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Da decisão por eqüidade na arbitragem comercial internacional; Decisions ex aequo et bono in international commercial arbitration

Della Valle, Martim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2009 Português
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46.2%
A eqüidade é um termo polissêmico e comporta diversas definições. Nesta obra, estudam-se as decisões por eqüidade na arbitragem comercial internacional e não a eqüidade em todos seus aspectos. Trata-se da função substitutiva da eqüidade. A decisão por eqüidade na arbitragem apresenta-se como uma técnica: uma forma de decidir sem que haja remissão necessária ao direito positivo. Sua característica principal é a liberdade de método decisório. Seu principal efeito é a possibilidade de derrogar o direito positivo, dentro dos limites da ordem pública. Ela qualifica-se, do ponto de vista positivo, como uma técnica de decisão; do ponto de vista negativo, como uma abdicação do julgamento conforme regras de direito. Em termos históricos, a decisão por eqüidade na arbitragem existe desde pelo menos a Grécia antiga. Desde então, ela sobrevive na tradição jurídica ocidental. Nos dias atuais, ela é encontrada na imensa maioria dos ordenamentos. Boa parte de sua disciplina atual no mundo decorre do movimento de reforma das legislações nacionais ocorrido nas últimas décadas, que teve na Lei Modelo da CNUDCI uma importante fonte de inspiração. A arbitragem por eqüidade é uma espécie do gênero arbitragem. Embora possua diversas denominação no mundo...

O direito concursal das sociedades cooperativas e a lei de recuperação de empresas e falência; Cooperative bankrupty system and the Brazilian bankruptcy law

Maffioletti, Emanuelle Urbano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2010 Português
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46.11%
A tese parte da análise jurídica do concurso das sociedades cooperativas para abordar as disciplinas concursais de insolvência civil, recuperação de empresas e falência, bem como as normas de liquidação aplicáveis às cooperativas no direito brasileiro e comparado. O direito concursal hodierno dispõe de mecanismos recuperativos em caso de crise financeira, e liquidatórios, com normas que primam pela eficiência dos institutos do direito concursal e pela continuação da atividade produtiva, com o fim de beneficiar o credor, devedor e a coletividade. Tende-se a adotar o princípio de unidade legal, de sistema e de disciplina, com pressuposto subjetivo unificado, abrangendo todos os devedores, inclusive as sociedades cooperativas, que quando organizadas como empresas são empresárias de economia social, com natureza jurídica e estrutura que beneficiam a coletividade. O Brasil não adota o princípio da unidade, nem reconhece as sociedades cooperativas como empresas, com a exclusão das cooperativas da lei de recuperação e falências, o que fere as orientações internacionais de incentivo e de tratamento não discriminatório às sociedades cooperativas e surge como mais um obstáculo ao seu desenvolvimento no Brasil. Este estudo teórico-descritivo subdivide-se em três capítulos: o primeiro aborda a doutrina e a normativa do direito concursal com enfoque na sociedade cooperativa...

Deveres e responsabilidades dos administradores de sociedade anônima: estudo comparado com o direito norte-americano; Brazilian corporation directors‟ and officers‟ duties: a comparative study with north american law

Bugs, Gabriel Tórgo Torres
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O presente trabalho faz uma análise comparativa dos deveres e responsabilidades dos administradores da sociedade anônima, buscando no conteúdo da Lei 6.404/76 (Sociedades por ações) verificar a influência do Direito norte-americano em nossa lei.; The present paper makes a comparative analysis of corporations‟ directors and officers duties, focusing on Brazilian corporate act (6404/76 Act), in order to verify North American Law influence over Brazilian‟s corporate act.

Meeting of the Minds: The Franco-American Origins of Modern Comparative Law, 1900-1940

Penfold, Ward Alexander
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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66.3%
This dissertation traces the development of a modern approach to comparative law that arose out of the fin-de-siècle critique of nineteenth-century legal thought in France and the United States. This critique undermined a mode of legal reasoning that assumed the common law and the civil code were internally-coherent and gapless systems of rules from which judges could logically deduce legal outcomes. As rapid social and economic changes swept across the Atlantic World, jurists influenced by reform movements sought to make the law more responsive to changing conditions, while also addressing the problem of legal indeterminacy posed by the critique of deduction. One group of jurists—including Raymond Saleilles, Édouard Lambert, Roscoe Pound, and John Wigmore—responded to these challenges by turning to comparative law. Because they could no longer pretend to access static legal concepts, these jurists worked to achieve stability by formulating the best legal solution for a particular time and place—replacing timeless Truth with the historicized, spatial truths of comparative law. Before the First World War, however, French and American comparativists struggled to get beyond the differences between the common law and the civil law. Unlike the social theorists of the day...

