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The Elusive Quest for Supply Response to Cash-crop Market Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa : The Case of Cotton

Delpeuch, Claire; Leblois, Antoine
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Little cross-cutting conclusions emerge from comparative studies on the impact of structural adjustment on Sub-Saharan African agricultural performance. This paper aims to illuminate this long-standing debate by adopting a novel quantitative, sectoral and long-term approach controlling for country-specific determinants. It incorporates detailed information on the pace of reforms and the nature of post-reform market structure, pre-reform policies and weather conditions at the cultivation zone level. The cotton sector is the focus of this paper because of its particularly interesting institutional history. The authors find that the changes in market structure brought about by reforms have had very different impacts in Francophone West and Central Africa and in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the former region, production has been higher but productivity lower, on average, in regulated markets than in monopolistic markets. Conversely, in the liberalized markets of the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa, productivity has been higher in than in monopolistic markets but highly competitive markets seem to have produced less than monopolistic sectors.

Mind the Gap? A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Firms

Rijkers, Bob; Soderbom, Mans; Loening, Josef
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This paper compares and contrasts the performance of rural and urban manufacturing firms in Ethiopia to assess the impact of market integration and the investment climate on firm performance. Rural firms are shown to operate in isolated markets, have poor access to infrastructure and a substantial degree of market power, whereas urban firms operate in better integrated and more competitive markets, where they have much better access to inputs. Fragmentation may also help explain why urban firms are much larger, much more capital intensive and why they produce much more output per worker. Capital intensity and labor productivity are strongly correlated with firm size. Manufacturing technology choice does not vary strongly across space and increasing returns to scale are modest at best, suggesting that rural-urban differences in output per worker are predominantly driven by differences in capital intensity and Total Factor Productivity (TFP). The average TFP of firms in rural towns is much higher than that of rural firms in remote areas...

Protecting Electricity Retailers Against Price Volatility : The Electricity Tariff Equalization Fund in New South Wales

Kerf, Michel; Groom, Eric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Most commentators agree that the benefits of competitive electricity markets will materialize only if wholesale prices are allowed to fluctuate more or less freely so as to provide adequate pricing signals to generators. Most also agree, however, that small electricity users need to be protected against wholesale price volatility through stable, predictable retail rates. That raises a difficult question about whether the retailers or distributors, caught in the middle, also need some protection, especially early in the development of competitive markets. The Australian state of New South Wales has used a transitional mechanism to provide such protection. Lessons learned from this experience can be of interest for other countries.

Extending Telecommunications beyond the Market : Toward Universal Service in Competitive Environments

Wellenius, Bjorn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Competitive markets go a long way toward making telecommunications services available throughout the population. But governments often seek to extend access to services beyond what the private sector will provide on its own. To widen access, governments must remove obstacles that prevent the market from working well, and must let users decide what they need and can afford. Market mechanisms must be allowed to determine who will extend service beyond the market, how much will be invested, and where. As governments adopt such measures, they must make some critical decisions: Which services to extend? To what population groups? At what cost? Who should provide the additional service? Who should pay? The answers vary widely among countries and over time. This Note outlines options and best practices, emphasizing those relevant to emerging economies.

The Development of Electricity Markets in the Euro-Mediterranean Area : Trends and Prospects for Liberalization and Regional Integration

Muller-Jentsch, Daniel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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46.29%
The main objective of this document is to map key policy issues that need to be addressed to successfully implement energy sector reform at the national, and regional levels, and, provides an overview of global, European, and Mediterranean trends, aiming at facilitating the dissemination of best practices. Chapter I describes international best practices in the design of legal, regulatory, and institutional sector framework, which include corporatization, and restructuring of state-owned energy utilities; separation of regulatory and operational functions, by creating coherent regulatory frameworks, establishing independent regulators, and promoting competition; engaging the electricity industry into generation, transmission, distribution, and trade; introduction of competition in generation, and trade, and, in the regulation of monopolistic activities; promotion of private participation; and, reduction of subsidies, and balance of tariffs. Chapters II and III examine power sector reform in the European Union (EU)...

