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Antibodies to Rotavirus Outer Capsid Glycoprotein VP7 Neutralize Infectivity by Inhibiting Virion Decapsidation

Ludert, Juan Ernesto; Ruiz, Marie Christine; Hidalgo, Carlos; Liprandi, Ferdinando
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 Português
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27.99%
The rotavirus capsid is composed of three concentric protein layers. Proteins VP4 and VP7 comprise the outer layer. VP4 forms spikes, is the viral attachment protein, and is cleaved by trypsin into VP8* and VP5*. VP7 is a glycoprotein and the major constituent of the outer protein layer. Both VP4 and VP7 induce neutralizing and protective antibodies. To gain insight into the virus neutralization mechanisms, the effects of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against VP8*, VP5*, and VP7 on the decapsidation process of purified OSU and RRV virions were studied. Changes in virion size were followed in real time by 90° light scattering. The transition from triple-layered particles to double-layered particles induced by controlled low calcium concentrations was completely inhibited by anti-VP7 MAbs but not by anti-VP8* or anti-VP5* MAbs. The inhibitory effect of the MAb directed against VP7 was concentration dependent and was abolished by papain digestion of virus-bound antibody under conditions that generated Fab fragments but not under conditions that generated F(ab′)2 fragments. Electron microscopy showed that RRV virions reacted with an anti-VP7 MAb stayed as triple-layered particles in the presence of excess EDTA. Furthermore...

Ionic Strength- and Temperature-Induced KCa Shifts in the Uncoating Reaction of Rotavirus Strains RF and SA11: Correlation with Membrane Permeabilization

Martin, Sandra; Lorrot, Mathie; El Azher, Mounia Alaoui; Vasseur, Monique
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2002 Português
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16.9%
The hydrodynamic diameters of native rotavirus particles, bovine RF and simian SA11 strains, were determined by quasielastic light scattering. By using this method and agarose gel electrophoresis, the Ca2+ dissociation constant, KCa, governing the transition from triple-layer particles (TLPs) to double-layer particles (DLPs), was shown to increase, at constant pH, as the temperature and/or the ionic strength of the incubation medium increased. We report the novel observation that, under physiological conditions, KCa values for both RF and SA11 rotaviruses were well above the intracytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of various cells, which may explain why TLP uncoating takes place within vesicles (possibly endosomes) during the entry process. A correlation between TLP uncoating and cell membrane permeabilization was found, as shown by the release of carboxyfluorescein (CF) from CF-loaded intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. Conditions stabilizing the virion in the TLP form inhibited CF release, whereas conditions favoring the TLP-to-DLP transformation activated this process. We conclude that membrane permeabilization must be preceded by the loss of the outer-capsid proteins from trypsinized TLP and that physiological ionic strength is required for permeabilization to take place. Finally...

Growth of the parvovirus minute virus of mice MVMp3 in EL4 lymphocytes is restricted after cell entry and before viral DNA amplification: cell-specific differences in virus uncoating in vitro.

Previsani, N; Fontana, S; Hirt, B; Beard, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1997 Português
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16.9%
Two murine parvoviruses with genomic sequences differing only in 33 nucleotides (8 amino acids) in the region coding for the capsid proteins show different host cell specificities: MVMi grows in EL4 T lymphocytes and MVMp3 grows in A9 fibroblasts. In this study we compared the courses of infections with these two viruses in EL4 cells in order to investigate at which step(s) the infection process of MVMp3 is interrupted. The two viruses bound equally well to EL4 cells, and similar amounts of MVMi and MVMp3 input virion DNA appeared in the nuclear fractions of EL4 cells 1 h after infection. However, double-stranded replicative-form (RF) DNA of the two viruses appeared at different times, at 10 h postinfection with MVMi and at 24 h postinfection with MVMp3. The amount of MVMp3 RF DNA detected at 24 h was very small because it was produced only in a tiny subset of the population of EL4 cells that proved to be permissive for MVMp3. Replication of double-stranded viral DNA in EL4 cells was measured after transfection of purified RF DNA, cloned viral DNA, and cloned viral DNA with a mutation preventing synthesis of the capsid proteins. In each of these cases, DNA replication was comparable for MVMi and MVMp3. Production of virus particles also appeared to be similar after transfection of the two types of RF DNA into EL4 cells. Conversion of incoming 32P-labeled single-stranded MVM DNA to 32P-labeled double-stranded RF DNA was detected only after RF DNA amplification...

