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Fatores contingenciais à estratégia de remuneração da força de vendas; Contingencial factors to sales force compensation strategy

Plothow, Célia Bueno de André
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2006 Português
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A força de vendas ocupa papel importante no desempenho das organizações, e em especial naquelas do mercado industrial. As decisões que envolvem a gestão da força de vendas, principalmente as referentes à remuneração, revestem-se de importância, dado seu potencial impacto no desempenho desses profissionais. Esta dissertação, embasada na teoria da contingência, pressupõe que não há um sistema de remuneração ?ótimo ou ideal? e, sim, aquele que melhor se ajusta ao contexto e objetivos organizacionais. Deste modo, a efetividade da estratégia de remuneração depende da existência de ajuste a certos fatores contingenciais aos quais a organização está sujeita com potencial de afetar o sistema. O construto de estratégia de remuneração foi operacionalizado através do repertório de escolhas a disposição dos gestores que têm impacto no desempenho da organização e no uso efetivo de seus recursos humanos. Especificamente quanto à estratégia de remuneração de vendas, a composição da remuneração é uma das escolhas relevantes, por se tratar de escolha na qual reside grande variabilidade entre as empresas, eventualmente de mesmo setor, o que sugere ser fortemente influenciada por fatores contingenciais. Esta dissertação objetiva então...

Compensação de reserva legal no Estado de São Paulo: uma análise da equivalência ecológica; The compensation of legal reserve in the state of São Paulo: an analysis of ecological equivalence

Silva, Jessica Santos da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
A compensação extrapropriedade é uma das alternativas legais para regularização de imóveis rurais com déficit de reserva legal. Com a recente revogação do Código Florestal, as compensações podem envolver imóveis localizados até em distintos Estados, considerando apenas a correspondência entre biomas. Do ponto de vista ambiental, no entanto, as compensações só fazem sentido se ocorrer entre áreas com equivalência ecológica (composição, estrutura e função) e o mais próximas possível entre si. Este estudo buscou contribuir para o aprimoramento do mecanismo de compensação, considerando aspectos da equivalência ecológica (composição), tendo o Estado de São Paulo como área de estudo. Para tanto foram analisadas: (i) se as compensações ocorrem entre áreas com equivalência da vegetação, (ii) e qual seria a distância máxima para que as trocas ocorram entre áreas com maior equivalência. Foram consultados 104 processos de compensação de reserva legal para a coleta de informações sobre os imóveis, como localização. As fitofisionomias de cada área foram identificadas segundo o mapa da vegetação remanescente do Estado. A distância máxima a ser permitida foi estimada comparando-se a similaridade florística de remanescentes de Cerrado e Floresta em relação à distância geográfica por meio do teste de Mantel. Verificou-se que dos 117 casos analisados...

O Código Florestal e os processos de formulação do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal (1996-2012): ambiente político e política ambiental; The Forest Act and the formulating processes of the mechanism Compensation of Legal Forest Reserve (1996-2012): political environment and environmental policy.

Cunha, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2013 Português
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Esta dissertação tem como objetivo analisar os processos político-legislativos que culminaram na criação e nas modificações do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal, previsto no revogado Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei Federal nº 4.771/1965) e na lei que o substituiu (Lei Federal nº 12.651/2012). A questão central que orienta esta pesquisa é a seguinte: por que, desde o seu surgimento, a compensação de reserva legal sofreu constantes modificações? As hipóteses para a pergunta formulada consideram que, no complexo jogo político de alteração do Código Florestal, prevaleceram as proposições de dois agrupamentos de atores: o agronegócio (e de outros interesses associados, como mineradoras e hidrelétricas) e a bancada ruralista do Congresso Nacional. Assim, focalizando na compensação de reserva legal, estabeleceu-se um recorte temporal de 1996 a 2012, onde se analisou os processos políticos das seguintes etapas: (i) a formação da agenda governamental em 1996, que culminou na alteração do Código Florestal por medida provisória; (ii) a criação da compensação em 1998; (iii) a modificação desse instrumento no anteprojeto de lei do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA) (2000); e (iv) a alteração proposta pelo projeto de lei aprovado na Comissão Especial Temporária do Código Florestal (2010)...