Telecommunications Regulation Handbook

Intven, Hank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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46.38%
In recognition of the fundamental importance of an appropriate regulatory environment to accelerate connectivity, and access to information services, this handbook provides a practical reference source, on the methods used to regulate the telecommunications sector around the world, emphasizing best practices. The focus is on practices that promote the efficient supply of telecommunications services in a competitive marketplace. It offers a useful compilation of descriptions, and analyses of regulatory practices, and approaches applied in a wide range of countries. The handbook outlines the various factors that motivated the liberalization of telecommunications markets, i.e., increased growth, and fast innovations for better services; the need to expand and upgrade telecommunications networks with new services; growth of the Internet; of mobile and other wireless services; and, of international trade in telecommunications services. These factors compelled regulatory objectives to foster competitive markets to promote efficient supply of telecommunications...

Getting Connected: Competition and Diffusion in African Mobile Telecommunications Markets

Gebreab, Frew Amare
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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46.29%
The author studies the determinants of the diffusion of mobile telecommunications in Africa in a fixed effects model. He uses data from 1987-2000 on 41 African countries that have adopted cellular telecommunications technologies. He finds that competition is the driving force behind the mobile telecommunications explosion in Africa. Duopoly and triopoly markets grow significantly faster than monopoly markets, although growth does not appear to differ between the first two markets. Evidence of preemptive behavior is found in competitive sequential entries into the market, but the major effect of competition on diffusion occurs after the actual year of entry. The introduction of digital technology has a positive and significant effect on the diffusion of mobile phones. The presence of an incumbent-owned cellular operator has a negative effect on the diffusion of mobiles, suggesting an abuse of a dominant position by the incumbent fixed-line operator. However, privatization of the incumbent fixed-line cellular operator accelerates mobile growth and mitigates that negative effect.

Productivity and the Investment Climate: What Matters Most?

Bastos, Fabiano; Nasir, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The authors explore the links between the investment climate and firm-level productivity and attempt to identify which dimensions of the investment climate matter most for productivity. Their analysis is based on data collected in a recent investment climate survey of garment and food processing firms in five countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The authors use the first principal components of a series of indicators to summarize broad aspects of the investment climate and identify those most important in determining productivity. Their results indicate that competitive pressure is the most critical factor in the investment climate, accounting for more variation in firm-level productivity than infrastructure provision or issues related to government rent seeking and bureaucratic burden. This suggests that to improve productivity, increase output, and reduce poverty, policymakers should focus reform efforts on removing barriers to entry and creating open, highly competitive markets.

A Conceptual Model of Incomplete Markets and the Consequences for Technology Adoption Policies in Ethiopia

Larson, Donald F.; Gurara, Daniel Zerfu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
In Africa, farmers have been reluctant to take up new varieties of staple crops developed to boost smallholder yields and rural incomes. Low fertilizer use is often mentioned as a proximate cause, but some believe the problem originates with incomplete input markets. As a remedy, African governments have introduced technology adoption programs with fertilizer subsidies as a core component. Still, the links between market performance and choices about using fertilizer are poorly articulated in empirical studies and policy discussions, making it difficult to judge whether the programs are expected to generate lasting benefits or to simply offset high fertilizer prices. This paper develops a conceptual model to show how choices made by agents supplying input services combine with household livelihood settings to generate heterogeneous decisions about fertilizer use. An applied model is estimated with data from a panel survey in rural Ethiopia. The results suggest that adverse market conditions limit the adoption of fertilizer-based technologies...

Republic of Turkey Reform for Competitiveness Technical Assistance : Fostering Open and Efficient Markets through Effective Competition Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.5%
Competition in domestic markets is critical to ensure increased international competitiveness. Firms facing more intense competitive pressures are more likely to introduce new products and upgrade existing product lines. Firms usually acquire many of their inputs (such as transportation, energy, construction, and professional services) in local markets. Competition policies are defined as the set of policies and a law ensuring that competition in the marketplace is not restricted in a way that reduces economic welfare. This report reviews the current status of competition policy in Turkey, focusing on the economy-wide enforcement of competition rules and on specific regulations and government policies that affect product market competition. Economic and legal analysis is used to identify key challenges and to propose specific areas of intervention and reform. In addition, this report provides an evaluation of the potential benefits of pro-competition policies. Turkey is benchmarked against other economies that represent international best practice...

Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Latin America : Current Trends and Country Cases

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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46.31%
The main objective of this report is to provide a descriptive analysis of the current practices and trends of corporate governance of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in several Latin-American countries. It provides practitioners of SOE corporate governance with a stocktaking of current practices and trends in several Latin American countries, as well as international experiences and good practices elsewhere. This report intend to contribute to the discussion and growing interest on SOE corporate governance and to provide an impulse for further analytical work in this area. In most Latin American and Caribbean countries, the SOE sector contributes significantly to GDP and represents an important part of consolidated public expenditures. In several cases, the SOEs are also key and strategic actors in the country s economy providing essential goods and services and frequently hold a dominant market position in critical sectors, such as petroleum, electricity, and transportation. They also operate in competitive markets such as financial services...