Cell cycle control of polyomavirus-induced transformation.

Chen, H H; Fluck, M M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
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16.9%
The cell cycle dependence of polyomavirus transformation was analyzed in infections of nonpermissive Fischer rat (FR3T3) cells released from G0. A 5- to 100-fold (average, ca. 20-fold) difference in relative frequency of transformation was found for cells infected in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle compared with cells infected in G2. Differences in the relative level of early viral gene expression in those two cell populations were equivalent to those obtained for transformation frequencies. The difference in transformation potential was accounted for only in part by a cell cycle control of viral adsorption (2- to 15-fold effect). Furthermore, in cells infected in the early G1 phase, viral gene expression was induced as a big synchronous burst of large transcripts of variable sizes, delayed till the G1 phase of the cell cycle after that in which infection took place. Thus, the results demonstrate that the abortive infection cycle of G0-released FR3T3 cells is cell cycle regulated at least at two steps: adsorption and another early step, nuclear transport, decapsidation, up to or including the transcription of the viral early genes. The cell cycle regulation of these steps results in a similar regulation of the abortive and stable transformation processes...

Lyssavirus Matrix Protein Induces Apoptosis by a TRAIL-Dependent Mechanism Involving Caspase-8 Activation

Kassis, Raïd; Larrous, Florence; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
Lyssaviruses, which are members of the Rhabdoviridae family, induce apoptosis, which plays an important role in the neuropathogenesis of rabies. However, the mechanisms by which these viruses mediate neuronal apoptosis have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the early induction of apoptosis in a model of lyssavirus-infected neuroblastoma cells involves a TRAIL-dependent pathway requiring the activation of caspase-8 but not of caspase-9 or caspase-10. The activation of caspase-8 results in the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-6, as shown by an increase in the cleavage of the specific caspase substrate in lyssavirus-infected cells. However, neither caspase-1 nor caspase-2 activity was detected during the early phase of infection. Lyssavirus-mediated cell death involves an interaction between TRAIL receptors and TRAIL, as demonstrated by experiments using neutralizing antibodies and soluble decoy TRAIL-R1/R2 receptors. We also demonstrated that the decapsidation and replication of lyssavirus are essential for inducing apoptosis, as supported by UV inactivation, cycloheximide treatment, and the use of bafilomycin A1 to inhibit endosomal acidification. Transfection of cells with the matrix protein induced apoptosis using pathways similar to those described in the context of viral infection. Furthermore...

Epstein-Barr Virus BNRF1 Protein Allows Efficient Transfer from the Endosomal Compartment to the Nucleus of Primary B Lymphocytes

Feederle, R.; Neuhierl, B.; Baldwin, G.; Bannert, H.; Hub, B.; Mautner, J.; Behrends, U.; Delecluse, H. J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a tumor virus with marked B lymphotropism. After crossing the B-cell membrane, the virus enters cytoplasmic vesicles, where decapsidation takes place to allow transfer of the viral DNA to the cell nucleus. BNRF1 has been characterized as the EBV major tegument protein, but its precise function is unknown. We have constructed a viral mutant that lacks the BNRF1 gene and report here its in vitro phenotype. A recombinant virus devoid of BNRF1 (ΔBNRF1) showed efficient DNA replication and production of mature viral particles. B cells infected with the ΔBNRF1 mutant presented viral lytic antigens as efficiently as B cells infected with wild-type or BNRF1 trans-complemented ΔBNRF1 viruses. Antigen presentation in B cells infected with either wild-type (EBV-wt) or ΔBNRF1 virus was blocked by leupeptin addition, showing that both viruses reach the endosome/lysosome compartment. These data were confirmed by direct observation of the mutant virus in endosomes of infected B cells by electron microscopy. However, we observed a 20-fold reduction in the number of B cells expressing the nuclear protein EBNA2 after infection with a ΔBNRF1 virus compared to wild-type infection. Likewise, ΔBNRF1 viruses transformed primary B cells much less efficiently than EBV-wt or BNRF1 trans-complemented viruses. We conclude from these findings that BNRF1 plays an important role in viral transport from the endosomes to the nucleus.