Contemporary Legal Transplants - Legal Families and the Diffusion of (Corporate) Law

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Brigham Young University Law Review Publicador: Brigham Young University Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper empirically documents the continued importance of the legal families for the diffusion of formal legal materials from the core to the periphery in post-colonial times. This raises the possibility that substantive differences between countries of different families around the world, such as those documented in the legal origins literature, continue to be the result of separate diffusion processes rather than of intrinsic differences between common and civil law. Using the example of corporate and securities law, the paper documents the frequent and often exclusive use of legal materials and models from the respective legal family’s core countries in treatises and law reform projects in 32 peripheral and semi-peripheral countries. The paper also shows that most authors of these treatises and projects were trained in the respective core countries. Data on the activities of national legal development and cooperation organizations, trade and investment flows, and student migration confirm the close legal family ties and provide some evidence of possible channels through which materials may continue to diffuse within their legal families after decolonization. The diffusion of formal legal materials need not imply that the substantive development of law is affected by foreign influences...

Triangulation of rights, balancing of interests : exploring the tensions between freedom of conscience and freedom of religion in comparative constitutional law

Dabby, Dia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
La liberté de religion, souvent reconnue comme étant la « première liberté » dans de nombreuses traditions juridiques, reflète également les différentes conceptions de la place de l’individu et de la communauté dans la société. Notre étude analysera les modèles constitutionnels canadien, américain et européen de liberté de religion et conscience. Dans un premier chapitre, nous examinerons les conceptions théoriques de la religion dans les sciences sociales ainsi les approches juridiques afin de mieux cerner comment la religion est conçue et de plus, comprendre les diverses influences sur sa conceptualisation. Dans un second et troisième chapitre, nous tenterons d’une part, de qualifier la relation entre la liberté de conscience et la liberté de religion au Canada en nous livrant à une analyse approfondie des deux libertés et d’autre part, d’identifier les questions qui demeurent irrésolues. Dans le chapitre final, nous observerons comment la liberté de conscience a été interprétée dans les contextes américain et dans l’Union Européenne, par le biais de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’Homme. Notre hypothèse est que l’on peut arriver à une meilleure compréhension de la relation entre les libertés de conscience et religion en clarifiant les conceptions théoriques de la religion et de la conscience en droit constitutionnel comparé.; Freedom of religion...

Le droit du travail américain : un droit plus favorable à l’investissement que le droit du travail québécois ? Une étude de la question...

Paré, Frédéric
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
L’auteur s’intéresse à la question de savoir si le droit du travail américain est plus favorable à l’investissement direct étranger (IDE) que le droit du travail québécois dans le contexte de l’ALENA. Pour ce faire, il fait une revue de littérature sur les déterminants de la localisation de l’IDE afin de clarifier l’importance du droit du travail national dans les décisions d’investissement des entreprises multinationales. Celle-ci révèle que la localisation de l’IDE est un processus complexe et multidimensionnel impliquant un grand nombre de facteurs, dont certains sont associés à la demande, d’autres aux coûts, d’autres aux caractéristiques des pays-hôtes, et d’autres, enfin, au risque. Le droit du travail national, bien que revêtant une certaine importance, n’est qu’un facteur parmi d’autres. Elle révèle également que l’importance relative des déterminants de la localisation de l’IDE, incluant le droit du travail national, varie elle-même en fonction d’autres facteurs, comme le secteur d’activité de l’entreprise, sa stratégie, sa taille et la motivation de l’IDE. Ensuite, il fait une étude de droit comparé entre le Québec et le Massachusetts afin d’identifier les principales différences qui existent entre les deux régimes de droit du travail. Cette étude a permis d’identifier des différences importantes entre les deux systèmes étudiés. Ainsi...

