soldier ethos and citizen-officer image during and after the Civil War era lies in the considerable power of antebellum Americans’ shared but malleable republican tradition. By focusing on the experience of volunteer company-grade officers in the Civil War era...

Decentralization and Citizen Participation in Mexico

Albarran, Ilyana
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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During the past few decades, decentralization efforts in México have coincided with efforts to democratize the administrative decision-making process. Adopted in 1988, the Programa Nacional de Solidaridad (National Solidarity Program; PRONASOL) required citizen participation in decisions involving the use of federal resources for regional development and poverty alleviation projects. In 1998, Section 33 of the Ley de Coordinación Fiscal (Fiscal Coordination Law; LCF) placed Social Infrastructure Funds (SIF) directly under the supervision of municipalities and retained the requirement that citizens participate in decisions involving the allocation of funds. The present study seeks to understand the factors that affect the participation of citizen committees (composed of community members; organized to address a particular cause) in SIF allocation decisions and assess the impact of this form of citizen participation on government performance. To pursue this objective, the study analyzes the implementation of LCF with respect to the role of citizen committees in SIF allocation decisions at two different locations: the township of Santa Maria Tonantzintla, located in the municipality of San Andrés Cholula, in the state of Puebla, and the rural municipality of Tenango Del Aire...

Citizen preparedness campaign : information campaigns increasing citizen preparedness to support creating a 'Culture of Preparedness'

Bloom, Paula S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 127 p. : col. ill. ;
Português
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CHDS State/Local; Citizen preparedness has been a requirement since the events of September 11, 2001, and was reinforced as a necessity after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August 2005. Although National Strategy documents outline the requirement for citizen participation in national preparedness the requirement is through volunteerism using the Citizen Corps. There are currently readiness programs being conducted through the Citizen Corps, Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency but they are not coordinated across the federal state and local or proactive in nature. Proactive Information Campaigns using core and supporting elements can be one methodology to increase citizen preparedness to support the creation of a 'Culture of Preparedness', which includes citizen participation along with the all levels of government and the private sector. Homeland Security stakeholders can use the Information Campaign Model developed to formulate proactive information campaigns to increase citizen preparedness.; Lieutenant Commander (LCDR), US Northern Command (Northcom) author.

Are You Satisfied? Citizen Feedback and Delivery of Urban Services

Deichmann, Uwe; Lall, Somik V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Citizen feedback is considered an effective means for improving the performance of public utilities. But how well does such information reflect the actual quality of service delivery? Do so-called scorecards or report cards measure public service delivery accurately, or do personal and community characteristics have a significant impact on residents' assessment of service quality? Deichmann and Lall investigate these questions using newly available household survey data on access to and satisfaction with selected public services in two Indian cities-Bangalore and Jaipur. They develop a framework where actual levels of services received, as well as expectations about service performance, influence a household's satisfaction with service delivery. The authors find that satisfaction increases with improvements in the household's own service status, a finding that supports the use of scorecard initiatives. But the results also suggest that a household's satisfaction is influenced by how service quality compares with that of its neighbors or peers and by household level characteristics such as welfare and tenure status. This implies that responses in satisfaction surveys are at least in part determined by factors that are unrelated to the service performance experienced by the household.

Citizen Science & Water Quality in the uMngeni Catchment Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Kolbe, ANDREA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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South Africa (SA) is considered to be water scarce under current climatic conditions. As such, the conservation of water quality is emerging as an increasingly urgent challenge as water resources face a growing number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. This thesis investigates how citizen science – the involvement of, and action by, everyday citizens in the collection of data and improvement of water resources- might contribute to the conservation of water quality in SA. The thesis used qualitative research methods, including interviews and participant observation. Mpophomeni Township (within the uMngeni catchment area), KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), SA is used as a case study to better understand the role of citizen science in addressing water quality challenges. Theory U is used as an analytical lens to understand the impact of citizen science as well as the extent to which citizen scientists engage with aspects of social learning and systemic change. Findings indicate that citizen science promotes empowerment and social learning amongst participants, in addition to fostering multi-stakeholder collaboration (on water quality issues), encouraging the establishment of new environmental connections, and enabling a shift in existing government-citizen power relations. Additionally...

Understanding the characteristics of algal communities in the tributaries of Lake St. Francis (St. Lawrence River) through intensive sampling and the use of citizen science

Waller, MacKenzie
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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In recent years, reports of nuisance algae have increased within the Great Lakes Basin. These nuisance algal blooms have been known to include potentially hazardous cyanobacteria. There is a concern that harmful algal blooms are occurring more frequently which could have adverse impacts to wildlife, human activities and public health. However, there is a general lack of information on the distribution, frequency and taxonomic composition of algal blooms within the Great Lakes basin, particularly in eastern Ontario. This thesis addresses this lack of information through intensive sampling by researchers and citizen scientist volunteers. The St. Lawrence River/Lake St. Francis tributaries were used as a model system to evaluate the effects of various stressors (environmental, landscape and water quality) on algal density and frequency of harmful algal blooms. The monitoring program, run in both 2013 and 2014, found that algal assemblages were dominated by diatoms, followed by chlorophytes, and on average only ~ 1% of overall algal composition were cyanobacteria, with even smaller amounts of chrysophytes, euglenophytes, dinophytes, and cryptophytes. Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict both overall algal density and cyanobacteria density from physical and chemical variables; water temperature...