Expectativa de remuneração como atributo de atratividade da profissão de auditoria independente no Brasil; Expected compensation as an attribute of attractiveness for the independent auditor profession in Brazil

Marques, Claudio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2013 Português
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A proposta central do estudo foi investigar se o valor da remuneração pode influenciar na preferência ou atratividade da auditoria independente como uma alternativa de ocupação profissional no ambiente brasileiro. Teve como foco os alunos do curso de ciências contábeis que são os prováveis candidatos a optar por essa atividade profissional. Para alcançar tal objetivo, foi definido como estratégia de pesquisa o desenho quase-experimental, conduzido com 240 alunos pertencentes às instituições públicas estaduais e federais no Brasil, em que os sujeitos participantes foram direcionados aleatoriamente ao grupo de controle ou ao grupo experimental. Cada grupo recebeu algumas ofertas de trabalho nas três atividades profissionais definidas para a pesquisa, cuja tarefa dos integrantes era dizer se aceitava ou não a vaga ofertada. A diferença entre o grupo de controle e o experimental foi o estímulo da remuneração apresentada para o grupo de experimento. A metodologia aplicada nas mensurações compreendeu basicamente análises de frequência dos grupos e testes não paramétricos para verificar a existência ou não de diferenças de média entre os grupos. Os resultados indicaram o aceite da primeira hipótese de que a preferência pela atividade de auditoria é influenciada pela percepção do valor da remuneração e...

Efeito tributário na configuração do sistema de remuneração gerencial; Tax effects on the configuration of compensation systems

Zaro, Cláudio Soerger
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O presente trabalho busca verificar qual a influência da tributação sobre os incentivos dos sistemas de remuneração e se o efeito da tributação e de incentivos diferencia-se entre níveis hierárquicos. A literatura de teoria de agência sugere que maior ênfase nos propósitos de incentivo da remuneração culminará em maior proporção de pagamentos via bônus anuais. A consulta da legislação tributária, por sua vez, cria a expectativa de que a priorização de propósitos tributários na determinação das formas de remuneração refletirá em maior proporção de participação nos lucros. Essa ordenação diferenciada é adequada a perspectiva da teoria do trade-off, que argumenta que a ênfase em um fator gera um efeito inverso em outro, e que diante disso, as organizações procuram equilibrar as dimensões consideradas. Além disso, é esperado que, em função de mais níveis de monitoramento e também em função da menor precisão de opções de ações para níveis hierárquicos mais baixos, apresente-se ênfase em propósitos de incentivo na remuneração executiva enquanto se priorize propósitos tributários na remuneração de média gerência. Para a análise empírica destas relações, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário enviado para as empresas que publicaram balanços no ano de 2012 e participaram da base da Revista Exame...

Harmonic, reactive and unbalance compensation by means of CPT framework

Paredes, Helmo K. M.; Marafão, Fernando P.; Terrazas, Thiago M.; Serni, Paulo J. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 741-748
Português
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This paper presents possible selective current compensation strategies based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT). This recently proposed theory, introduces the concept of complex power conservation under non-sinusoidal conditions. Moreover, the related current decompositions results in several current terms, which are associated with a specific physical phenomena (power absorption P, energy storage Q, voltage and current distortion D). Such current components are used in this work for the definition of different current compensators, which can be selective in terms of minimizing particular disturbing effects. The choice of one or other current component for compensation directly affects the sizing and cost of active and/or passive devices and it will be demonstrated that it can be done to attend predefined limits for harmonic distortion, unbalances and/or power factor. Single and three-phase compensation strategies will be discussed by means of the CPT Framework. Simulation and experimental results will be demonstrated in order to validate their performance. © 2009 IEEE.

