Página 1 dos resultados de 3489 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Controle das parcerias entre o Estado e o terceiro setor pelos Tribunais de Contas; Control by the Audit Courts of partnerships involving the government and the third sector.

Schoenmaker, Janaina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
O escopo do presente trabalho consiste em examinar o controle pelos Tribunais de Contas sobre as parcerias celebradas entre o Estado e as entidades do terceiro setor envolvendo a gestão de recursos públicos. Procurou-se contextualizar o tema, abordando as novas facetas do Estado e a Administração Pública Consensual, bem como se apresentou noção de terceiro setor e suas atividades para fins de parceria. Abordou-se o fomento estatal, as espécies de transferências voluntárias de recursos públicos e os instrumentos de parceria, como convênios, contratos de repasse e de gestão e termos de parceria. Introduzindo-se a questão do controle pelos Tribunais de Contas das parcerias celebradas entre o Estado e o terceiro setor, foram examinados os seus fundamentos. Ainda, foram verificados os tipos de fiscalização, seus aspectos e as competências constitucionais do Tribunal de Contas da União aplicáveis sobre elas. Após, foram analisadas as iniciativas para o desencadeamento do controle e os momentos de incidência, examinando-se a legislação específica. O procedimento para a operacionalização do controle foi abordado sob a ótica do exercício das competências dos Tribunais de Contas sobre as citadas parcerias e organizações. Por fim...

Quando o negócio é punir: uma análise etnográfica dos juizados especiais criminais e suas sanções; When it comes to punishment: an ethnographie analysis of the Special Criminal Courts and their sanctions

Fullin, Carmen Silvia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Em diálogo com o contexto nacional e internacional de encarceramento em massa e de crise do sistema de justiça penal, os Juizados Especiais Criminais (Jecrims) surgem no Brasil com a dupla tarefa de em um contexto de redemocratização reduzir a complexidade no processamento de conflitos de pequena gravidade, sem deixar de puni-los ainda que levemente. Caracterizados por procedimentos de intervenção mais horizontalizados e flexíveis nos quais se estabelece, em tese, uma troca de interesses entre a justiça penal e as partes em conflito, em favor de uma resposta rápida para a vítima e menos dolorosa para o infrator, esse modo de fazer justiça tem sido chamado de justiça negocial. A partir da etnografia dos Juizados Especiais Criminais de São Bernardo do Campo, a pesquisa buscou compreender os sentidos de punição mobilizados nessas situações de negociação. Constatou-se que essas situações são influenciadas por processos de afirmação de identidades profissionais no campo da justiça, sobretudo a do promotor cujo protagonismo nessas cortes lhes confere uma dinâmica centrada na punição do infrator em detrimento da mediação do conflito. A abordagem etnográfica das audiências também permitiu verificar a predominância de um sistema de atribuição de sanções fortemente marcado por estratégias gestionárias...

Cortes supremas e sociedade civil na América Latina: estudo comparado Brasil, Argentina e Colômbia; Supreme Courts and civil society in Latin America: comparative study of Brazil, Argentina and Colombia

Cardoso, Evorah Lusci Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Cortes e sociedade civil na América Latina estão em transformação, assim como a sua relação. Casos de grande repercussão social, decisões judiciais que incidem sobre políticas públicas, concentração de efeitos das sentenças, mecanismos de deliberação dentro dos processos são fenômenos relacionados a essas transformações. A tese deste trabalho é de que tanto o desenho institucional das cortes influencia a mobilização social jurídica, quanto a presença de uma forte mobilização social em torno das cortes pode influenciar não só a sua agenda de casos, mas também o seu desenho institucional. E esta relação precisa ser estudada de modo dinâmico e funcional. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas com organizações não governamentais, think tanks, acadêmicos, magistrados e agência financiadora na Argentina, Brasil e Colômbia. É a narrativa comparada desses atores que oferece as variáveis de desenho institucional e mobilização social jurídica relevantes para compreender essas transformações. O trabalho, por fim, aponta para a necessidade de reformulação das agendas dos atores envolvidos sobre como pensar a inter-relação entre cortes e sociedade civil, tanto em termos de experimentação prática...