Rhesus Rotavirus Entry into a Polarized Epithelium Is Endocytosis Dependent and Involves Sequential VP4 Conformational Changes▿

Wolf, Marie; Vo, Phuoc T.; Greenberg, Harry B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.62%
Rotavirus (RV) cell entry is an incompletely understood process, involving VP4 and VP7, the viral proteins composing the outermost layer of the nonenveloped RV triple-layered icosahedral particle (TLP), encasing VP6. VP4 can exist in three conformational states: soluble, cleaved spike, and folded back. In order to better understand the events leading to RV entry, we established a detection system to image input virus by monitoring the rhesus RV (RRV) antigens VP4, VP6, and VP7 at very early times postinfection. We provide evidence that decapsidation occurs directly after cell membrane penetration. We also demonstrate that several VP4 and VP7 conformational changes take place during entry. In particular, we detected, for the first time, the generation of folded-back VP5 in the context of the initiation of infection. Folded-back VP5 appears to be limited to the entry step. We furthermore demonstrate that RRV enters the cell cytoplasm through an endocytosis pathway. The endocytosis hypothesis is supported by the colocalization of RRV antigens with the early endosome markers Rab4 and Rab5. Finally, we provide evidence that the entry process is likely dependent on the endocytic Ca2+ concentration, as bafilomycin A1 treatment as well as an augmentation of the extracellular calcium reservoir using CaEGTA...

Characterization of Human Astrovirus Cell Entry

Méndez, Ernesto; Muñoz-Yañez, Claudia; Sánchez-San Martín, Claudia; Aguirre-Crespo, Gabriela; Baños-Lara, M. del Rocio; Gutierrez, Michelle; Espinosa, Rafaela; Acevedo, Yunuén; Arias, Carlos F.; López, Susana
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
Human astroviruses (HAstV) are a frequent cause of gastroenteritis in young children and immunocompromised patients. To understand the early steps of HAstV infection in the highly permissive Caco-2 cell line, the binding and entry processes of the virus were characterized. The half-time of virus binding to the cell surface was about 10 min, while virus decapsidation took around 130 min. Drugs affecting clathrin-mediated endocytosis, endosome acidification, and actin filament polymerization, as well as those that reduce the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane, decreased the infectivity of the virus. The infection was also reduced by silencing the expression of the clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by RNA interference or by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of dynamin 2 and Eps15. Furthermore, the entry of HAstV apparently depends on the maturation of endosomes, since the infection was reduced by silencing the expression of Rab7, a small GTPase involved in the early- to late-endosome maturation. Altogether, our results suggest that HAstV enters Caco-2 cells using a clathrin-dependent pathway and reaches late endosomes to enter cells. Here, we have characterized the mechanism used by human astroviruses, important agents of gastroenteritis in children...

