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Cartão de crédito - aspectos contratuais; Credit Card- Contractual aspects

Azevedo, Renato Olimpio Sette de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/06/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Apesar de ser uma criação recente, o cartão de crédito desponta como um dos mais utilizados meios de pagamento, além de instrumento de viabilização de crédito na sociedade atual. É diferenciação relevante a ser notada entre o cartão de crédito, peça plástica, e o sistema de cartão de crédito. Enquanto o primeiro se refere apenas ao documento de legitimação, ou seja, instrumento físico capaz de demonstrar uma relação existente entre o titular do cartão e o emissor, um dos contratos que integram o sistema, o segundo é o produto dos contratos coligados que possibilitam a concretização da operação. Além do contrato já indicado, o contrato entre fornecedor e emissor e o contrato entre fornecedor e titular formam, em um modelo básico, os contratos envolvidos na operação, coligados funcionalmente, ou seja, apesar de manter sua estrutura formal segmentada, formam um conjunto que viabiliza a operação. Os contratos envolvidos, apesar da tipicidade social, com a reiteração de contratações semelhantes, abrangendo os mesmos direitos e obrigações que identificam o modelo, são legalmente atípicos, já que as prestações envolvidas não permitem identificação com os tipos legais atualmente positivados nem assemelhação que permita aplicação das regras próprias daqueles...

Segmentação dos usuários de cartão de crédito por meio da análise de cesto de compras; Segmentation of credit card clients by market basket analysis

Tavares, Pedro Daniel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Esta dissertação de mestrado tem como objetivo, elaborar um modelo de segmentação baseando-se no comportamento comprovado de consumo de clientes, valendo-se das técnicas de Análise de Associação e Análise de Cesto de Compras, aplicadas aos dados das faturas de cartão de crédito dos clientes. A partir do modelo proposto, testou-se a previsibilidade das próximas transações dos clientes por meio de uma amostra de validação. A motivação desta pesquisa provém de três pilares: Contexto Científico, Tecnológico e Mercadológico. No Contexto Científico, apesar de já terem sido publicados artigos que associam a utilização do cartão de crédito a perfis de segmentação de clientes, não se encontram publicados estudos que relacionam dados da própria utilização do cartão como fonte de informação do cliente. A razão mais provável para isso é a dificuldade no levantamento dos dados fundamentais para este tipo de pesquisa. Com o apoio de uma grande instituição financeira, este trabalho está se tornando viável, sob o preceito da análise apenas sobre bases de clientes anônimos e que não transpareça informações estratégicas da instituição. No contexto tecnológico, com a tecnologia de informação em crescente desenvolvimento...

Credit Cards as Lifestyle Facilitators

Bernthal, Matthew J.; Crockett, David; Rose, Randall L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Credit cards are an increasingly essential technology, but they carry with them the paradoxical capacity to propel consumers along lifestyle trajectories of marketplace freedom or constraint. We analyze accounts provided by consumers, credit counselors, and participants in a credit counseling seminar in order to develop a differentiated theory of lifestyle facilitation through credit card practice. The skills and tastes expressed by credit card practice help distinguish between the lifestyles of those with higher cultural capital relative to those with lower cultural capital. Differences in lifestyle regulation practice are posited to originate in cultural discourses related to entitlement and frugality.

Macroprudential Stress Testing of Credit Risk : A Practical Approach for Policy Makers

Buncic, Daniel; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Drawing on the lessons from the global financial crisis and especially from its impact on the banking systems of Eastern Europe, the paper proposes a new practical approach to macroprudential stress testing. The proposed approach incorporates: (i) macroeconomic stress scenarios generated from both a country specific statistical model and historical cross-country crises experience; (ii) indirect credit risk due to foreign currency exposures of unhedged borrowers; (iii) varying underwriting practices across banks and their asset classes based on their relative aggressiveness of lending; (iv) higher correlations between the probability of default and the loss given default during stress periods; (v) a negative effect of lending concentration and residual loan maturity on unexpected losses; and (vi) the use of an economic risk weighted capital adequacy ratio as the relevant outcome indicator to measure the resilience of banks to materializing credit risk. The authors apply the proposed approach to a set of Eastern European banks and discuss the results.