Report of the Native Courts (Northern Provinces) Commission of Inquiry

Nigeria -- Native Courts (Northern Provinces) Commission of Inquiry; Brooke, N. J ( Nevile John )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (190 pages) : ;
Publicado em // Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; Signed: N.J. Brooke, Commissioner.; At head of title: Nigeria.

Interim report on the impact of the work of the United Nations Human Rights Treaty bodies on national courts and tribunal

Byrnes, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 236544 bytes; 363 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
1. At the London Conference of the Association in 2000 the Executive Council approved the proposal of the Committee that the next stage of its work would be a study of the impact of the United Nations human rights treaty bodies established under the principal United Nations human rights treaties. The Committee had proposed that the initial stage of its project would be to focus primarily on the impact that the output of these bodies (in particular their “findings”) has had on the work of national courts and tribunals, with a view to examining subsequently the impact of the work of the treaty bodies in other contexts at the domestic level. 2. The principal purposes of the study are to document the extent to which the work of the treaty bodies had begun to have an impact on the work of national courts and tribunals, to identify the factors that contribute to the use by courts and tribunals of this material, and to encourage further utilisation of the international sources by courts, tribunals and advocates by disseminating information about how they were already being used. 3. This report is a preliminary survey of the use made by national courts and tribunals of the output of the treaty bodies.2 It does not purport to be an exhaustive study of the many instances in which national courts have referred to or drawn on the work of the treaty bodies...

Seeking the Political Role of the Third Government Branch: A comparative approach to high courts in Central America

MARTINEZ BARAHONA, Elena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Until recently, Courts were not an important component of political science research on Latin America. The quantity of research on the judiciary does not compare even remotely to the vast literature on others institutions. However, despite the relative inattention to their role, courts are institutions whose performance has concrete and relevant effects on the socio-political system. Indeed, Courts have currently emerged as active participants in the political process offering new opportunities to citizens, social movements, interest groups, and politicians. Focusing on three countries of Central America (Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Guatemala), this dissertation illustrates how far the political system in these countries is shaped in significant ways by the role of Courts as political institutions. Throughout a comparative approach, this study offers what may be the first cross-national analysis explicitly designed to serve as a comprehensive measure of the political role of High Courts.; Defence date: 22 January 2007; Examining board: Prof. Pilar Domingo (Universidad de Salamanca) ; Prof. Carlo Guarnieri (Università di Bologna) ; Prof. Donatella Della Porta (European University Institute) ; Prof. Philippe C. Schmitter (European University Institute)(Supervisor)

On the Need to Regulate Competing Jurisdictions between International Courts and Tribunals

LAVRANOS, Nikolaos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Competing jurisdiction is a relatively new but increasingly important phenomenon in international law. The ongoing proliferation of international courts and tribunals results in a multiplication of judgments and arbitral awards, which potentially conflict with each other. The case studies examined in this working paper illustrate the methods applied by various courts and tribunals to deal with competing jurisdictions. Since any formal hierarchy or coordination between the various international courts and tribunals is lacking, only soft law methods, such as the application of comity, in particular, the Solange method, appears to be a useful tool to deal with the negative effects associated with competing jurisdictions.

When Courts Manage: Judicial "Rowing" in Desegregation Governance

Christensen, Robert K.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Public Affairs, 2007; In this research I focus on courts in their roles as administrators and social policy actors. My research question is whether court administrative behavior alters policy outcomes. While Brown v. Board of Education researchers have typically explored the effectiveness of particular policy tools (e.g., busing, magnets, etc.), I focus here on the managerial and policy implications relative to how often and intensively courts use interventions. In other words, I focus on judicial administrative behavior as a possible, if partial, systematic explanation for judicial impact. Using panel data of approximately 125 school districts, my linear findings suggest that court interventions do manifest an impact on policy. However, nonlinear models suggest that the effect of judicial behavior is bounded by degree; extreme degrees on the adjudicative/political powerbroker continuum (see Diver, 1979) may not correspond with positive policy impact. The evidence from public school desegregation suggests that when one examines the question of degree, there are circumstances when judicial behavior closer by degrees to adjudication may be more effective than judicial behavior that is closer to political exchange. If...

