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Gerenciamento de resultados por bancos comerciais no Brasil; Earnings management in Brazilian commercial banks

Xavier, Paulo Henrique Moura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Este trabalho propôs-se a responder se existem indícios suficientes para se afirmar que os bancos comerciais no Brasil praticam alguma modalidade de gerenciamento de resultados. Para tanto, foi verificado se os bancos comerciais selecionados - instituições líderes dos vinte maiores conglomerados bancários brasileiros - utilizaram os ágios em investimentos em controladas e coligadas, as operações com títulos e valores mobiliários, as provisões para operações de crédito ou os passivos contingentes para gerenciar seus resultados. Dois dos três bancos que possuíam ágios em investimentos em controladas e coligadas efetivamente utilizaram sua amortização para gerenciar seus resultados. Cinqüenta e cinco por cento dos bancos selecionados utilizaram a classificação dos títulos e valores mobiliários para praticar o gerenciamento de resultados. Com relação à provisão para operações de crédito, seis bancos usaram-na para gerenciar seus resultados, outros seis bancos não a usaram e para cinco bancos os resultados foram inconclusivos. Os resultados também foram inconclusivos para os passivos contingentes.; This thesis purpose is to detect if there are enough signs to assure that Brazilian commercial banks practice any kind of earnings management. For that...

Global Survey of Development Banks

de Luna-Martinez, José; Vicente, Carlos Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Historically, development banks have been an important instrument of governments to promote economic growth by providing credit and a wide range of advisory and capacity building programs to households, small and medium enterprises, and even large private corporations, whose financial needs are not sufficiently served by private commercial banks or local capital markets. During the current financial crisis, most development banks in Latin America, followed by Asia, Africa, and Europe, have assumed a countercyclical role by scaling up their lending operations exactly when private banks experienced temporary difficulties in granting credit to the private sector. Despite the importance of development banks during crisis and non-crisis periods, little is known about them. This survey examines how development banks operate, what their policy mandates are, what financial services they offer, which type of clients they target, how they are regulated and supervised, what business models they have adopted, what governance framework they have...

Development Banks : Role and Mechanisms to Increase their Efficiency

Gutierrez, Eva; Rudolph, Heinz P.; Homa, Theodore; Blanco Beneit, Enrique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Past performance of development banks, has generally been considered poor and the value of state ownership questioned. There are few institutions that achieve the optimum balance of effectively addressing a policy objective while being financially sustainable. Following the financial crisis, there is a renewed interest in the role development banks can play in weathering the crisis. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the lessons learned following the financial crisis and to present some of the best practices in development banking so that policy makers can be better informed should they be considering how to build strong state financial institutions to address current and future needs in their respective countries.

Measuring Financial Access around the World

Kendall, Jake; Mylenko, Nataliya; Ponce, Alejandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This paper introduces a new set of financial access indicators for 139 countries across the globe and describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data set. The new data set builds on previous work using a similar methodology. The new data set features broader country coverage and greater disaggregation by type of financial product and by type of institution supplying the product -- commercial banks, specialized state run savings and development banks, banks with mutual ownership structure (such as cooperatives), and microfinance institutions. The authors use the data set to conduct a rough estimation of the number of bank accounts in the world (6.2 billion) as well as the number of banked and unbanked individuals. In developed countries, they estimate 3.2 accounts per adult and 81 percent of adults banked. By contrast, in developing countries, they estimate only 0.9 accounts per adult and 28 percent banked. In regression analysis, they find that measures of development and physical infrastructure are positively associated with the indicators of deposit account...

Banks and Microbanks

Cull, Robert; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Morduch, Jonathan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Using two new datasets, the authors examine whether the presence of banks affects the profitability and outreach of microfinance institutions. They find evidence that competition matters. Greater bank penetration in the overall economy is associated with microbanks pushing toward poorer markets, as reflected in smaller average loans sizes and greater outreach to women. The evidence is particularly strong for microbanks relying on commercial funding and using traditional bilateral lending contracts (rather than the group lending methods favored by microfinance nongovernmental organizations). The analysis considers plausible alternative explanations for the correlations, including relationships that run through the nature of the regulatory environment and the structure of the banking environment; but it fails to find strong support for these alternative hypotheses.

Risk Analysis for Islamic Banks

Van Greuning, Hennie; Iqbal, Zamir
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
This publication provides a comprehensive overview of topics related to the assessment, analysis, and management of various types of risks in the field of Islamic banking. It is an attempt to provide a high-level framework (aimed at non-specialist executives) attuned to the current realities of changing economies and Islamic financial markets. The Islamic financial system is not limited to banking; it also covers capital formation, capital markets, and all types of financial intermediation and risk transfer. Islamic finance was practiced predominantly in the Muslim world throughout the middle ages, fostering trade and business activities with the development of credit. The growth of Islamic finance coincided with the current account surpluses of oil-exporting Islamic countries. The Middle East saw a mushrooming of small commercial banks competing for surplus funds. The Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, and Sudan announced their intention to make their financial systems compliant with Shariah.