Bank Lending to Small and Medium Enterprises : The Republic of Serbia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
This report presents findings of a study of Bank lending to small and medium enterprises (SME) in Serbia. The study uses methodology developed by the Bank and already used in a number of studies in South America. The study is based on answers to standard questionnaires and detailed on-site interviews with eight banks. The interviewed banks are the most active in SME lending in Serbia and account for about 70 percent of the total market. Banks are currently offering a fairly broad range of both tailored and standardized products and are increasingly flexible with product pricing. This includes checking, savings and time deposit accounts; export and import loans; overdrafts for working capital and investment loans; business credit cards; various types of payment services; Internet and phone banking. The report is organized as follows: section two describes the banking sector and markets in Serbia, reviews definition of SMEs and provides key characteristics of the SME finance market in Serbia. Section three discusses details of SME access to finance. It describes the drivers and obstacles...

Establishing a Sound Credit Reporting System: Perspective from Doing Business

Jiang, Nan; Christ, Catrice; Zand, Yasmin
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Credit registries and bureaus essential elements of the financial infrastructure enhance access to financial services. By sharing credit information, they help reduce information asymmetries, increase access to credit for small firms, improve borrower discipline, and support bank supervision and credit risk monitoring. This SmartLesson focuses on the Doing Business Getting Credit Credit Information index, which measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope, and accessibility of credit information available through a credit registry or bureau.

Credit Reporting Knowledge Guide

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This second edition of the Credit Reporting Knowledge Guide aims to support the dissemination of knowledge on best practices in credit reporting development, based on IFC s experience. The original Credit Bureau Knowledge Guide (2006) elaborated on the knowledge gained over several years of running the Global Credit Reporting Progra

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

Impact on workload at the Naval Postgraduate School due to the implementation of credit cards

Hleba, Theodore A., Jr.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 57 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
The purpose of this thesis is to determine the impact on workload redistribution resulting from the use of government credit cards at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Because workload requirements, particularly the Supply Department's, may have been redistributed across other departments at NPS, these will be identified and measured. Primary data on procurement cases was collected from the Comptroller's Department and the procurement branch of the Supply Department. Pre-credit card procedures (purchase orders, BPAs and the Imprest Fund) and related purchase action volume were identified and measured, as well as government credit card procurement procedures and related purchase action volume. The intent is to identify any workload requirements, such as technical screening, procurement and material receipt, which may have been redistributed as a result of using government credit cards.; NA; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

General Principles for Credit Reporting

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Debt and Creditworthiness Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Financial infrastructure broadly defined comprises the underlying foundation for a country's financial system. It includes all institutions, information, technologies, rules and standards that enable financial intermediation. Poor financial infrastructure in many developing countries poses a considerable constraint upon financial institutions to expand their offering of financial services to underserved segments of the population and the economy. It also creates risks which can threaten the stability of the financial system as a whole. This report describes the nature of credit reporting elements which are crucial for understanding credit reporting and to ensuring that credit reporting systems are safe, efficient and reliable. It intends to provide an international agreed framework in the form of international standards for credit reporting systems' policy and oversight. The Principles for credit reporting are deliberately expressed in a general way to ensure that they can be useful in all countries and that they will be durable. These principles are not intended for use as a blueprint for the design or operation of any specific system...

Informality among Formal Firms : Firm-level, Cross-country Evidence on tax Compliance and Access to Credit

Gatti, Roberta; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
The authors use firm-level, cross-county data from Investment Climate surveys in 49 developing countries to investigate an important channel through which informality can affect productivity: access to credit and external finance. Informality is measured as self-reported lack of tax compliance in a sample of registered firms that also answered questions on a large set of other characteristics. The authors find that more tax compliance is significantly associated with more access to credit both in OLS and in country fixed effects estimates. In particular, the link between credit and formality is stronger in high-formality countries. This suggests that firms' balance sheets are relatively more informative for financial institutions in environments where signal extraction is a less noisy process. The authors' results are robust to the inclusion of a wide array of correlates and to two-stage estimation.

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Republic of Poland - Credit, Growth, and Financial Stability

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Two main issues at the interface between economic growth and financial stability are germane to this year's article four consultation and the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update: the first is why the recent pace of financial catching-up has been so much slower in Poland than in its regional peers, and whether this might hamper Poland's long-term economic prospects; and the second question is how significant the prudential risks associated with rapid growth in housing loans are. The chapter is organized as follows: section II.B discusses credit developments in the last decade and factors driving these developments and assesses implications for economic growth. Section II.C examines reasons for rapid growth of foreign currency lending and implications for financial stability. Section II.D (and appendix) review cross-country experiences with policy responses to rapid credit growth of foreign currency credit and discuss recent policy measures taken in Poland. Section II.E concludes the chapter.

