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Estudo da influência do levantamento de eixos em veículos comerciais no desempenho na frenagem e na estabilidade direcional ; Study of commercial vehicles elevated axle influence on braking performance and on directional stability

Vianna, Eduardo Piquera
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Os sistemas que elevam os eixos dos veículos comerciais foram inicialmente desenvolvidos com o objetivo de economizar pneus. Até o final da década de 90, o uso destes sistemas era restrito, não causando um efeito estatístico sensível na segurança veicular. Devido a um acordo entre concessionárias rodoviárias e o governo, os veículos comerciais pagam nas praças de pedágio o valor correspondente ao número de eixos em contato com o solo naquele momento, minimizando as tarifas dos veículos que fazem uso deste sistema. Esta prática se difundiu rapidamente e poucos estudos técnicos foram realizados focando sua influência na segurança veicular. A elevação dos eixos altera de forma significativa a margem de estabilidade do veículo e a distribuição ideal das forças de frenagem, podendo elevar os riscos de acidentes. Este trabalho consiste num estudo aprofundado do desempenho dos veículos comerciais com estes sistemas de elevação de eixos, sob o ponto de vista técnico e operacional, focando a segurança veicular. Para tanto, são utilizados como metodologia modelos matemáticos já desenvolvidos na literatura científica em veículos exemplos. Parâmetros como a margem de estabilidade, gradiente de esterçamento, eficiência da frenagem dentre outros são analisados; também os efeitos na resposta direcional durante o período transitório em manobras e nos instantes iniciais da frenagem. As influências da elevação dos eixos são analisadas conforme normas e requisitos estabelecidos pela ABNT e ECE R13...

BRICs: análise comparativa da arbitragem comercial internacional institucional; BRICs: comparative analysis of international commercial institucional arbitration.

Freire, José Nantala Bádue
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o tratamento dado à arbitragem comercial institucional internacional pelas leis de Brasil, Rússia, Índia e China. A aproximação entre estes países, deflagrada principalmente após a criação do grupo BRIC, culminou num aumento considerável das suas relações comerciais. O aumento das relações pressupõe, também, um aumento na possibilidade da ocorrência de conflitos. Pela arbitragem ser, reconhecidamente, o meio de solução de controvérsias mais adequado e mais utilizado em litígios internacionais, a informação sobre como este instituto é regulado pelos sistemas jurídicos dos BRICs pode ser útil àqueles que tenham interesse em atuar nos mercados destes países. Utilizando-se dos postulados do Direito Comparado, o presente trabalho compara o padrão internacional de regulação da arbitragem comercial, consubstanciado nos textos da Lei Modelo da UNCITRAL e na Convenção de Nova Iorque de 1958, com as leis de arbitragem instituídas em cada um dos BRICs, para verificar eventuais similaridades e diferenças relevantes. A metodologia é a pesquisa comparada, em que se comparam as leis, dotrinas e decisões judiciais relevantes sobre o tema, em cada um dos sistemas jurídicos estudados. Os resultados apontam para o fato de que o padrão internacional é...

Aspectos jurídicos da celebração de contratos pela Internet

Toledo, Ana Cristina de Paiva Franco
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 133 f.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Pós-graduação em Direito - FCHS; Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar a constituição do vínculo obrigacional por ocasião da celebração de contratos mediante o uso da tecnologia, mais especificamente, a rede mundial de computadores, denominada internet. Para tanto, foi feita a análise das leis civis e empresariais que regem o negócio jurídico e os contratos, de forma a verificar se são aplicáveis aos contratos celebrados pela internet, tecnologia que, com suas características peculiares, altera a percepção de conceitos tais como a territorialidade, a identidade das partes e o lugar da celebração ou execução das obrigações, essenciais para a aplicação do direito. Analisou-se os tipos de contrato celebrados pela internet quanto à manifestação da vontade das partes e ao momento de constituição do vínculo obrigacional. Examinou-se as tentativas no direito interno e externo de regulamentação dos contratos celebrados pela internet, também denominados contratos eletrônicos, para finalmente verificar-se a viabilidade da criação de leis e normas nessa área. Concluiu-se pela aplicação, os contratos celebrados pela internet, das normas civis e empresariais aplicáveis aos contratos em geral, bem como a viabilidade de criação de leis que visem a conferir segurança jurídica a esse tipo de contratação mediante o reconhecimento da validade e eficácia e força probante de tais contratos.; The objective of this research is to analyse the constitution of the obligational bond related to the contracts in which technology...