Bank Privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa : The Case of Uganda Commercial Bank

Clarke, George R.G.; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Previous empirical analyses have found that bank privatizations are more successful when the government fully relinquishes control, when the bank is privatized to a strategic investor, and when foreign-owned banks are allowed to participate in the bidding. The privatization of Uganda Commercial Bank (UCB) to the South African bank Stanbic met all these criteria, suggesting that it is a likely candidate for success. But other features suggest reasons for caution: UCB dominated the Ugandan banking sector prior to privatization and the institutional environment in Uganda was less favorable than in many of the middle-income countries looked at in earlier empirical studies. Despite these concerns, the privatization appears to have been relatively successful. The portfolio of the privatized bank, which was cleaned prior to sale, remains relatively strong and profitability and credit growth are now on par with other Ugandan banks. Though market segmentation remains a concern since Stanbic faces little or no direct competition in many remote areas...

Bangladesh - Non-Lending Technical Assistance on Capital Markets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.58%
The Bangladesh stock market experienced significant volatility in late 2010 and early 2011 which took stock values high above fundamentals and threatened the stability of the financial system. This note takes a systematic look at the capital markets underpinnings in Bangladesh, including the regulatory framework, the rule-making bodies and enforcement issues. It also addresses systemic weaknesses responsible for market instability which was observed at the end of 2010 and early 2011. The note analyses the outlines specific areas of potential vulnerabilities of securities markets, as assessed against appropriate practice guidelines for stability, sustainability, transparency, and enforcement. A plan of action going forward is also suggested. This note draws on a considerable amount of prior analytical work. Bangladesh capital markets remain ineffective. The government debt securities markets are illiquid preventing the Bangladesh financial system from relying on a market-based yield curve. Bangladesh has yet to develop an active money market. Trading of treasury bills in the secondary market is limited because these instruments...

Deregulation, intensity of competition, industry evolution and the productivity growth of US commercial banks

Tirtiroglu, D.; Daniels, K.; Tirtiroglu, E.
Fonte: Ohio State Univ Press Publicador: Ohio State Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
We study the influence of the evolution in intrastate and interstate deregulations on the total factor productivity growth of U.S. commercial banking during 1971–95. We consider statewide deregulations in intrastate branching, intrastate multibank holding company (MBHC), interstate multibank holding company, and interstate MBHC de novo branching regulations. Results indicate that (1) long-standing banking restrictions negatively affected banks’ productivity growth, and (2) relaxing restrictions on intrastate branching expansion had a positive long-run influence upon banks’ productivity growth. The effect of interstate MBHC deregulations is largely short run, and it is negative in the long run for interstate MBHC de novo branching deregulations.; http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_money_credit_and_banking/; Dogan Tirtiroglu, Kenneth N. Daniels and Ercan Tirtiroglu

Banking regulation and corporate governance: an empirical study of Chinese banks.

Fu, Yishu
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Although there is an increasing research interest in banking capital requirements, the impact of the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) banking regulation on Chinese commercial banks’ behaviors has not been fully explored. Even though CBRC banking regulation has tremendously improved the capital adequacy ratio, on average, for Chinese commercial banks in recent years, the question of whether and how different types of banks in China have reacted to constraints placed by the regulator on their capital has not been empirically tested in the literature for Chinese cases. This overarching research problem, which forms the foundation of this doctoral research project, gives rise to three important research questions. First, do different types of banks in China react differently to capital requirements in terms of capital adequacy level, i.e. do state-owned banks, joint-equity banks, local banks, and foreign banks behave the same in their capital ratio when adhering to changes in capital requirements? Second, do Chinese banks differ in their ability to adjust risk, i.e. do different types of banks simultaneously adjust their capital and risk due to the influence of binding capital requirements? Third, do corporate governance factors jointly work with banking regulation in explaining Chinese banks’ risk behaviors...

Financial Sector Assessment : Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The Bangladesh financial system, particularly banking and microfinance, has grown and developed since 2003 against the backdrop of 6 percent average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. Banks' total assets and private credit ratios to GDP have each increased by about one-third since the 2003 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). Bank deposits, as a percentage of GDP, are comparable to other South Asian countries. Private domestic banks now hold a majority of bank assets; the shares of state-owned commercial banks (SCBs) and specialized banks (SBs) have declined correspondingly. Bank branches, access to banking, and microfinance services have expanded substantially. Nonbanking financial institutions have also grown but remain small; banks s till account for over 90 percent of financial institutions' assets. Equity market listings and capitalization have grown substantially; market capitalization was equivalent to about 14 percent of GDP in December 2008. A government bond market is developing. Further sound financial development in the various parts of the financial sector...