Possible shunt compensation strategies based on conservative power theory

Marafão, Fernando P.; Brandão, Danilo I.; Paredes, Helmo K. Morales; Da Silva, Luiz C.P.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 162-167
Português
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Considering the Conservative Power Theory (CPT), this paper proposes some novel compensation strategies for shunt passive or active devices. The CPT current decompositions result in several current terms, which are associated with specific physical phenomena (average power consumption P, energy storage Q, load and source distortion D, unbalances N). These current components were used in this work for the definition of different current compensators, which can be selective in terms of minimizing particular disturbing effects. Compensation strategies for single and three-phase four-wire circuits have also been considered. Simulation results have been demonstrated in order to validate the possibilities and performance of the proposed strategies. © 2010 IEEE.

CEO compensation as a mechanism to induce firm performance

Costa, Manuel Joaquim Correia Tavares
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 11/02/2015 Português
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Over the past few decades, academic literature, specifically on agency theory and executive compensation, has argued that CEO compensation should be aligned to firm performance in order to increase shareholder value. Nevertheless, some studies present the contrary idea, in which no link between performance and compensation can be established. This thesis analyses the relationship between firm performance and CEO compensation regarding Portuguese listed firms in the period of 2008-2013. No statistical evidence was found linking firm performance and CEO compensation, even after introducing governance and financial control variables as well as performing small sampling analysis of the top performers.

Power system reactive compensation: evaluation of expansion plans taking into account electromagnetic transient restrictions

Chaves,Fabrício Silveira; Vale,Maria Helena Murta
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Automática Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Automática
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 Português
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In this paper, the authors present developments regarding Power System Capacitive Shunt Reactive Compensation and Voltage Control, with respect to Expansion Activities, in an Electromagnetic Transient context. The definition of the amount and location of shunt reactive compensation to be installed in power systems considers several aspects, as reactive power optimization, short circuit calculations, voltage stability and harmonic analyses, among others. Different alternatives must be evaluated, regarding their impact (positive and negative) to system behavior, in order to select the most adequate compensation. Expansion decision process usually does not include studies about the transient impact of reactive shunt compensation caused by switching operation. Traditionally, this is done only after expansion definition, when the detailed project is elaborated, mainly to prepare equipment specifications. In this paper, it is proposed an innovative procedure to include a technical evaluation of different shunt compensation based on a preview of the overvoltage and overcurrent values caused by the corresponding capacitors bank switching. The new methodology is designed to (i) indicate the critical system buses that must be carefully investigated...

The Wages of Failure: Executive Compensation at Bear Stearns and Lehman 2000-2008

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Cohen, Alma; Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Yale Journal on Regulation Publicador: Yale Journal on Regulation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The standard narrative of the meltdown of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers assumes that the wealth of the top executives of these firms was largely wiped out along with their firms. In the ongoing debate about regulatory responses to the financial crisis, commentators have used this assumed fact as a basis for dismissing both the role of compensation structures in inducing risk-taking and the potential value of reforming such structures. This paper provides a case study of compensation at Bear Stearns and Lehman during 2000-2008 and concludes that this assumed fact is incorrect. We find that the top-five executive teams of these firms cashed out large amounts of performance-based compensation during the 2000-2008 period. During this period, they were able to cash out large amounts of bonus compensation that was not clawed back when the firms collapsed, as well as to pocket large amounts from selling shares. Overall, we estimate that the top executive teams of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers derived cash flows of about $1.4 billion and $1 billion respectively from cash bonuses and equity sales during 2000-2008. These cash flows substantially exceeded the value of the executives’ initial holdings in the beginning of the period, and the executives’ net payoffs for the period were thus decidedly positive. The divergence between how the top executives and their shareholders fared implies that it is not possible to rule out...