The Peruvian Citizen Perception and Expectation toward the e-Government. The Electronic Tax Payment Successful e-Gov Project; The Peruvian Citizen Perception and Expectation toward the e-Government. The Electronic Tax Payment as a Successful e-Gov Project

Cardona, Diego
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2010 Português
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En este capítulo, los autores tratan de demostrar como los gobierno latinoamericanos, específicamente el peruano, evalúan los esfuerzos que realizan en la implementación de iniciativas de gobierno electrónico, identificando las expectativas que tienen los ciudadanos frente a estas iniciativas y como las perciben, aplicando un modelo de evaluación al servicio de  pago electrónico de impuestos implementado como una iniciativa exitosa en Latinoamérica. El modelo propuesto fue desarrollado por uno de los autores como parte de su tesis doctoral y evaluado por el otro como jurado en el tribunal de la misma. Incluye cinco constructos latentes independientes, actitud, aptitud, confianza, relevancia y satisfacción que afecta a dos constructos latentes dependientes, la percepción y la expectativa frente a su relación con la administración pública vía el uso de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones – TIC, bajo el efecto de variables ilustrativas relacionadas con los ciudadanos, las instituciones y el contexto.; In this chapter, the authors try to stand out how the Latin American governments, specifically the Peruvian government, can evaluate its efforts implementing electronic administration initiatives, identifying what the citizen expects from the electronic administration and how he or she perceives it...

The Political Representation of Non-Citizen Latinos: An Analysis of Legislative Motivations

Perry, Brittany Nicole
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This dissertation examines the political representation of non<&ndash>citizen Latinos in the U.S. states. Specifically, it investigates why lawmakers, seen as primarily driven by the goal of reelection, would be compelled to vote for or sponsor legislation to favor this non<&ndash>citizen, non<&ndash>voting population.

Using newly collected data on bill sponsorship and roll call voting, combined with data collected from an original survey of current state lawmakers, I test a more nuanced version of David Mayhew<&rsquo>s reelection theory. I examine the short<&ndash>term and long<&ndash>term reelection goals of lawmakers finding that both current and potential future voting populations in a district (including non<&ndash>citizens) have significant effects on voting and sponsorship decisions. In addition, I find evidence to suggest that personal characteristics of a lawmaker, most notably ethnic identity, also affect legislative behavior. In line with an alternative <&ldquo>good public policy theory,<&rdquo> my results demonstrate that even when electoral pressures are low, Latino lawmakers remain significantly more likely to support non<&ndash>citizen interests when compared to all other lawmakers. The broader implication of this finding is that descriptive representation matters and the identity link between Latino legislators and non<&ndash>citizen Latinos in society encourages behavior that is not fully explained by standard reelection theories.

; Dissertation

Emergent Citizen Groups in Disasters and Their Political Activity: A look at Natural Hazard Situations

Neal, David M.; McCabe, Susan
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 641097 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper explores the dynamics of emergent citizen groups, or ECGs as we shall call them in potential or actual disaster situations in which the political process is used. Field data are drawn from a nationwide study of emergent citizen groups (of ECGs) in disasters. We describe the process of citizen response to actual or potential natural hazard situations as well as how the role of ECGs may affect political decisions.; National Science Foundation

Citizen Groups and Hazardous Waste: Their Careers and Conditions for Emergence

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 1004119 bytes; application/pdf
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Several years ago, the Disaster Research Center (DRC) initiated and undertook an extensive sociological study of community based citizen groups which emerged either to prepare for and/or recover from actual disasters and potential threats. The research extended over a four-year period and focused on local citizen groups who came into being outside of any immediate emergency period and who were oriented to a full range of hazards from floods and hurricanes to nuclear and chemical plants and hazardous waste sites. In-depth interviewing was undertaken of members such groups around the United States. Local organizational and community statistical and documentary data were also collected to supplement the interview data. A telephone follow up survey of selected members was undertaken a year after the groups were first studied. This paper reports on the DRC observations and findings on the local citizen groups studied which were organized with respect to hazardous waste sites (ten cases out of the total). Actually we found few differences among emergent citizen groups irrespective of the particular potential disaster agent with which they were concerned. In fact, we found little difference in the orientation to either technological or non-technological disaster agents...