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‘Eventful cities’ and cities of events – medieval events in Portugal – a comprehensive study

Delgado, Carla Alexandra Pereira Fernandes
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
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36.69%
Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Marketing e Promoção Turística apresentado à ESTM - Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria.; As tourism is a revenue source that lies in both motivations and experiences that arouses and facilitates is will not be unusual to say that authenticity is the reason why a destination endures and resists. Cultural tourism has been growing and developing as a resource for economic growth aiming the sustainability of the places and cities that host it. Few are the cities nowadays that do not bet in the creation of attractive events, sometimes similar to other events sometimes completely innovative, but that are capable to ensure a big touristic presence and that allow the city to be a part of an eventual imaginary tourist route, for those who seek the so called genuine and authentic cultural experiences. The concept “eventful cities” yet new in Portugal is being used in other cities around the world and it has been studied by them, so that each city is capable of developing an authentic event portfolio as a touristic decoy, as well as a thrust activator of economic and social sustainability both local and regionally. This thesis aims, above all...

American cities, global networks: mapping the multiple geographies of globalization in the Americas

Toly,Noah; Bouteligier,Sofie; Smith,Graham; Gibson,Ben
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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The mapping of advanced producer and financial service firms across global cities began to increase understanding of the role of cities in global governance, the presence and influence of cities in the shifting architecture of global political economy, and the role of globalization in shaping the landscape of local and regional governance. The literature that emerged from such studies has also emphasized 1) increasing levels of inequality in global cities and 2) attendant contests over local outcomes of globalization while seeking other ways of measuring and articulating the emergence of globalizing cities. Analyzing location strategies in other sectors can speak to these issues. This paper extends methodology common to the global cities literature to map non-governmental organization (NGO) and energy corporation offices in the Americas, focusing on the convergence and divergence of these networks with those of advanced producer and financial services firms. Mapping all three sectors might reveal multiple geographies of globalization in the Americas. Because globalizing cities have become the centers of integrated world capital, radical poverty, and environmental injustice, studies of poverty in the Americas must take seriously the urban centers that increasingly have become the hub of economic and ideological flows. The urban location strategies of advanced producer and financial services...

Cities in a Globalizing World : Governance, Performance, and Sustainability

Léautier, Frannie
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This book contributes to the empirical and theoretical analysis of the performance of cities in a globalizing world, bringing together a range of perspectives on the policy implications for urban management. It provides guidance for policymakers on ways of capitalizing on the global economy that will make the most of the cities resources and managerial infrastructure as well as guiding investment and policy for the future. The book provides examples of how conflicts can be managed between individual and collective interests, such as the extensive environmental and social consultation undertaken in the planning and implementation of the Jamuna Bridge in Bangladesh, which now joins cities that had never seen daily connection between people in markets. The authors present empirical evidence that suggests that good governance and globalization tend to improve city-level performance in both the access to services as well as the quality of delivery of services which allows cities to translate global opportunity into local value for their citizens. This research also raises difficult questions of causality: does more globalization cause better governance...

Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters

Wu, Weiping
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The author focuses on how urban policies and the clustering of creative industries has influenced urban outcomes. The set of creative industries include those with output protectable under some form of intellectual property law. More specifically, this sub-sector encompasses software, multimedia, video games, industrial design, fashion, publishing, and research and development. The cities that form the basis for the empirical investigations are those where policy-induced transitions have been most evident, including Boston; San Francisco; San Diego; Seattle; Austin; Washington, D.C.; Dublin (Ireland); Hong Kong (China); and Bangalore (India). The key research questions are: 1) What types of cities are creative? 2) What locational factors are essential? 3) What are the common urban policy initiatives used by creative cities? The author explores the importance of the external environment for innovation and places it in the larger context of national innovation systems. Based on a study of development in Boston and San Diego, he isolates the factors and policies that have contributed to the local clustering of particular creative industries. In both cities, universities have played a major role in catalyzing the local economy by generating cutting-edge research findings...

Cities as Drivers of Growth along the Silk Road

Coulibaly, Souleymane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.71%
Major events have reshaped the internal population flows of Eurasia, including the breakup of the Soviet Union, the development of market economies, and the rising influence of regional powers. Looking ahead, policy makers need to promote reforms to make Eurasian cities the main drivers of growth. This can be done by rethinking strategies to better plan, connect, and green the region s important urban centers. Improved planning means promoting policies to develop land and housing markets and enhance public service delivery. Greening Eurasian cities refers to ensuring their sustainable development through strong markets and institutions that encourage the efficient use of resources, address pollution, and build livable cities. To appropriately fund these needed changes, subnational finances will have to be reformed and new ways to finance cross-country connectivity explored.