A justa indenização nas desapropriações agrárias e como se formam as superindenizações; Fair compensation in agrarian expropriations and how they form the overpriced severance

Fideles, Junior Divino
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direito Agrário (FD); Faculdade de Direito - FD (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direito Agrário (FD); Faculdade de Direito - FD (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Cares for the present research work on fair compensation in land expropriation and how they form the overpriced severance. The Federal Constitution of 1988 provides that the property shall comply with a social function and sanctioned with the expropriation, upon payment of prior and fair compensation for land reform purposes, homeowners who do not observe. The regulation conferred by Law No. 8.629 / 1993 provides that fair compensation must match the value of the property market. However, reality has shown that this idea of just compensation is marred by legal process of expropriation and often their final pays for a value much higher than the market, allowing for the overpriced severance. Using the approach as a method of dogmatic criticism, the study sought to identify the causes and how to form these overpriced severance be, and if this model established is constitutional or not. After discussing how society understands the land and what values attributed to him, stating that it is appropriate as well as production and capitalist accumulation, turned into a commodity, which is possible only because the owner individualism that shapes the right of ownership as an individual right subjective to use and enjoy the benefit of appropriate absolute and exclusive mode...

CEO Compensation, Compensation Risk, and Corporate Governance: Evidence from Technology Firms

Yu, Zhimin (Jimmy)
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Literature suggests that CEOs of technology firms earn higher pay than CEOs of non-technology firms. I investigate whether compensation risk explains the difference in compensation between technology firms and non-technology firms. Controlling for firm size and performance, I find that CEOs in technology firms have higher pay, but also have much higher compensation risk compared to non-technology firms. Compensation risk explains the major part of the difference in CEO pay. My study is consistent with the labor market economics view that CEOs earn competitive risk-adjusted total compensation.

Managerial Risk-Taking and CEO Excess Compensation

Jafri, Syed Rahat Ali
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This paper examines risk taking and CEO excess compensation problems in U.S firms to determine their impact on shareholders wealth. Literature suggests a positive effect of CEO incentive risk and strong corporate governance on CEO risk taking. Furthermore, the strong governance mitigates excess compensation problem. Controlling for governance quality and incentive risk, I provide empirical evidence of a significant association between risk taking and CEO excess compensation. When I also control for pay-performance sensitivity (delta) and feedback effects of incentive compensation on CEO risk taking, I find that higher use of incentive pay encourages risk taking, and due to a high exposure to risk CEOs draws excess compensation. Furthermore, I find that the excess compensation problem is more serious with CEOs taking high risk than with those taking low risk. Finally, I find that CEO risk taking also has structural impacts on CEO compensation

Can Compensation Committees Effectively Mitigate the CEO Horizon Problem? The Role of Co-opted Directors

Liu, Ruonan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Extant research finds inconclusive evidence about the CEO horizon problem. One possibility is that compensation committees design CEO compensation in a way that discourages retiring CEOs from opportunistic earnings management and R&D reduction. However, compensation committees dominated by co-opted directors may not be as effective as those with fewer co-opted directors in mitigating the CEO horizon problem, because directors co-opted by the CEO tend to bias their decisions in favor of the CEO. I find that compensation committees dominated by co-opted directors are associated with higher CEO compensation packages. I document R&D reduction and accruals management in firms with retiring CEOs and compensation committees dominated by co-opted directors, and find that R&D reduction and income-increasing accruals are less discouraged by compensation committees dominated by co-opted directors when deciding CEO compensation. I also examine the effect of boards of directors and compensation committee characteristics on CEO compensation and on mitigating the CEO horizon problem. I find that CEO compensation positively associates with CEO power, director independence, and the percentage of busy directors, and negatively associates with board of directors and committee size and director ownership. Moreover...