Finding optimal design for constitutional courts: The perspective of democratization in post-soviet countries

MAZMANYAN, Armen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Defense date: 22/06/2009; Examining board: Ruth Rubio Marin (EUI), Wojciech Sadurski (Supervisor, EUI), Marek Safjan (University of Warsaw), András Sajo (European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg); The thesis undertakes an assessment of the institutional design of constitutional courts in postsoviet countries from the perspective of these courts' democratic contributions. After identifying the defects of the existing models frustrating a better democratic performance by these courts, the thesis proposes a perspective on their redesign. Although a variety of settings of institutional architecture of constitutional review courts is discussed throughout the text, the thesis primarily concentrates on two fundamental questions of the design of constitutional courts: 1. "political empowerment" of these courts or whether or not constitutional tribunals should have responsibilities of conflict resolving nature which de-facto involve them in partisan-type politics (such as the review of elections, jurisdictional conflicts between the separated branches of the government, impeachment cases, etc.), and 2. designation of a separate tribunal or the question whether or not the Kelsenian design of constitutional courts is optimal given the specific local challenges facing democracy and rule of law. As a point of departure...

Children's Socio-Economic Rights and the Courts: Evaluating an activist approach

NOLAN, Aoife
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Defence date: 28 October 2005; Examining board: Prof. Wojciech Sadurski, EUI (Supervisor) ; Prof. Carol Sanger, Columbia University (External Supervisor) ; Prof. Philip Alston, New York University ; Prof. Geraldine Van Bueren, Queen Mary/University of Cape Town; Despite the significant growth in academic interest in both children's rights and socio-economic rights over the last two decades, children's socio-economic rights are a comparatively neglected area. This is particularly true with regard to the role of the courts in the enforcement of such rights. Aoife Nolan's book remedies this omission, focussing on the circumstances in which the courts can and should give effect to the socio-economic rights of children. The arguments put forward are located within the context of, and develop, long-standing debates in constitutional law, democratic theory and human rights. The claims made by the author are supported and illustrated by concrete examples of judicial enforcement of children's socio-economic rights from a variety of jurisdictions. The work is thus rooted in both theory and practice. The author brings together and addresses a wide range of issues that have never previously been considered together in book form. These include children's socio-economic rights; children as citizens and their position in relation to democratic decision-making processes; the implications of children and their rights for democratic and constitutional theory; the role of the courts in ensuring the enforcement of children's rights; and the debates surrounding the litigation and adjudication of socio-economic rights. This dissertation thus represents a major original contribution to the existing scholarship in a range of areas including human rights...

Women in Papua New Guinea's village courts

Goddard, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 9 pages; 490769 bytes; 361 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Recently, claims have been made in academic literature that women are disadvantaged, or mistreated, in Papua New Guineas village courts. These claims have the common theme that the male-dominated courts, particularly in the highlands, apply custom or customary law which discriminates against women. Reviewing research-based studies, other literature and my own research findings, I suggest herein that, to the contrary, village courts are an important resource for aggrieved women with limited avenues for seeking justice and recompense. Village courts in PNG were established by the Village Courts Act of 1973, at the end of the colonial era. The legislation provided for magistrates, untrained in law, to be selected by the local community on the criteria of their integrity as adjudicators and good knowledge of local customs (Village Court Secretariat 1975: 1). Despite overwhelming support among Melanesian parliamentarians and progressive legal advisers for the establishment of village courts, there were fears among conservative jurists and other Europeans that these courts would be legally or otherwise corrupt and that village court officials ignorance of the law would result in the application of anachronistic customs. Consequently, when village courts began to be proclaimed in 1975 after a trial period...

The Juicio Ejecutivo Mercantil in the Federal District Courts of Mexico : A Study of the Uses and Users of Justice and Their Implications for Judicial Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The report reviews the research conducted in Mexico's Federal District courts on the summary debt collection proceedings - Juicio Ejecutivo Mercantil (JEM) - as a result of a specific request from the Government, to study the judiciary's impact on contract enforcement, as well as because of the Bank's assistance strategy, which emphasizes on supporting improved governance, and an enabling environment for private sector development. Following an introductory chapter, the second chapter briefly summarizes debates about judicial reform, and their political, theoretical, and empirical foundations, while chapter 3 discusses the objectives, and methodology of the study. Chapter 4 provides an overview of the Mexican judicial system, and Federal District courts. Starting with Chapter 5, the most important research findings are reported: it analyzes the users of the commercial justice. Interestingly, the principal parties to the proceedings are individuals, claims are relatively small, and, a 90 percent of those cases where a judgment is delivered...