Comparative Law at the Intersection of Religion and Gender

FOURNIER, Pascale
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
The articles seeks to understand the politics of transnational Islamic family law in Canada, the United States, France and Germany, through the migration of one particular legal institution: Mahr, “the gift which the bridegroom has to give to the bride when the contract of marriage is made and which becomes the property of the wife.” The issue of Mahr typically presents itself in a crisis-like fashion: married Muslim women, engaged in religiously structured marriages, and living in Western liberal states, reach out to the secular court upon the dissolution of their marriage to claim the enforcement of Mahr, presumably because their husbands have previously refused to give them the amount of deferred Mahr. Through an analysis of the case law, I will explore the ways in which legal pluralism, formal equality and substantive equality are being used by courts to accept or root out Islamic law from the family of institutions that are deemed appropriate in Western countries. How do the diverse and contradictory conceptual themes around Islamic law and Islamic theory get received or brought to Western liberal courts? What are the modes of influence in the selection and imposition processes of Mahr as a legal transplant? Does the reification of religion by courts simultaneously fragment it as rules move across borders? Does the way Mahr travels affect subjectivity...

Privileging (some forms of) interdisciplinarity and interpretation : methods in comparative law

ROY, Suryapratim
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
How should comparative law scholars engage with other disciplines? Which social sciences are relevant for the purpose of comparison? Such questions are important for the process of comparison, as disciplinary self-regulation (and interaction between disciplines) is not a neutral and objective process, and is always informed by embedded political, ideological, ethical preferences. Or, the act of selecting ways of reading, thinking and writing in the service of any task requires the explicit or implicit endorsement of epistemic and hermeneutic authority. In this essay, I review three recent volumes on comparative law – a companion volume, a book of practice-oriented reflections by scholars who engage in comparative legal scholarship, and a region-specific contribution on Comparative Constitutionalism in South Asia. The approaches adopted in the volumes – concentrating on the science of comparative law, finding a middle way between too much complexity and too little, concentrating on region-specific complexities – do not address the issue of negotiating epistemic and hermeneutic authority posed above. Such negotiation may be facilitated by concentrating on what I suggest is the organising principle of the discipline of comparative law: identifying the construction...

Between legality and legitimacy : the case of judicial review of constitutional amendments from a comparative law perspective

ACAR, Ali
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
There is a growing scholarly interest in the issue of unconstitutional constitutional amendments. Generally speaking, this issue concerns whether there should be some limits to constitutional amendments and whether courts should control those limits. In this sense, unconstitutional constitutional amendment exacerbates the debate concerning the legitimacy of judicial review qua institution, and moves the discussion one step further. The rise in interest among scholars of the issue of unconstitutional constitutional amendments derives from the fact that constitutional amendments are sometimes used as an instrument by authoritarian governments to achieve their aims. The judiciary in various jurisdictions gives negative or affirmative responses to this instrumentalization of constitutional amendments by reviewing the contents of amendments. Thus, judicial review of constitutional amendments on substantive grounds has become a new legal phenomenon, which deserves close consideration. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to this literature. How is it possible for a court to declare an amendment unconstitutional? Under what conditions can the legality of an amendment be questioned? What substantive considerations outweigh the formal value of a duly adopted constitutional amendment...

Análise crítica da prisão preventiva na Lei 12.403/2011: proposta à luz de modelos estrangeiros e da Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos; A critical analysis of preventive detention in accordance with the law 12.403/2011: proposal in the light of foreign models and the American Convention on Human Rights

Mendonça, Andrey Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Este trabalho analisa os principais pontos controvertidos introduzidos pela Lei 12.403, de 4 de maio de 2011, no tocante à prisão preventiva, à luz dos modelos estrangeiros e do sistema interamericano de Direitos Humanos, sempre pautado pela busca de equilíbrio entre o garantismo e a eficiência. O principal objetivo do trabalho foi buscar subsídios para a interpretação das disposições internas controvertidas, pautando-se nos modelos e standards internacionais, com o intuito de se aprofundar o estudo do tema. Para se chegar ao contexto de edição da referida lei e melhor compreendê-la, analisam-se as influências que deram origem ao atual Código de Processo Penal e a sua fisionomia originária, que possuía, sobretudo no tema da prisão preventiva, contexto marcadamente autoritário. Após, são analisadas as diversas alterações pelas quais o Código sofreu em relação ao tema, sob o influxo de movimentos internacionais existentes no século XX, que culminaram com a edição da Lei 12.403. Em seguida, é analisada a Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos, especialmente tendo em vista a jurisprudência da Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos, buscando verificar os standards internacionais relativos ao tema da prisão preventiva...