The legal concept of work-related injury and disease in Australian OHS and workers’ compensation systems

Clayton, Alan; Johnstone, Richard; Sceats, Sonya
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 894512 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper analyses the concept of ‘work-relatedness’ in Australian workers’ compensation and occupational health and safety (OHS) systems. The concept of work-relatedness is important because it is a crucial element circumscribing the limits of the protection afforded to workers under the preventative OHS statutes, and is a threshold element which has to be satisfied before an injured or ill worker can recover statutory compensation. While the preventive and compensatory regimes do draw on some similar concepts of work-relatedness, as this paper will illustrate, there are significant differences both between, and within, these regimes. This paper offers a comparative survey of the statutory legal concept of work-related injury and disease across all ten workers’ compensation and OHS jurisdictions. The notion of ‘work-relatedness’ is central to the boundary-setting task of workers’ compensation systems in particular, but also has some importance in OHS schemes. However, as will be explored in the next section, the notion of work-relatedness, and in particular the manner in which this concept has been utilised – either explicitly or implicitly – as a control device in setting system boundaries and mandating threshold requirements for entitlement or system coverage...

Valuing native title: Aboriginal, statutory and policy discourses about compensation

Smith, Diane E
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 483052 bytes; application/pdf
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The issue of native title compensation generates deep divisions and conflicting evaluations in Australia. Underlying the tensions are unresolved questions concerning the nature of the native title that might be affected; how loss, impairment and extinguishment are to be determined and measured; who is entitled to compensation and on what basis; what might constitute just terms for that compensation; and who is to pay it. To date, solutions have largely been dominated by legal and economic valuation discourse, often pursued within highly charged contexts of resource development or court litigation. This paper presents a largely anthropological and ethnographic analysis of these matters by examining some of the competing modes of discourse about compensation; namely, the Aboriginal, statutory, common law and policy discourses.

The primary focus of the paper is on one particular mode of discourse which seems largely to have been missing from the public debate to date, but which is arguably central to it; namely, that of Aboriginal groups in respect to their own regimes of compensation derived under Aboriginal law and custom. For that purpose, the paper commences with an ethnographic analysis of Aboriginal compensation processes, concepts and criteria...

High-Speed Electronic Signal Processing for Pre-Compensation in Optical Communications

JIANG, YING
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Narrowband optical filtering and chromatic dispersion are two important issues that affect optical fiber transmission performance. Recent technological developments in high-speed digital signal processors, digital-to-analog converters and analog-to-digital converters have enabled the implementation of electronic signal processing (ESP) in optical transmission systems leading to adaptive and cost efficient integrated solutions. This thesis focuses on applying ESP at the transmitter to pre-compensate for narrowband optical filtering and chromatic dispersion. A novel electronic pre-compensation approach was proposed to deal with narrowband optical filtering. The effectiveness was demonstrated by a straight-line experiment and a recirculating loop experiment for 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK). Moreover, the work was extended to NRZ differential-phase-shift-keying as well as 20 Gb/s NRZ differential-quadrature-phase-shift-keying. Experimental results demonstrate that electronic pre-compensation effectively reduces the degradation in system performance induced by narrowband optical filtering. Electronic dispersion pre-compensation was investigated using a semiconductor InP Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for the NRZ-OOK modulation format at 10.709 Gb/s aiming at providing a cost efficient implementation for core and metro transmission networks. A brute-force method was developed to determine the requisite drive i voltages due to the nonlinear voltage dependent attenuation and phase constants of the InP MZM. The transmission results for the recirculating loop and straightline experiments demonstrate that an InP MZM provides comparable dispersion precompensation performance with a conventional LiNbO3 MZM. Use of the NRZ-OOK modulation format and InP MZM provides a simple and cost-efficient solution for core and metro transmission network. Dispersion pre-compensation was also performed for a 85.672 Gb/s polarization multiplexed 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) modulation format with digital coherent detection and offline digital signal processing. The transmitter was characterized to ensure the quality of the 16QAM signal generation. Simulation results indicate the impact of the modulator bias voltage error on system performance. Recirculating loop experimental results demonstrate that the performance of dispersion pre-compensation is comparable with dispersion post-compensation...