The State of Microfinance in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States

Forster, Sarah; Greene, Seth; Pytkowska, Justyna
Fonte: CGAP and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: CGAP and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
This report is based on the first empirical study of the microfinance industry in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States (CEE and NIS). The main source of its findings is a survey of the region's microfinance institutions (MFIs) and funders conducted in 2001 by the Microfinance Centre for Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. The study achieved its four main goals: 1) the creation of an empirically based, comprehensive picture of the current state of the microfinance industry in the region; 2) a comparison of the performance of the region's main organizational models for microfinance delivery credit unions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 'downscaling' commercial banks, and 'Greenfield' microfinance banks; 3) an analysis of the main barriers to growth and development confronting microfinance in the region specifically, access to finance and legal and regulatory constraints; and 4) a framework for action for the region's various microfinance actors...

Using Development-Oriented Equity Investment as a Tool for Restructuring Transition Banking Sectors

Meigas, Helo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Over the past 10 years the three Baltic republics have undertaken significant restructuring of their banking sectors, supported by the World Bank through three projects: the Financial Institutions Development Project in Estonia, the Enterprise and Financial Sector Restructuring Project in Latvia, and the Enterprise and Financial Sector Project in Lithuania. These projects included a credit line, channeled through local commercial banks, to provide long-term funding and complementary technical assistance to private enterprises. In parallel, the government of Sweden injected equity into the commercial banks from Swedfund Financial Markets (SFM). The projects and the accompanying Swedfund equity were aimed at promoting sound banking systems in the three Baltic countries-by strengthening the equity in the banks and thereby expanding medium- and long-term financing. Meigas examines the role of SFM-which provides development-oriented equity investment (DEI) to Baltic banks-in the context of the World Bank programs. She examines the arguments for deploying DEI as a development vehicle by gauging its impact in the three Baltic countries on banking skills and services...

Banking Systems Around the Globe : Do Regulation and Ownership Affect the Performance and Stability?

Barth, James R.; Caprio, Gerard, Jr.; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
The authors report cross-country data on commercial bank regulation and ownership in more than 60 countries. They evaluate the links between different regulatory/ownership practices in those countries and both financial sector performance and banking system stability. They document substantial variation in response to these questions: Should it be public policy to limit the powers of commercial banks to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate activities? Should the mixing of banking and commerce be restricted by regulating commercial bank's ownership of non-financial firms and non-financial firms' ownership of commercial banks? Should states own commercial banks, or should those banks be privatized? They find: 1) There is no reliable statistical relationship between restrictions on commercial banks' ability to engage in securities, insurance, and real estate transactions and how well-developed the banking sector, how well-developed securities markets and non-bank financial intermediaries are, or the degree of industrial competition. Based on the evidence...

Scaling-up Access to Finance for India's Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Since the early national plans, successive governments in independent India have emphasized the link between improving access to finance, and reducing poverty - a stance that has had influence globally. The need to improve financial access for India's poor, the overwhelming majority of whom are concentrated in rural areas, motivated the nationalization of commercial banks in the late 1960s, and an aggressive drive through the 1970s and 1980s, to expand rural banking, coupled with policies mandating banks to provide subsidized credit to rural households. The 1990s saw the partial deregulation of interest rates, a gradual reduction in the Government's stake in commercial banks, and increased competition in the banking sector. Access to finance for the rural poor has improved somewhat over the past decades, with the public sector commercial banks being the dominant players in the formal rural finance market. Yet, the vast majority of India's rural poor, still do not have access t o formal finance. The report examines the reasons...

Microfinance as a Regular Commercial Banking Product

Gallardo, Joselito S.; Randhawa, Bikki K.; Sacay, Orlando J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Hatton National Bank is the largest private commercial bank in Sri Lanka and one of the handful of commercial banks in the world that have initiated microfinance programs. The bank launched its program in 1989 as an integral part of its operations, motivated by two business objectives. First, the program aims to protect the bank s market share from state-owned rural banks and nonbank microfinance institutions such as credit cooperatives, especially in rural and semiurban areas, where more than 75 percent of the country s population lives. Second, the program is an investment in the future: it targets microfinance clients with the potential to grow into small enterprises in the formal sector. This Note profiles Hatton National Bank's microfinance operations, highlighting two questions: How does a privately owned bank downscale part of its operations for microfinance? Is microfinance consistent with profit orientation?