Competition in Kenyan Markets and Its Impact on Income and Poverty : A Case Study on Sugar and Maize

Argent, Jonathan; Begazo, Tania
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
This paper investigates the link between competitive, well-functioning food markets and consumer welfare. The paper explores two key food markets in Kenya -- sugar and maize -- and argues that a variety of factors conspire to distort market prices upward. Distortionary factors include import tariff policy, nontariff barriers, potential anticompetitive conduct by firms, and direct state intervention in markets. Changes in sugar and maize prices are shown to have significant welfare effects on consumers. Equivalent income effects are estimated using the most recent available representative household survey data -- the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06. The paper shows that relaxing trade barriers to allow sugar prices to fall by 20 percent could reduce poverty by 1.5 percent. Similarly, adjusting government interventions in the maize market, which have been shown to inflate maize prices by 20 percent on average, could reduce poverty by 1.8 percent. The magnitude of the estimated income effects may vary based on updated household-level consumption data...

Privatization in Competitive Sectors: The Record to Date

Kikeri, Sunita; Nellis, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
The paper reviews recent evidence on the impact of privatization. It focuses on traditional privatization efforts involving firms in competitive markets. It shows that privatization improves firms' financial and operating performance, yields positive fiscal and macroeconomic benefits (proceeds are saved rather than spent, transfers decline, and governments start collecting taxes from privatized firms), and improves overall welfare. The popular view that privatization always leads to layoffs is unfounded. While highly protected firms have seen significant declines in net employment, competitive firms generally experienced slight declines if any. Privatization's effects on wealth and income distribution have only recently been receiving the attention of analysts, and research is just getting underway. The paper highlights the conditions for successful privatization: strong political commitment combined with wider public understanding of and support for the process; creation of competitive markets through removal of entry and exit barriers...

Public versus Private Ownership : The Current State of the Debate

Shirley, Mary; Walsh, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
At the heart of the debate about public versus private ownership lie three questions: 1) Does competition matter more than ownership? 2) Are state enterprises more subject to welfare-reducing interventions by government than private firms are? 3) Do state enterprises suffer more from governance problems than private firms do? Even if the answers to these questions favor private ownership, the question must still be asked: Do distortions in the process of privatization mean that privatized firms perform worse than state enterprises? The author's review found greater ambiguity about the merits of privatization and private ownership in the theoretical literature than in the empirical literature. In most cases, empirical research strongly favors private ownership in competitive markets over a state-owned counterfactual (although construction of the counterfactual is itself a problem). Theory's ambiguity about ownership in monopoly markets seems better justified. Since the choice confronting governments is between state ownership and privatization rather than between privatization and optimality...

How Is the Liberalization of Food Markets Progressing? Market Integration and Transaction Costs in Subsistence Economies

Zant, Wouter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The paper proposes a modification of Baulch's parity bounds model to measure the market integration of food markets in developing countries. Instead of extrapolating a single observation of transaction costs, it estimates transaction costs. Predicted transaction costs compare well with survey data of traders. Probabilities of market regimes, computed on the basis of predicted transaction costs, fluctuate significantly and do not support fixed regime probabilities over time. The probability of market integration with trade decreases consistently during food shortages, increasing either the probability of no trade or loss-making trade or the probability of profitable but unexploited trade opportunities. The data support a negative trend in market integration with trade.

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Country Economic Memorandum; Bosna i Hercegovina - Ekonomski memorandum za BiH

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) takes stock of economic developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) since the end of the 1995 war, and, discusses potential sources of high, sustained growth that BH could exploit, as European Union integration advances. The report formulates policy recommendations that would help maximize the potential of the country's economy to achieve higher real GDP growth, and increased job generation. In doing so, the CEM focuses on four priority policy areas: macroeconomic management, international trade policy, business environment and enterprise reform, and, labor market policies. The report conveys the need to significantly build human capital, strengthen the institutional framework, particularly focusing on social sectors, and, develop infrastructure. Despite the country's recent macroeconomic stability, there are still uneven structural policies, and a largely unfinished agenda. The single most important macroeconomic imbalance is the persistent current account deficit. The analysis presented in this report suggests that it is the result of low domestic savings rates, rather than high investment. The rate of investment is not above the average for transition economies, whereas the share of domestic savings that can finance it is particularly low. The need for higher domestic savings raises the question of the adequacy of BH's current fiscal policy stance to serve economic growth. In the area of trade...