Análisis de la eficiencia de las estrategias de mercadeo de Compensar Caja de Compensación Familiar frente a las cajas de compensación familiar Cafam y Colsubsidio; Analysis ofthe efficiency ofmarketing strategiesCompensarFamily Compensation Fundagainst thefamily compensation fundsandColsubsidioCafam

Aldana Duarte, Alicia Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Mercadeo de Servicios Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Mercadeo de Servicios
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
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Este trabajo busca realizar un análisis de la eficiencia de las estrategias de mercadeo que ha utilizado Compensar Caja de Compensación Familiar en sus 35 años de existencia, frente a las cajas de compensación familiar Cafam y Colsubsidio. Dentro de los antecedentes se muestra cómo han evolucionado y cuál ha sido la importancia dentro del marco de la Seguridad Social en Colombia y algunos Países Suramericanos. Se darán a conocer las características de cada una de estas cajas de compensación su creación e historia, cómo han evolucionado a través del tiempo y cuál ha sido el aporte más importante al bienestar de los colombianos. Por último se analiza la entrega de los servicios de bienestar que las cajas de compensación familiar deben realizar a sus afiliados y unos comentarios acerca del sistema de compensación familiar en nuestro país.; This paper attempts an analysis of the efficiency of the marketing strategies used to Compensate Family Compensation Fund in its 35 years of existence, against the family compensation funds and Colsubsidio Cafam. In the background is shown how they evolved and what has been important within the context of Social Security in Colombia and some South American countries. They will present the characteristics of each of these compensation funds creation and history...

Do Voting Rights Matter: Evidence From the Adoption of Equity-based Compensation Plans

Weber, Joseph; Joos, Peter; Balachandran, Sudhakar
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 315107 bytes; application/pdf
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Recent corporate scandals and subsequent regulatory actions have heightened both the academic communities and the public's interest in corporate governance issues. Academics have long argued that voting rights constitute a critical component of a system of corporate governance. We provide evidence on the importance of one aspect of the firm's corporate governance system, namely shareholders' voting rights, by examining the determinants of the decision to grant equity-based compensation to the employees of the firm with or without shareholder approval. We find that poorly-performing firms and poorly-governed firms are more likely to adopt equity-based compensation plans without shareholder approval. Furthermore, when we examine financial performance subsequent to adoption of equity-based compensation plans, we find that poorly-governed firms that adopt equity-based compensation plans without consulting shareholder do not appear to gain any significant benefits associated with the incentives the plans are supposed to provide. In fact, in the year after an equity-based compensation plan is adopted, these firms perform worse than firms that have good systems of corporate governance or firms that place equity-based compensation plans to a shareholder vote. Overall...

Understanding radiative transfer in the midwave infrared: a precursor to full-spectrum atmospheric compensation

Griffin, Michael; Burke, Hsiao-Hua; Kerekes, John
Fonte: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Proceedings Formato: 292871 bytes; application/pdf
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The compensation for atmospheric effects in the VNIR/SWIR has reached a mature stage of development with many algorithms available for application (ATREM, FLAASH, ACORN, etc.). Compensation of LWIR data is the focus of a number of promising algorithms. A gap in development exists in the MWIR where little or no atmospheric compensation work has been done yet an increased interest in MWIR applications is emerging. To obtain atmospheric compensation over the full spectrum (visible through LWIR), a better understanding of the radiative effects in the MWIR is needed. The MWIR is characterized by a unique combination of reduced solar irradiance and low thermal emission (for typical emitting surfaces), both providing relatively equal contributions to the daytime MWIR radiance. In the MWIR and LWIR, the compensation problem can be viewed as two interdependent processes: compensation for the effects of the atmosphere and the uncoupling of the surface temperature and emissivity. The former requires calculations of the atmospheric transmittance due to gases, aerosols, and thin clouds and the path radiance directed towards the sensor (both solar scattered and thermal emissions in the MWIR). A framework for a combined MWIR/LWIR compensation approach is presented where both scattering and absorption by atmospheric particles and gases are considered.; Proceedings of the Defense Security Symposium. International Society of Optical Engineers. Held at Gaylord Palms Resort: Orlando...