Evidence before the International Court of Justice

RIDDELL, Anna; PLANT, Brendan
Fonte: British Institute of International and Comparative Law Publicador: British Institute of International and Comparative Law
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This publication has recently found support from and apparently influenced the International Court of Justice itself. On 20 April 2010 the Court delivered its Judgment in the Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay case between Argentina and Uruguay, in which it appears to follow a recommendation made in the book concerning expert evidence, and several individual Judges draw support from the conclusions of study in their Declarations, Separate and Dissenting Opinions, quoting from the book as well as citing argument and using research in it to shape their opinions.; The initiative taken by the British Institute of International and Comparative Law to carry out a thorough study of the rules of evidence in international courts and tribunals will place international lawyers deeply in their debt. There can be hardly any field of international legal practice presenting no possibility of presentation of a claim, at some stage and in some circumstances, to an international court or tribunal, so that consideration of procedural issues, and in particular what facts must be proved, and how they are to be proved, may come to have almost as great an importance for the practitioner as consideration of the state of the substantive law. The proliferation of such tribunals in recent years...

Breves notas sobre el amparo iberoamericano; Breves notas sobre el amparo iberoamericano

Ferrer Mac-Gregor, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The systematic study of Comparative Law began in the late nineteenth century at the First International Congress of Comparative Law held in Paris in 1900. There was a connection between the different branches of the juridical science, such is the case of Constitutional Law with Comparative Law. This favored the appearance of the Constitutional Comparative Law. The Constitutional Procedural Law has recently become to be considered as an autonomous juridical science. This branch has also begun using the comparative method. The Juicio de Amparo is going to be analyzed in this article according to the Iberoamerican view with the aim of appreciating in a general way the evolution it has had during the last years in relation to the following subjects: Nomen iuris, legal nature, constitutional and legal establishment, legal protection of rights and freedom, specialized judges, active and passive legitimization, terms, appealable behaviors, precautionary measures and the interamerican amparo.; El estudio del derecho comparado comenzó a gestarse a finales del siglo XIX, siendo a partir del I Congreso Internacional de Derecho Comparado, celebrado en París en 1900, cuando inicia su estudio sistemático. Las diversas ramas de la ciencia jurídica...

The Controversial Status of International and Comparative Law in the United States

Minow, Martha Louise
Fonte: Harvard Law School Publicador: Harvard Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
In recent years, I have watched the swirling debate over whether the United States courts should consult international or comparative law. As a law professor, the debate has puzzled me, for international and comparative legal materials have always appeared in the sources consulted by American lawyers and judges. So this article is really a search for the roots of the contemporary controversy. Why is there a controversy? And what can we learn from it? I will suggest three conjectures to explain the fact of the contemporary debate over the proper role of international law within the United States: (1) a basic concern emphasizes that we risk being taken over, or losing what we are by engaging with others; (2) a second worry stresses that the United States is exceptional and thus faces politically motivated attacks as the last superpower; (3) a third very specific trepidation arises from the unusual nature of “customary international law.” My hope is that by locating the sources of the controversy over the place of international law within the United States, we can dismiss artificial issues and focus on genuine and significant developments—broader changes that offer a window onto the prospects for more effective human governance. The debate diverts attention from developments that might be instructive to us not just in what US courts do but...

Traducir los daños sin efectos colaterales : análisis comparado del derecho de daños

Bestué Salinas, Carmen
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Este artículo presenta una propuesta de documentación a partir del Derecho comparado. Los textos paralelos más fiables para el traductor son las propias fuentes del Derecho, es decir las normas creadoras del Derecho en los diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos. Un estudio a fondo de los términos dentro de su propio contexto es el que nos permitirá establecer las equivalencias con los términos existentes en otro ordenamiento jurídico. Hemos seleccionado unas cláusulas, las de limitación o exoneración de responsabilidad, y hemos procedido al análisis en profundidad de algunos de los términos en ellas reproducidos. La solución de los problemas de traducción planteados por estos términos variará según la función que deba desempeñar la traducción y ésta vendrá claramente determinada por el Derecho aplicable al mismo. En el supuesto de que el Derecho aplicable sea el español el documento traducido se convierte en original y, por lo tanto, el traductor debería trabajar en estrecha colaboración con los juristas. Sin embargo este trabajo de colaboración debe ser recíproco, el traductor debe asimismo alertar al jurista sobre la conveniencia de no abusar de los calcos de términos anglosajones cuando éstos pueden inducir al error.; This article presents a documentation proposal based on Comparative Law. The most reliable parallel texts for translators are the real sources of Law...