Fostering Competition in China's Power Markets

Berrah, Noureddine; Lamech, Ranjit; Zhao, Zhao
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
This report proposes a strategy for developing competitive pool markets in China's power sector and for increasing energy trade between competitive pool markets areas. A three-stage approach is offered for developing the competitive pool markets. During stage 1, a mandatory competitive pool will be created with a single buyer. During stage 2, wholesale competition will be permitted. During stage 3, retail competition will be allowed, making the market fully competitive. The staged approach allows competitive market principles to be introduced immediately within existing institutions. This will allow needed skills and parallel economic reforms to be developed gradually and so facilitate increased competition in the later stages. The report also discusses key elemetns of competitive market development, including the organization of transmission services and transition issues such as dealing with stranded costs and mitigating market power among generators.

Korea : Transition to a Knowledge-Based Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The report reviews the economic transition in Korea, summarizing the challenge of the knowledge revolution, to the country's development strategy, and the analytical, and policy framework for a knowledge-based economy. It explores the needs to increase overall productivity, and areas of relative inefficiency, namely, inadequate conditions for generation of knowledge, and information; insufficient competition, and misallocation of investments. Furthermore, the increasingly global, and interdependent world, requires that Korea become inter-nationalized, and this involves: active participation, and leadership in international forums, particularly those setting rules for the new economy; developing alliances with world-class universities; and, active participation in global knowledge systems, and international telecommunications. Thus, the role of the Korean government will need to be redefined, unleashing the creative power of markets, providing legal and regulatory framework for more competitive markets...

Sistemas multiagentes em mercados de energia elétrica; Multiagent systems bidding approach for competitive electricity markets

Igor Alexandre Walter
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Sugerimos uma abordagem evolutiva para o projeto de estratégias de interação em sistemas multiagentes, especialmente estratégias de oferta modeladas como sistemas baseados em regras nebulosas. O objetivo é a aprendizagem das estratégias de oferta em leilões em modelos em que a base de conhecimento sofre evolução para melhorar o desempenho dos agentes atuando em um ambiente competitivo. Dados para aprendizagem e otimização das estratégias são raros em ambientes competitivos como os leilões. Introduzimos um modelo de sistema genético fuzzy (GFS) cujos operadores genéticos utilizam uma representação de tamanho variável do cromossomo e uma relação hierárquica estabelecida através do fitness dos indivíduos, em um esquema que explora e explota o espaço de busca ao longo das gerações. A evolução de estratégias de interação permite a descoberta de comportamentos dos agentes previamente desconhecidos e inesperados, permitindouma análise mais rica dos mecanismos de negociação e seu papel como protocolo de coordenação. A aplicação da abordagem proposta no mercado de energia elétrica permite a simulação destes mercados através da evolução de estratégias de oferta (bidding) em leilões de energia. A reestruturação destes mercados nas economias contemporâneas apresenta novos desafios e oportunidades...

Os quase-mercados na educação superior: dos improváveis mercados perfeitamente competitivos à imprescindível regulação do Estado; The quasi-markets in higher education: from the improbable perfectly competitive markets to the unavoidable State regulation

Bertolin, Julio Cesar G.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
Nas últimas duas décadas, organismos internacionais multilaterais e governos de diversos países incentivaram reformas na educação superior que geraram, principalmente, a expansão das redes de instituições privadas, a redução dos financiamentos públicos, a cobrança de mensalidades e a competição no provimento de serviços educacionais. Como consequência, observou-se o fenômeno da mercantilização, no qual o desenvolvimento dos fins e dos meios da educação superior, tanto no âmbito estatal como no privado, sofre uma reorientação de acordo com os princípios e a lógica do mercado, e sob o qual a educação, gradativa e progressivamente, perde o status de bem público e assume a condição de serviço comercial. O presente artigo aborda a emergência da lógica e de mecanismos de mercado no contexto da educação superior, tomando por base importantes conceitos econômicos tais como mercado competitivo, livre mercado, intervenção estatal, quase-mercados e falhas de mercado. São descritas e analisadas as ocorrências de imperfeições de competição, ou seja, as falhas de mercado geralmente presentes nos contextos da educação superior: bens públicos, externalidades positivas, poder de monopólio e informações assimétricas. Por fim...