The transformation of the Japanese commercial code and its impact on the Japanese economy

Yoshida, Toshihiro, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The legal system is an essential basis of the society and economy of every country, and it changes continually in accordance with national social and economic situations. The Japanese Commercial Code is no exception. One of the most significant and fundamental Japanese laws, it was enacted in 1899 as part of the modernization of Japanese society as the country moved away from a policy of seclusion followed by the old feudal government. The new Code was strongly affected by corporate laws in place at the time in Germany and France. However, as the balance of power in the world economy changed over the ensuing years, the Japanese Commercial Code and other corporate laws were influenced by American laws, and the nature of the Commercial Code was slowly transformed, especially following the Second World War and after the collapse of the so-called "bubble economy" in Japan. In this thesis, I discuss the history of fundamental Japanese laws, the steps and players in the legislative process, and present details about the introduction of the share exchange system, which stimulated many more mergers and acquisitions in Japan. Then I analyze the economic impact of new legal procedures for M&As, including the share exchange system, and identify possible directions for Japanese corporate laws in the future.; by Toshihiro Yoshida.; Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations in Deposit and Loan Services : A Cross-Country Analysis with a New Data Set

Ardic, Oya Pinar; Ibrahim, Joyce A.; Mylenko, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Consumer protection and financial literacy can contribute to improved efficiency, transparency, competition, and access in retail financial markets by reducing information asymmetries and power imbalances between providers and users of financial services. Financial consumer protection has gained significance in policy debates, especially since the onset of the financial crisis in 2008. This paper presents the results of a survey on consumer protection regulations in 142 countries. The findings indicate that although consumer protection legislation is in place in the majority of countries, these do not necessarily address the issues specific to financial services. There is some evidence that enforcement powers and monitoring capacity are limited in many countries, obstructing the effective implementation of the existing regulations. Furthermore, independent third party dispute resolution mechanisms are not widespread. The paper also compiles comprehensive information on laws and regulations relevant for consumer protection and discusses a number of challenges related to empirical analyses of financial consumer protection to enable cross-country comparison.

Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Honduras

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
This Report provides a summary of the level of compliance with the Financial Action Task Force, and provides recommendations to improve compliance within the prevailing context of Honduras. The views expressed in this document are those of the assessment team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of Honduras or the Boards of the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Honduras has set up a number of the fundamental components of an anti-money laundering (AML) regime, through various legislative and regulatory instruments and an institutional framework which includes law enforcement, prosecution, and supervisory bodies. While progress has been made, key changes are needed to laws and regulations in order for Honduras to have more effective money laundering and financing of terrorism regime. There is a lack of strategic direction and coordination among the participants. A focal point and coordination body needs to be established, involving senior representatives of all the entities involved in anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing to ensure the most effective and efficient collaboration of the initiative...

Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Niger

World Bank
Fonte: GIABA and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: GIABA and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The assessment of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) regime in Niger was conducted on the basis of the Forty Recommendations and the Nine Special Recommendations on the financing of terrorism drawn up in 2003 and 2001, respectively, by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and on the AML/CFT Methodology of 2004. The assessment was based on the laws, regulations, and other materials supplied by the national authorities of Niger, as well as the information gathered in the course of the country visit from June 16 to 27, 2008. During its visit, the assessment team met with the managers and representatives of all the relevant government agencies and the private sector The assessment was conducted by an evaluation team from the World Bank and the Intergovernmental Anti-Money Laundering Group in West Africa (GIABA). To this end, they analyzed the institutional framework, the AML/CFT laws and regulations, regulations, guidelines and other obligations, as well as regulatory or other regimes in force in Niger for combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The capacity...

Anti-money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Pakistan

World Bank
Fonte: Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering and World Bank Publicador: Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering and World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of Pakistan is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and was prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The assessors reviewed the institutional framework, the relevant AML/CFT laws, regulations, guidelines and other requirements, and the regulatory and other systems in place to deter and punish money laundering (ML) and the financing of terrorism (FT) through financial institutions and Designated Non-Financial Businesses and Professions (DNFBP). The assessors also examined the capacity, implementation, and effectiveness of all these systems. This report provides a summary of the AML/CFT measures in place in Pakistan at the time of the mission or shortly thereafter (no later than March 26th, 2009). It describes and analyzes those measures, sets out Pakistan levels of compliance with the FATF 40+9 Recommendations...

Arab Republic of Egypt : Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combatting the Financing of Terrorism

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Egypt) is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), andwas prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The assessment team considered all the materials supplied by the authorities, the information obtained on site during their mission from 12 to 26 October 2008, and other verifiable information subsequently provided by the authorities. During the mission, the assessment team met with officials and representatives of all relevant government agencies and the private sector. A list of the bodies met is set out in Annex 1 to the detailed assessment report. The assessment was conducted by a team of assessors composed of staff of the World Bank and two experts acting under the supervision of the World Bank. The evaluation team consisted of: Latifah Merican Cheong (Team leader); Cedric Mousset (co-team leader and financial expert)...