Public Credit Registries as a Tool for Bank Regulation and Supervision

Girault, Matias Gutierrez; Hwang, Jane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This paper is about the importance of the information in Public Credit Registries (PCRs) for supporting and improving banking sector regulation and supervision, particularly in the light of the new approach embodied in Basel III. Against the backdrop of the financial crisis and the existence of information data gaps, the importance of complete, accurate and timely credit information in the financial system is evident. Both in normal times and during crises, authorities need a device that allows them to look at the universe of credits in a detailed and readily way. And more importantly, they need to develop tools that exploit as much as possible the information therein contained. PCR databases contain individual credit information on borrowers and their credits which makes it possible to implement advanced techniques that measure banks' credit risk exposure. It allows optimizing the prudential regulation ensuring that provisioning and capital requirements are properly calibrated to cover expected and unexpected losses respectively. It also permits validating banks' internal rating systems...

Las Tarjetas de Crédito en Colombia; Credit Cards in Colombia

Sánchez González, Pedro P.; García Carvajal, Santiago
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Estudios a Distancia; Especialización en Alta Gerencia Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Estudios a Distancia; Especialización en Alta Gerencia
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.93%
Las tarjetas de crédito en Colombia vienen desarrollándose cada vez más de acuerdo con el buen entorno económico presentado y condiciones de mercado que son favorables. Este producto se viene adecuando a las necesidades del consumidor en demanda de financiación lo que lleva a que en la actualidad sea uno de los medios de pago de mayor utilización en nuestra economía, imprimiendo dinámica al comercio nacional y generando rentabilidad para las entidades financieras y establecimientos de crédito. Este buen desempeño ha llevado a la entrada de nuevos competidores a la industria que hacen del ejercicio comercial y de administración de la categoría de Tarjeta de Crédito una actividad cada vez más competida y que requiere analizar los comportamientos e identificar las oportunidades para el sector. El análisis del presente trabajo parte de la información histórica oficial reportada a la Superintendencia Financiera de Colombia a través de la descripción exploratoria de las principales variables de reporte en Tarjetas Vigentes, Tarjetas Canceladas, Tarjetas totales en Stock y Cartera total del producto Tarjeta de Crédito. Se elabora la Matriz de Boston Consulting Group BCG con el fin de describir la posición de cada una de las entidades financieras analizadas frente a la participación relativa de cuota de mercado y el crecimiento anual presentado...

Credit card risk behavior on college campuses: evidence from Brazil

Mendes-Da-Silva,Wesley; Nakamura,Wilson Toshiro; Moraes,Daniel Carrasqueira de
Fonte: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Publicador: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.84%
College students frequently show they have little skill when it comes to using a credit card in a responsible manner. This article deals with this issue in an emerging market and in a pioneering manner. University students (n = 769) in São Paulo, Brazil's main financial center, replied to a questionnaire about their credit card use habits. Using Logit models, associations were discovered between personal characteristics and credit card use habits that involve financially risky behavior. The main results were: (a) a larger number of credit cards increases the probability of risky behavior; (b) students who alleged they knew what interest rates the card administrators were charging were less inclined to engage in risky behavior. The results are of interest to the financial industry, to university managers and to policy makers. This article points to the advisability, indeed necessity, of providing students with information about the use of financial products (notably credit cards) bearing in mind the high interest rates which their users are charged. The findings regarding student behavior in the use of credit cards in emerging economies are both significant and relevant. Furthermore, financial literature, while recognizing the importance of the topic...

Credit cards on campus: Academic inquiry, objective empiricism, or advocacy research?

Manning, Robert; Kirshak, Ray
Fonte: Journal of Financial Aid Publicador: Journal of Financial Aid
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
Professors John M. Barron and Michael E. Staten's article in Vol. 34, N. 3 of the Journal of Student Financial Aid, "Usage of Credit Cards Received through College Student Marketing Programs," purports to "provide benchmark measures of college student credit card usage" (p. 7). Based on empirical analysis of proprietary industry data, they conclude that "There is no evidence... that young adults who received credit cards through student-marketing programs are misusing cards so frequently as to warrant singling them out as a group for special protections from marketing solicitations" (p. 25). Their key assertions, which portray on-campus credit card marketing campaigns and rising student debt levels as relatively benign trends that merely mirror patterns of older adults, contrast sharply with a growing body of academic research on this topic. Accordingly, the central question of this essay is whether the authors' conclusions are based on a through examination of the numerous empirical research studies on this important topic. If such a thorough review of literature was not referenced, then questions could be raised regarding the value of this effort and the intellectual credibility of the conclusions offered by the authors. Indeed, we believe that it is imperative to examine the systematic flaws of this study in order to better inform the higher credit card debt.