Connecting factors in International Tax Law: the definition process of “residence” concerning natural person and Comparative Law contribution; Os elementos de conexão em direito tributário internacional: definindo o significado de "residência" para pessoa física e contribuição do direito comparado

Campos, Lucas Augusto Ponte
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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66.14%
This essay is focused in set general lines about the conceptualization of legal element “residence” and its relevancy to International Tax Law, through exposition of the question presented under Comparative Law perspective.; O presente artigo tem por objetivo dar linhas gerais sobre a conceituação de “residência” das pessoas físicas enquanto elemento de conexão e sua relevância ao Direito Tributário Internacional, expondo a questão segundo enfoque do Direito Comparado.

Who is afraid of investor-state arbitration?: or comparative law?

Kleinheisterkamp, Jan
Fonte: LSE Law Publicador: LSE Law
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership has been creating expectations and stirring fears ever since it was announced by EU Commission President Barroso and US President Obama in mid-2013. The promise to boost trans-Atlantic economic exchange in the world’s largest free-trade area came along with the aim to “include investment… protection provisions based on the… highest standards of protection that both sides have negotiated to date”. But the reasons given by the EU Commission in favour of including investor state dispute settlement in the TTIP are weak and almost self-defeating. For the EU to sign investment agreements framed along the lines of existing BITs and without proper safeguards would fundamentally change the current law of the Union as regards state liability, especially for legislative acts.

Recasting monism and dualism in European parliamentary law: The Lisbon Treaty in Britain and France

Jancic, Davor
Fonte: University of Belgrade, Institute of Comparative Law and Institute of International Politics and Economics Publicador: University of Belgrade, Institute of Comparative Law and Institute of International Politics and Economics
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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This chapter analyses the relevance of international law concepts of monism and dualism in the legal and political system of the European Union through the lens of national parliaments as inescapable ingredients in giving international law effect in domestic legal orders. We inquire about the reaction of the national parliaments of the United Kingdom and France, as examples of dualist and monist states, to three aspects of the Lisbon Treaty that most affect the European role of national parliaments: the EU’s call for national parliaments to monitor the EU institutions’ adherence to the principle of subsidiarity, the EU’s call for national parliaments to contribute to the good functioning of the Union and the extension of the scope of the codecision procedure. The main argument of this chapter is that although the EU is in many respects a monist constitutional setup that denies significance to the logic of mutual structuring of legal orders espoused in international law, the concepts of monism and dualism retain their explanatory force as regards the manner in which domestic parliaments shape their relations with the European Union.

Comparative constitutional law in the courts: reflections on the originalists’ objections

Murkens, Jo Eric Khushal
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
The controversy surrounding the judicial use of comparative constitutional law is not new. However, the debate has recently been reignited by a number of US Supreme Court justices who have spoken out on the use of non-US law in the Court. Scalia opposes, and Breyer favours, references to ‘foreign law’. Their comments, made both within and outside of the Court, have led to a reaction by scholars. Arguably the debate is US-specific as it resembles the different views regarding constitutional interpretation, namely whether the Constitution’s original, or rather its current, meaning is determinative. Yet the debate also raises broader issues of constitutional theory and politics: formal vs substantive legitimacy, globalisation of the courts, judicial sleight of hand, the cultural foundations of constitutional law, and the citation of non-primary sources of law in litigation. The present article explores these issues. It rejects radical approaches (either against or in favour of comparative constitutional law) and instead argues for a more modest process which both identifies the national specificity of law and grasps the mediating potential of law as a self-reflexive discourse.

Politics, ethics & the law, legal practice & scholarship

van Gerven, Walter
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
This paper examines legal practice, legal scholarship, ethics and politics from the viewpoint of an academic who in his lifetime has, besides having been a professor, been a vice-rector, a civil servant, an advocate general and an anti-corruption officer.. As a vice-rector he acknowledged the essence of decision making: based on intuition kept in check by deliberation. As a civil servant he learned to involve considerations of general interest in the decision making process. As an advocate general he tried to combine assistance to the Court with assistance to the legal community in a multicultural and pluralist European environment. As an “anti-corruption” officer he used his judicial experience to advance reform in the EC Commission. As an academic he sought to promote the “bottom up” approach of comparative law: from judicial (and legislative) solutions to general principles which the EU member states have in common.