Untying the Land Knot : Making Equitable, Efficient, and Sustainable Use of Industrial and Commercial Land

Shen, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiaolun
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
A decade ago in Mozambique, a stakeholder workshop where the need to improve access to industrial and commercial land as a means to encourage investment was a topic of discussion, a government official came up to. In order to create new jobs, generate more income, and modernize the economy, many countries see an urgent need to encourage industrial and commercial investment, both domestic and foreign. However, investment in many sectors cannot take place unless land, along with other basic factors of production, is available. This book written from the point of view of investors, and focusing on industrial and commercial land, presents what the authors have learned from the developing world through years of first-hand observation and empirical research. Amid endless stories of land policy failures, we chose to look at encouraging cases, accompanied by a set of technical discussion papers, to provide a fresh look into how some pilot reforms were tested, and to various extents succeeded, in a range of countries. The experiences and lessons learned support the argument that land policy and institutional reforms, difficult as they are politically, institutionally, and technically, are necessary if development goals are to be achieved. They further support the argument that reform is possible...

Can OHADA Increase Legal Certainty in Africa?

Beauchard, Renaud; Kodo, Mahutodji Jimmy Vital
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
This paper describes the origins, structure, and practical impact of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). It analyzes the institutional framework created via the OHADA treaty and the legal, jurisprudential, and functional challenges that OHADA member states are still grappling with. Details of the nine substantive laws that have so far been ratified as uniform acts by means of the treaty have also been provided. The authors conclude that in making OHADA law effective, member states face continuing and substantial resource deficits, institutional deficiencies, language ambiguities, and intransigent official attitudes toward the need for appropriate mechanisms for the pursuance and enforcement of OHADA laws and processes.

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Arab World

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Arab World. It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Middle East and North Africa

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Latin America, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

Transplanting commercial law reform : developing a 'rule of law' in Vietnam

Gillespie, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Against a backdrop of legal globalisation, socialist transforming states such as Vietnam are reconfiguring their legal systems to engineer rapid economic development. Like Japan during the nineteenth century, Vietnam is trying to open up, industrialise and become a world force-in short to catch up with its regional neighbours and the West. Rather than waiting decades to distil commercial law from internal practices, it has decided to develop a legal framework from imported Western commercial laws. Most theoretical discussions about the transfer of laws among countries concern North American and European experiences with harmonising common and civil law systems~ These debates focus on problems arising from political economies and jurisprudence that seem far removed from the issues facing law reformers in Vietnam. This study argues that conventional explanations for the viability of some legal transfers provide misleading criteria for understanding legal transfers in Vietnam. What is needed is a theoretical framework in which to place and analyse how legal transfers interact with legal and social systems in Vietnam. This study attempts to make sense of Vietnam's extraordinary history of commercial legal development by devising a set of working postulates that bring the analysis closer to the processes shaping imported laws. It then applies these postulates to a series of case studies to develop a model that explains how legal transplants are adapted and implemented in Vietnam (and other socialist transforming East Asian states). The first case study assesses ideological resistance to legal transfers and argues that laws can move into incompatible ideological terrain provided they are not actively blocked by the dominant ideology. This is followed by a series of case studies that show how legal transplants are sensitive to the ways legislators...

Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes : Benchmarking Arbitration and Mediation Regimes for Commercial Disputes Related to Foreign Direct Investment

Pouget, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
An effective commercial arbitration regime matters for foreign investors. It gives parties the autonomy to create a dispute resolution system tailored to increasingly complex disputes. Foreign investors view arbitration as a way to mitigate risks by providing legal certainty on enforcement rights, due process, and access to justice. The Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators assess the legal and institutional framework for commercial arbitration, mediation, and conciliation regimes in 100 economies. All surveyed economies recognize arbitration as a tool for resolving commercial disputes and only nine economies have not acceded to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. In the Arbitrating and Mediating Disputes indicators, High Income OECD and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are the regions that reformed their laws on alternative dispute resolution the most between 2011 and 2012. The data also show that, globally, arbitration proceedings take 326 days on average...