Do Banks Provision for Bad Loans in Good Times? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

Cavallo, Michele; Majnoni, Giovanni
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Recent debate about the pro-cyclical effects of bank capital requirements, has ignored the important role that bank loan loss provisions play in the overall framework of minimum capital regulation. It is frequently observed that under-provisioning, due to inadequate assessment of expected credit losses, aggravates the negative effect of minimum capital requirements during recessions, because capital must absorb both expected, and unexpected losses. Moreover, when expected losses are properly reflected in lending rates, but not in provisioning practices, fluctuations in bank earnings magnify true oscillations in bank profitability. The relative agency problems faced by different stakeholders, may help explain the prevailing, and often unsatisfactory institutional arrangements. The authors test their hypotheses with a sample of 1,176 large commercial banks - 372 of them in non-G10 countries - for the period 1988-99. After controlling for different country-specific macroeconomic, and institutional features...

Eficiência bancária: os maiores bancos são os mais eficientes? Uma análise por envoltória de dados; Bank efficiency: are the largest banks the most efficient? A DEA analysis

PÉRICO, Ana Elisa; REBELATTO, Daisy Aparecida do Nascimento; SANTANA, Naja Brandão
Fonte: Universidade Federal de São Carlos Publicador: Universidade Federal de São Carlos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
A eficiência adquiriu maior relevância entre as organizações no cenário de mercados abertos, que teve início no Brasil, por volta dos anos 90. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar, por envoltória de dados (data envelopment analysis - DEA), a eficiência dos bancos comerciais instalados no país, utilizando a base de dados intitulada "Os Maiores Bancos", do ano de 2005, divulgada periodicamente pelo Banco Central do Brasil. A DEA é uma técnica de pesquisa operacional, que tem como base a programação linear e cujo objetivo é analisar comparativamente unidades independentes. A técnica foi aplicada para as 12 maiores organizações bancárias comerciais, de forma a verificar se as mesmas são consideradas eficientes, no que diz respeito à utilização dos seus recursos. Os resultados encontrados permitiram concluir que a grandeza de um banco (critério utilizado pelo Banco Central para a classificação dos bancos) não foi determinante para atribuir a eficiência a cada um deles. Convém salientar, também, que a utilização dos recursos (inputs) para o alcance do produto (output), foi o critério mais relevante na busca do bom desempenho e da eficiência bancária no estudo aqui relatado.; Efficiency began to take on a greater relevance in Brazilian organizations when the country adopted an open market policy in the early 1990s. This paper analyzes the efficiency of commercial banks in Brazil based on data envelopment analysis (DEA)...

Are U.S. Commercial Banks Too Big?

Restrepo, Diego A.; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Sun, Kai
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
This paper presents new nonparametric measures of scale economies and TFP growth for U.S. banks. Unlike previous studies that use fully nonparametric models, our approach controls for time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity among banks in estimating returns to scale, TFP growth and its components. Using data for U.S. commercial banks from 2001 to 2010, we find evidence of significant scale economies across the entire bank size distribution. Returns to scale are persistent over time, decrease with bank size, and contribute significantly to TFP growth. Our results indicate that almost all small and medium size banks and most of the largest banks have strong economic incentives to keep growing. Thus, the consolidation of the banking industry is unlikely to retrench in the near future.

Corporate governance and manipulation of accounting information: measurement at fair value in commercial banks; La gobernanza corporativa y manipulación de información contable: mensuración al valor justo en los bancos comerciales; A Governança corporativa e manipulação de informação contábil: mensuração a valor justo nos bancos comerciais

Mendes, Carlos Jorge Fontaínhas; Departamento de Ciências Contábeis e Atuariais – CCA Faculdade de Administração, Contabilidade e Economia – FACE Fundação Universidade de Brasília; Freire, Fátima de Souza; Departamento de Ciências Contábeis
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
The aim of this work is to verify whether the Corporate Governance practice management inhibits result in the process of measurement at fair value on the commercial banks. It was used information from the institutions in 125 countries, contained in the Bloomberg databases. We conclude that (i) are few (26.8%) the ones who reported in their financial reports the assets measured at fair value; (ii) Corporate Governance (CG) has a preponderant influence on the choice of evaluation criteria of assets at fair value; (iii) while in Central America there is a greater possibility in manipulating accounting information, in Europe it seems to be less frequently; El objetivo del trabajo es verificar si la Gobernanza Corporativa inhibe la práctica de gerenciamiento de resultado en el proceso de mensuración al valor justo en los bancos comerciales. Fueron utilizadas informaciones de las instituciones de 125 países, contenidas en el Bloomberg databases. Se concluye que (i) son pocos (26,8%) aquellos que divulgan en sus informes financieros los activos evaluados por el valor justo; (ii) la Gobernanza Corporativa (GC) ejerce una influencia preponderante en la elección de los criterios de evaluación de los activos al valor justo; (iii) mientras que en América Central existe mayor posibilidad en la manipulación de información contable...