Climate-resilient, Climate-friendly World Heritage Cities

Bigio, Anthony Gad; Ochoa, Maria Catalina; Amirtahmasebi, Rana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.69%
While the negative impacts of climate change on urban areas are well-known and widely discussed, its implicit impacts on historic downtowns have not been studied as extensively. In recent years, cultural heritage conservation and valorization have increasingly become drivers of local economic development. Many projects supported by the World Bank in this field help leverage cultural heritage for economic development while developing infrastructure and services for residents and enhancing the livability of cities. The World Bank has also been very active in addressing climate change risks and increasing resiliency of urban areas. This paper is an effort to merge these two critical agendas. The paper investigates the impacts of climate change on 237 world heritage cities (WHC) and provides an overview of the geographic distribution of these cities around the globe. It discusses the importance of historic downtowns and provides various options available to the governments of these cities to address risk mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Further...

Inclusive Heritage-Based City Development Program in India

World Bank Group; Cities Alliance
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.74%
This report summarizes the motivation, objectives, methodology, results and lessons learned from the design and implementation of the Demonstration Program on Inclusive Heritage-based City Development in India. The development objective of this program is to test an inclusive heritage-based approach to city development planning in three pilot cities with a focus on learning and future expansion. The pilot cities include a metropolis (Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh), a medium-size city (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh) and a small city (Ajmer-Pushkar, Rajasthan). The pilot cities have been selected on the basis of population, living standards in historic areas, heritage value and reform orientation. These cities represent India s diversity in terms of settlements as well as social and cultural heritage, and provide scope for customizing the tested planning instruments, specific institutional and financial arrangements and methods at an early stage. An initial activity is the first phase of a larger program aimed at providing national policy makers...

Boosting Tech Innovation Ecosystems in Cities; A Framework for Growth and Sustainability of Urban Tech Innovation Ecosystems

Mulas, Victor; Minges, Michael; Applebaum, Hallie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.69%
Cities are emerging as hubs of technological innovation. This is characterized by an ongoing shift from technology parks in suburban areas, to entrepreneurial activity within cities. There is a global trend of startups in cities like Berlin, Buenos Aires, Mumbai and Madrid. The rise of technology startups in cities is leading to new sources of employment and economic growth, by creation of new businesses and employment categories. Traditional manufacturing and routine cognitive skills jobs are being eroded, and the creation of new sources of employment and growth is vital to maintain competitiveness, reduce poverty, and increase shared prosperity. The growth of tech innovation and entrepreneurship is not equal in all cities. Some cities experience higher, faster, and more sustainable growth than others. This paper discusses research on what factors make tech innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystems grow faster and larger in some cities. The findings point out that the social dimension, or the interpersonal connections and communities...

Sustaining Australian cities

Varrall, Suzanne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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36.75%
Sustainability has emerged as a major international concern over the past two decades. The complexity of the topic has prompted a vast and varied body of work, comprising three major approaches. Most dominant is the economic paradigm, which has tended to overshadow the ecological and socio-cultural approaches. To a certain extent, this has resulted in the lack of a shared understanding of what sustainability means. However, a common thread that can be identified throughout the mainstream literature describes sustainability as the integration the environment, the economy, and society, now and in the future. The focus of this report is on Australian cities, and their performance towards a more sustainable future. Cities occupy a unique position within the sustainability matrix due to the fact that they tend to concentrate the worst excesses of environmental degradation, economic hardship and social dislocation. Around 60 percent of Australians live in cities, and the trend towards increased urbanisation is continuing. This makes cities an important site for the pursuit of sustainability. Around the world, and within Australia, cities can vary greatly, in terms of population, geography and identity. This provides a serious challenge to any potential nation-wide...

The Great Recession and the Future of Cities

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Morrill, Curtis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.71%
This paper describes the serious fiscal crisis faced by cities around the world following the Great Recession of 2008. Five years later, the after-effects of this major crisis continue to be felt and limit economic opportunities in cities. Section 1 summarizes how the crisis was triggered and how it unfolded in the US, then spread to the rest of world -- highlighting the links between financial sector and housing sector. Section 2 discusses the impact of the crisis on urban revenue and expenditure, and the stimulus programs and recovery plans devised as a short term response by cities around the world. Section 3 then discusses longer term strategies to ensure the financial, social and environmental sustainability of cities. The authors make the point -- and back up our assertions with specific examples -- that urban decision-makers must take a long view and find ways to create opportunities for their citizens, making sure that their decisions are financially sustainable in the long term. Today's decisions should not lock cities out of options tomorrow...

Transforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda : A Secondary Cities Support Programme

Cities Alliance
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.8%
This report describes theTransforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda. A Secondary Cities Support Program (TSUPU), is the first national initiative within the Cities Alliance's global programme, Land, Services and Citizenship for the Urban Poor (LSC). The first premise of the Medium Term Strategy is that the Cities Alliance should prioritise working with those governments already committed to change and reform over time for three main reasons: the Cities Alliance support will have a far greater impact, and the opportunities for learning and knowledge sharing will be greatly enhanced, and the model or example to other cities or countries will be more emphatic. Based on this, a program has been designed to support a selected group of developing countries who have recognized the importance of dealing with the challenge of rapid urbanisation, growing cities and deepening urban poverty. The report outlines the activities the TSUPU has designed, that will help the Ugandan government to identify and capture the positive elements of urbanisation...

Rethinking the Form and Function of Cities in Post-Soviet Countries

Coulibaly, Souleymane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Eurasian cities, unique in the global spatial landscape, were part of the world's largest experiment in urban development. The challenges they now face because of their history offer valuable lessons to urban planners and policymakers across the world from places that are still urbanizing to those already urbanized. Today, Eurasian cities must respond to three big changes: the breakup of the Soviet Union, the return of the market as the driving force of society, and the emergence of regional powers such as the European Union, China, and India that are competing with the Russian Federation for markets and influence in its former satellites. Several methods of analysis indicate an imbalance across Eurasia, implying a need to readjust Eurasia's urban structure. National policies in Eurasia are still preoccupied with spatial equity. But the concentration of economic activity in large cities is fundamental to national competitive advantage: they foster innovation through their diversity of industries -- and reduce production costs through their economies of scale. This paper suggests some ideas on how policymakers can harness the economic power of cities to drive national economic development...

Cities of Hope? Governance, Economic, and Human Challenges of Kenya's Five Largest Cities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
After many decades of stagnation, Kenyan economy started to grow from the early-2000s. Much of this growth has been attributed to total factor productivity improvements in Kenyan economy arising out of many factors. A large share of this growth originated in urban areas, in the service and manufacturing sectors. These gains also paralleled reduction in poverty and higher enrolment in primary education. Yet, it has been argued that Kenyan cities, especially Nairobi, are not realizing their potential to contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. Rapid urbanization has left Kenyan cities with huge backlogs in critical infrastructure and basic services, resulting in sprawling, overcrowded and impoverished informal settlements. The management of these cities has been dogged by fragmentation in responsibilities, lack of accountability at the local level, and weak capacities of key institutions. Within 20 years or so, the majority of the Kenyan population are expected be living in urban areas. This scale of urbanization will pose further socio-economic...

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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46.47%
This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

Making Spatial Change in Pakistan Cities Growth Enhancing

Yuen, Belinda; Choi, Songsu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Cities' development matters to Pakistan. It is central to economic growth, job creation and quality of life. This is also one of the core themes in the 2011 Government of Pakistan Framework for Economic Growth (FEG). This paper explores the conditions for growth-enhancing spatial change in Pakistan s cities. Cities' development matters to Pakistan. Two strands of analysis are developed. First, it reviews the performance and impact of land use planning in Pakistan's cities while understanding the institutional culture and rules of the game of urban development practices. Given limited availability of urban data, much of this analysis is based on Pakistan's most urbanized province: Punjab, and large cities, primarily Lahore and Karachi. Second, it uses meta-analysis to suggest an agenda of policy options and priorities that could strengthen Pakistan's prudent implementation of spatial potentials and help materialize its cities' creative capital.Following the introduction the paper examines the critical role cities have in Pakistan's economy and development performance. It provides an analysis of Pakistan's current approach to urban development...

Alcances y desafíos del proceso de hermanamiento “Sister Cities" desarrollado por la ciudad de Santa Marta en el marco de su proceso de internacionalización: 1978- 2013.

Figueroa, Michelle
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
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La evolución de los enfoques de la cooperación internacional y de los procesos de internacionalización de las ciudades han contribuido activamente al desarrollo territorial. Los hermanamientos como una herramienta clave para el intercambio social, político, económico, técnico y académico entre ciudades, se han convertido en uno de los métodos más utilizados para el accionar internacional. Bajo ese contexto, se analizará la influencia del proceso de internacionalización de Santa Marta en la implementación del hermanamiento “Sister Cities” con Miami Beach. Lo anterior, pretende demostrar que el proceso de internacionalización de la ciudad de Santa Marta, desde 1989 hasta la actualidad, ha influido directamente en el hermanamiento entre las dos ciudades, obviando oportunidades y beneficios. Finalmente, a partir del resultado de la investigación se sugerirá una alternativa de solución para la optimización del acuerdo entre las dos ciudades.; The changes in the approaches of international cooperation and the internationalization of cities have actively contributed to territorial development. Sister Cities relationships as an international tool to convey social, political, economical, technical and academic exchange between cities...