Creating the consumer: Credit cards & the role of design & advertising

Jung, Yasmin
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.78%
The ideas and messages we as image makers communicate have a potential to reach millions of people, and as professionals we need to be aware of both the positive and negative consequences of the work we do. What are we as designers, photographers, and other creative professionals contributing with our work? Are we educating, informing, or simply manipulating? Ideally, ethics, education, and a certain sense of responsibility are integrated into each of our endeavors, but those things are often neglected for the sake of personal gain and prestige, and the goals of a client. Everyday, no matter where we turn, advertisements encourage us to buy, buy, buy. They create an artificial ideal of what we need in order to be happy, deliberately and systematically preying upon our hopes and fears for another dollar. We as a society have become so accustomed to these messages that we no longer question them. As the art director George Lois once said, "...advertising is a twentieth century love potion; it arouses wants beyond means, it invites extreme consumption, it conjures a material paradise as life's goal."(Lois and Pitts, p. 324) Wants and needs have become indecipherable as a result of advertising, which manipulates us into believing that success is defined by the number of things we own...

A Study of Consumer Acceptance of a No-Loss Credit Card Verification System

Arlidge, Dean
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.97%
This research study focuses upon Credit Cards and a proposed verification method to reduce the risk of fraudulent use. It is anticipated that the proliferation and growing use of credit cards will require the use of security concepts offering built-in point of use protection that is automatic and reliable. A suggested concept is the use of a combined electronic credit card and a memory device. The proposed verification technique combines a user electronic credit card and memory number along with a simple imprinter which would be operated by the person accepting the credit card. Credit cards have become a widely accepted instrument of credit in the United States, and are a prime mover in the trend toward a "cashless society". It is estimated that there are 300 million cards in use today; growing at a rate of about 20 percent per year. Their increased usage and acceptance portends considerable change in credit instruments of many segments of the business world. It is also anticipated that the problem of theft and unauthorized use will increase in proportion equal to or greater than the card growth. Thus, credit card user verification will become a most important factor in the trend toward a cashless society. In anticipation of the credit card user verification problem...

Desafios e oportunidades no setor de cartões de crédito: proposição de estratégias para o mercado popular; Challenges and opportunities for credit cards: strategies for low-income markets

Spers, Renata Giovinazzo; Wright, James Terence Coulter; Cheruti, Alexandre; Pinto, Bernardo Jacques Vieira; Fonseca, Glauber; Lima, Marcelo de Moraes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
O mercado de baixa renda no Brasil apresenta grandes oportunidades para empresas do setor de cartões de crédito com foco em serviços de qualidade, mas por valores compatíveis à renda e necessidades específicas desse segmento. O objetivo central do trabalho é analisar os aspectos críticos e oportunidades para os cartões de crédito no mercado de baixa renda, com a proposição de uma abordagem para aumentar a penetração do produto neste segmento. Para tanto, foram identificadas oito variáveis a partir da literatura e realizadas pesquisa qualitativa com análise documental e entrevistas em profundidade com especialistas do setor de cartões. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que as empresas devem adotar estratégias para ganhar vantagem competitiva com preços mais baixos, reduzindo custos ao reduzir serviços não relevantes para o segmento. É recomendável que a empresa utilize a mesma marca oferecida às classes A e B e aposte em tecnologia e distribuição aliadas às redes de varejo, para uma maior penetração dos cartões.; The low-income market in Brazil presents great opportunities for companies including the credit card sector. Bottom-of-the-pyramid customers look for quality which is, however, compatible with their budgets and needs. For this purpose an analysis was made of the critical aspects and opportunities in question. Literature disclosed eight factors that were analyzed in a qualitative survey and with in depth interviews. Variables relevant to business profitability in general were also presented. Results disclosed the possibility of competitive pricing advantages by offering simpler services and lower cost products. Brands offered to higher income brackets should be adapted with technologies for simplification and more attractive pricing. Partnerships should then be made with retail store networks to increase the use of credit cards.

Cartões de crédito no setor de turismo

Brigagão, Antônio de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Describes the beginning and the evolution of credit cards, giving some data of it's growth in the North American market. Puts in relief the touristic segment of credit cards, now in expansion, analizing: advantages and easyness for enterprises and suppliers, as for tourists; Credicard's SA performance in terms of programmed actions to increase it's space in the touristic segment.; Relata o início e a evolução dos cartões de crédito, descrevendo alguns dados do seu crescimento no mercado norte-americano. Destaca o segmento turístico dos cartões de crédito, atualmente em expansão, analisando: vantagens e comodidades tanto para as empresas e fornecedores, quanto para os próprios turistas: atuação da Credicard S.A., em termos de ações programadas para ampliar o seu cspaço no segmento turístico.