Kuwait : Fostering Sustainable Investment through Modern Commercial Law Systems

Mako, William; Mokal, Riz; Cojocaru, Iulia; Johnson, Gordon W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
The Government of Kuwait (GOK) is now moving decisively to reform its insolvency and creditor/debtor regime (ICR). Stakeholders recognize that Kuwait's ICR system had fallen behind that required for a modern economy. The GOK's effort to establish a modern insolvency and creditor rights system is driven by several considerations: first, consistent with its traditional strengths, Kuwait is seeking to transform itself into a regional financial and trading center, as expressed in the Amiri vision 2030 and the GOK's most-recent five-year development plan. Second, many of the difficulties afflicting the country's investment company sector, which started surfacing in 2008, still await fundamental resolution. Third, development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is essential to help the GOK meet its goals of diversifying the sources of income and encouraging young people to work in the private sector, in order to reduce the burden of the public sector. The GOK's reform agenda aspires to world-class standards...

Senegal : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) : Corporate Governance Country Assessment; Senegal - Rapport sur l'observation des normes et codes (ROSC) : evaluation par pays du gouvernement d'entreprise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Corporate Governance Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This report provides an assessment of Senegal's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement, and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Senegal. The report identifies several key next steps that can be carried out in Senegal and that focus on implementation, including: (i) developing program to build awareness of the importance of corporate governance and to train directors in modern corporate governance principles; (ii) drafting a code of corporate governance; (iii) addressing governance weaknesses in the state-owned enterprises. A separate report reviews the special issues for the corporate governance of state-owned enterprises in Senegal; and (iv) revising the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA) uniform act for commercial companies (over the long term) to incorporate modern corporate governance principles.

L'arbitrage commercial international et les garanties procédurales

Joseph, Jacceus
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Cette recherche aborde un sujet complexe, qui est en plein débat doctrinal en droit de l'arbitrage international: L'arbitrage commercial international et les garanties procédurales. Au fait, l'arbitrage commercial international revêt le mode traditionnel des règlements de litiges du commerce international et des relations économiques internationales. À cause de l'hybridité de sa nature (contractuelle et juridictionnelle), il est le plus souvent préféré par les parties aux tribunaux étatiques. Cette faveur vis-à-vis de ce mode de règlements de litiges internationaux s'explique par le développement de l'économie internationale, par la globalisation du marché, par la conclusion de nombreuses conventions internationales en la matière, par la création des centres d'arbitrage, enfin par la modernisation des lois et règlements nationaux. En revanche, il est constaté que l'arbitrage souffre d'un déficit de prévisibilité et de certitudes pour les acteurs du commerce international. Que l'on songe seulement à la multiplication des rattachements législatifs et des contrôles judiciaires: conflits de lois, conflits entre les règles de conflits, etc. Nous avons démontré que la solution aux difficultés de la méthode conflictualiste serait l'harmonisation de la procédure arbitrale internationale et que ce mode de règlement de différends débouche de plus en plus sur le rapprochement entre traditions juridiques différentes (Common Law et droit civil).Toutefois...

The Code of Commerce and supplementary laws of the Republic of Cuba; Código de comercio (1911)

Cuba; Joannini, Frank L
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (292 pages). : ;
Publicado em // Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references (pages 14-18) and index.; The entry for Cuba in: The commercial laws of the world, v. 9: Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba.; (Statement of Responsibility) compiled and translated by Frank L. Joannini, official translator of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, U.S. War Department, translator to the American Delegation to the Third Pan-American Conference, translator of the Civil and Penal Codes, Codes of Criminal and Civil Procedure, mortgage law and regulations, railroads, mining, notarial, water, port and other laws, of Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines, and of the Civil Code and Law of Civil Procedure of Panama and the Canal Zone.

From the ground up: conceptualizing the space of Los Angeles commercial aeromobility

Edlins, Geoffrey
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Robert Warren; Despite the capacity of air travel to radically transform life on the ground, aerial space is seldom considered a site whose constitutive practices, technologies, and physical forces have indeed reconfigured social, political, economic, and spatial relations--both within and between terrestrial city-regions. This dissertation integrates aeromobility and atmospheric space within a relational mode of urban analysis. It analyzes the processually-unfolding atmospheres of Los Angeles city-regional air passenger traffic. To do this, it first considers the spatial development of the Los Angeles city-regional airport system as a functional assemblage within nested, overlapping, and aerial-enabled relationships among city-regional infrastructures and institutions. It traces the production of urban forms and processes most directly related with the commercial airline activity centered on LAX and neighboring airports, which relationally configure the Los Angeles city-region, both within and throughout global air traffic networks. This analysis finds, among other things, that LAX has undergone a shift towards transpacific linkages. Future growth in these markets suggests the airport must accommodate larger aircraft and more intensive passenger flows. The project then describes how one protracted struggle over the reuse by Orange County of a decommissioned military air base can help us understand more fully that aerial spatial production is informed not only by political or economic interests...