Hybrid Justice in Vanuatu : The Island Courts

Goddard, Michael; Otto, Leisande
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Island courts have been in operation in Vanuatu since 1984. Official documents have hitherto provided little information on their practical operations or utility, and our preliminary research in 2010 found that not much was known at the state governance level about their real circumstances. In 2011, we conducted fieldwork research on five islands, Efate, Santo, Malekula, Epi, and Tanna, to provide better information on the practical operations of island courts and their use by ni-Vanuatu. The author found that although island courts have the potential to provide a valuable service to rural ni-Vanuatu, a number of problems must first be addressed. Their resources and support networks need to be improved and a regularity in these services guaranteed. Networking with other governance institutions (including nongovernmental organizations [NGOs]) at the local level in the provinces could be facilitated, as cooperation among these institutions would be beneficial to all of them. It will also be useful to nencourage the island courts to strengthen the flexibility and creativity that they are...

The Hybrid Courts of Melanesia : A Comparative Analysis of Village Courts of Papua New Guinea, Island Courts of Vanuatu, and Local Courts of Solomon Islands

Evans, Daniel; Goddard, Michael; Paterson, Don
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
This paper examines three systems of courts of justice, each in a different country in the region of South Pacific islands known as Melanesia, where state legal systems have been adopted from former European colonial governments. The systems discussed are, by comparison, 'hybrid', each of them having been established with the intention of addressing disputes among small-scale social groups by less formal means or by taking greater heed of customary forms of dispute resolution. The paper applies a comparative analysis of these systems, covering their distinct history and the variances in structure, funding, personnel and jurisdictional coverage that impact on their effectiveness as state-sanctioned courts. Conclusions are offered with observations about the strengths and weaknesses of these hybrid systems and their potential for development as instruments of community-owned justice in Melanesia.

Uses and Users of Justice in Africa : The Case of Ethiopia's Federal Courts

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This report presents the findings of one of a series of studies sponsored by the World Bank on the 'uses and users' of courts in the regions where it participates in justice reform projects. These studies typically use aggregate statistics and random samples of cases files to analyze court performance. The results of these studies are useful to countries and to the Bank in separating real from imagined problems, identifying their causes, planning reform programs, and tracking their results over time. Although in Africa court use is typically restricted to a small portion of the population, most donor funding goes to the formal court system and most countries are interested in expanding access to the latter. Hence, the studies can help evaluate those investments and point them in directions where they are likely to do the most good in advancing objectives like increased and more equitable access, delay reduction, and satisfactory resolution of common disputes. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in Africa and thus in the world. As in the rest of Africa...

Uses and Users of Justice in Africa : The Case of Ghana's Specialised Courts

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This research project involves the tracking of the progress of cases in Ghana's specialized courts. It seeks to provide data that are not usually available for a scientific assessment of the performance of the courts in Ghana. The project, therefore, captures information on the persons and institutions who use the courts in Ghana; what these claimants come to court for; the difficulties they encounter in the process; and the value added by recent court reforms in resolving these problems. Further analysis of this information is then used to make specific and targeted recommendations for improving overall adjudicatory effectiveness. The project is similar to other World Bank studies in many respects. It is premised on a general belief that, almost everywhere, courts struggle to deliver quick, effective, accessible, and efficient justice. The huge disconnect between intention and reality is due to a number of factors, namely, the cost of litigation-an issue which bears directly on access to justice; unprecedented delays in case processing; real and perceived corruption within the courts and increasing uncertainty associated with judges' rulings. Delays...

Reforming the Courts : The Role of Empirical Research

Hammergren, Linn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Working with local researchers, World Bank staff recently analyzed a random sample of cases filed in the first instance courts of Argentina and Mexico. (First instance or trial courts make the initial rulings on cases based on both facts and law. Higher instance or appeals courts are often restricted to questions of law and so may not reconsider the facts of a case.) The Mexico study was conducted in the Federal District, the largest of Mexico's 32 local and state jurisdictions, and reviewed 464 debt collection cases brought under a special procedure that provides for rapid dispute resolution. In Argentina a stratified sample of criminal, civil, and labor cases was drawn from trial courts in the national capital, Buenos Aires (600 cases), and in the province of Santa Fe (450 cases). In both countries the identities of the parties, the nature of the cases, the amounts at issue, the times to disposition, and other data from the case files were coded and analyzed. Aggregate statistics kept by the judiciary and information from interviews and focus groups were used to help interpret the case file findings. Both studies revealed that when it comes to the operation of Latin American justice systems...