Competitive Cities for Jobs and Growth; What, Who, and How

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
A competitive city is a city that successfully facilitates its firms and industries to create jobs, raise productivity, and increase the incomes of citizens over time. Worldwide, improving the competitiveness of cities is a pathway to eliminating extreme poverty and to promoting shared prosperity. The primary source of job creation has been the growth of private sector firms, which have typically accounted for around 75 percent of job creation. Thus city leaders need to be familiar with the factors that help to attract, to retain, and to expand the private sector. This document aims to analyze what makes a city competitive and how more cities can become competitive.

Amazonian Cities: Perspectives on Economic Surges; Cidades Amazônicas: Surtos Econômicos e Perspectivas

Becker, Bertha Koiffmann; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Fonte: Programa de Pós Graduação em Geografia - UFRJ Publicador: Programa de Pós Graduação em Geografia - UFRJ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2013 Português
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Results from investigations on Amazonian cities are presented in five articleswhich appear in this number. Taken together we try to demonstrate the crucial role of cities in frontier regional planning over time. Even if not always explicit in my research, the articulation of Amazonian cities to regional development has been a constant theme in my studies. Recent research applies the theory of growth surges of cities to specific empirical studies of six Amazonian cities: Manaus, Belém, Rio Branco, Santarém, Parintins e Imperatriz. The study of each of these cities was undertaken by different researchers of the Laboratório de Gestão do Território of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, who participated in a CNPq project. Except for Belém economic and growth surges of the other major historical cities of the Amazon are treated separately in the articles which follow. This introduction provides the theoretical basis of the studies and the rise of cities in the colonial period.; Apresentamos a investigação sobre cidades na Amazônia, reforçando o papel ea importância das cidades no planejamento regional da fronteira e através da história da região. Mesmo que não explícitas em pesquisas específicas, as cidades sempre estiveram presentes em nossos estudos e recentemente novas oportunidades fizeram com que retomássemos o estudo de cidades articulando-as ao desenvolvimento da Amazônia. As novas pesquisas introduzem a teoria de surtos das cidades aplicada a estudos empíricos específicos sobre seis cidades...

Going green: how cities are leading the next economy

Fonte: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
Going Green: How cities are leading the next economy is the concluding report of our major global survey of 90 city governments and a case study analysis of innovative green strategies in eight cities. The survey was conducted by LSE Cities, ICLEI – local governments for sustainability and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), in order to closely analyse the strengths and weaknesses of cities as key contributors to the emerging green economy. Previous editions of this report were prepared for the Rio+20 summit in June 2012 and for the Global Green Growth Forum in Copenhagen in October 2012. Going Green offers a fresh perspective on the environmental challenges that cities face, along with the opportunities and barriers to going green and fostering economic growth. The survey covers key aspects of green policies and the green economy, smart city technology, green policy assessment and urban governance. It provides a comprehensive overview of the experiences of cities around the world as they make the transition to a green economy. This final report includes a new section featuring findings on cities’ policy approaches across six sectors: land-use, transport, buildings, energy, waste, and water. These results allow for comparison of policy tools and successes between sectors...

Innovation in Europe's cities: a report by LSE Cities on Bloomberg Philanthropies' 2014 Mayors Challenge

Burdett, Ricky; Griffiths, Peter; Heeckt, Catarina; Moss, Francis; Vahidy, Shan; Rode, Philipp; Travers, Tony
Fonte: LSE Cities Publicador: LSE Cities
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Innovation in European Cities sets out the context for Bloomberg Philanthropies’ European Mayors Challenge. It gives an overview of the key themes facing European cities today and provides an independent analysis of the 155 submissions to the award and a detailed review of the five winning proposals. Throughout 2014, researchers from LSE Cities provided input to Bloomberg Philanthropies on the political and demographic make-up of selected European cities, and carried out an objective assessment of the level of innovation shown by the shortlisted proposals. In writing this report, LSE Cities also interviewed representatives from the winning cities. The report draws on this work as well as research on the social, economic and political dynamics of cities at a global and European level, a wider lens through which to better view and understand the themes uncovered by the European Mayors Challenge. The report is organised into four parts. The first offers an overview of global dynamics in an urban age, the second identifies the key themes addressed by the submissions for the award and the third focuses on the five winning proposals. The report concludes by offering a series of reflections on what the European Mayors Challenge tells us about some of the key issues facing city governments across Europe today...