Tribunais de contas : parceiros ou obstantes no processo brasileiro de desenvolvimento científico, tecnológico e de inovação?; Courts of audit : partners or despite of the brazilian process of scientific technology development and innovation?

Maristella Barros Ferreira de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Desde a construção do Sistema Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia entre as décadas de 1960 a 80, o Estado brasileiro tem buscado o seu fortalecimento a partir da Política Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação - PNCT&I. Integrando o Sistema Nacional de Inovação - SNI, o Poder Público busca cumprir o seu papel enfatizado na Constituição de 1988 (artigo 218), formulando leis e regulamentos, articulando os atores envolvidos ao financiar a pesquisa e o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico, e mantendo a infraestrutura de ensino, pesquisa e prestação de serviços tecnológicos. Nesse cenário, um novo ator ficou em evidência nas manifestações externalizadas no meio acadêmico e organizacional: os Tribunais de Contas, cujas atuações tem provocado preocupações das mais diversas naturezas no ambiente de CT&I brasileiro. Essa perspectiva leva a concluir que essas Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores - EFS, como parte do Poder Público, também integram o SNI, na medida em que o controle externo por elas exercido afeta o ambiente da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação - CT&I no Brasil. Em decorrência, surgiu a necessidade de investigar o assunto, tendo como objetivo principal conhecer de que maneira ocorre a influência dessa atuação na área de CT&I...

Domestic Courts and Global Governance: the Politics of Private International Law

Whytock, Christopher A.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1546426 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Since the mid-1980s, U.S. and foreign parties have filed more than 100,000 lawsuits in U.S. federal courts asking for adjudication of disputes arising from transnational activity. These lawsuits raise a fundamental question of global governance: Who governs? Should the United States assert its authority to adjudicate a transnational dispute, or should it defer to the adjudicative authority of a foreign state that also has connections with the underlying activity? Should the United States assert its authority to prescribe the rules governing that activity, or should it defer to foreign prescriptive authority? U.S. district courts routinely face these questions in transnational litigation, and by answering them they help allocate governance authority among states. To shed light on the role of domestic courts in global governance, this dissertation asks: How often and under what circumstances do U.S. district courts defer to foreign authority to govern transnational activity rather than asserting domestic authority? Drawing on private international law scholarship and theories of international relations, judicial behavior, and bounded rationality, I develop a series of hypotheses about the legal and political factors that influence judicial allocation of governance authority. I then statistically test these hypotheses using original data on U.S. district court decisionmaking in two transnational litigation settings: the allocation of adjudicative authority under the forum non conveniens doctrine...

Defending the absurd: the Iconoclast's guide to Section 47(1) of the Superior courts Act 10 of 2013

McCreath,H; Koen,R
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
This contribution was intended as a defence of section 25(1) of the Supreme Court Act 59 of 1959. However, the Supreme Court Act was repealed in August 2013 and replaced by the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013, and in the process section 25(1) of the former gave way to section 47(1) of the latter. Both sections concern the doctrine of leave to sue judges in South Africa. Both prescribe that any civil litigation against a judge requires the consent of the court out of which such litigation is to be launched. Both apply to civil suits against judges for damage caused by either their judicial or their non-judicial conduct. Although section 25(1) had been one of the more inconspicuous sections of the Supreme Court Act, it was contested on occasion. Both curial and extra-curial challenges to section 25(1) assailed its constitutionality, alleging essentially that its provisions violated the right of access to courts enshrined in section 34 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and that such violation did not meet the limitation criteria contained in section 36. It may be anticipated with considerable confidence, given its legal continuity with section 25(1), that any serious assault upon section 47(1) of the Superior Courts Act also will focus upon its relationship to section 34 of the Constitution. This contribution is a pre-emptive defence of section 47(1) of the Superior Courts Act and...