Rotavirus Activates Lymphocytes from Non-Obese Diabetic Mice by Triggering Toll-Like Receptor 7 Signaling and Interferon Production in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

Pane, Jessica A.; Webster, Nicole L.; Coulson, Barbara S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
It has been proposed that rotavirus infection promotes the progression of genetically-predisposed children to type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease marked by infiltration of activated lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for the human disease. Infection of adult NOD mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV) accelerates diabetes onset, without evidence of pancreatic infection. Rather, RRV spreads to the pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes where its association with antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells, induces cellular maturation. RRV infection increases levels of the class I major histocompatibility complex on B cells and proinflammatory cytokine expression by T cells at these sites. In autoimmunity-resistant mice and human mononuclear cells from blood, rotavirus-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to bystander polyclonal B cell activation through type I interferon expression. Here we tested the hypothesis that rotavirus induces bystander activation of lymphocytes from NOD mice by provoking dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. NOD mouse splenocytes were stimulated with rotavirus and assessed for activation by flow cytometry. This stimulation activated antigen-presenting cells and B cells independently of virus strain and replicative ability. Instead...

Activation of Adenoviral Gene Expression by Protein IX Is Not Required for Efficient Virus Replication

Sargent, Kathy L.; Meulenbroek, Robert A.; Parks, Robin J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
The adenovirus (Ad) protein IX (pIX) is a minor component of the Ad capsid and is in part responsible for virion stability; virions lacking pIX are heat labile and lose their infectivity if the DNA content is greater than ∼35 kb. More recently, pIX has been identified as a transcriptional activator and, in transient-transfection assays, was shown to enhance expression from the E1A, E4, and major late Ad promoters by as much as 70-fold. In this study, we examined the role of pIX's ability to activate transcription during Ad replication. In transient-transfection assays, pIX had a minimal effect on expression from the E1A promoter, increasing expression by only 1.4-fold. We used helper-dependent Ad vectors, which had all Ad protein coding sequences deleted with the exception of E1A and which had capsids that either contained or lacked pIX, to show that pIX derived from decapsidation of the infecting virion does not influence expression of E1A. Similarly, expression of pIX from the Ad genome did not alter the expression levels of E1A. Viruses that had pIX deleted showed a threefold reduction in virus yield and expression of late genes compared to those of a similar virus which encoded pIX. This phenotype could not be rescued by growing the virus in cells which constitutively express pIX. Our results indicate that...

Transient high level mammalian reovirus replication in a bat epithelial cell line occurs without cytopathic effect

Sandekian, Véronique; Lim, Debbie; Prud'homme, Patrick; Lemay, Guy
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.9%
Mammalian reoviruses exhibit a large host range and infected cells are generally killed; however, most studies examined only a few cell types and host species, and are probably not representative of all possible interactions between virus and host cell. Many questions thus remain concerning the nature of cellular factors that affect viral replication and cell death. In the present work, it was observed that replication of the classical mammalian reovirus serotype 3 Dearing in a bat epithelial cell line, Tb1.Lu, does not result in cell lysis and is rapidly reduced to very low levels. Prior uncoating of virions by chymotrypsin treatment, to generate infectious subviral particles, increased the initial level of infection but without any significant effect on further viral replication or cell survival. Infected cells remain resistant to virus reinfection and secrete an antiviral factor, most likely interferon, that is protective against the unrelated encephalomyocarditis virus. Although, the transformed status of a cell is believed to promote reovirus replication and viral “oncolysis”, resistant Tb1.Lu cells exhibit a classical phenotype of transformed cells by forming colonies in semisolid soft agar medium. Further transduction of Tb.Lu cells with a constitutively-active Ras oncogene does not seem cell growth or reovirus effect on these cells. Infected Tb1.Lu cells can produce low-level of infectious virus for a long time without any apparent effect...

Amino acid substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins are selected during mammalian reovirus adaptation to Vero cells

Jabre, Roland; Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.99%
Establishment of viral persistence in cell culture has previously led to the selection of mammalian reovirus mutants, although very few of those have been characterized in details. In the present study, reovirus was adapted to Vero cells that, in contrast to classically-used L929 cells, are inefficient in supporting the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are also unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response once infection occurs. The Vero cell-adapted reovirus exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 proteins. This contrasts with uncoating mutants from persistently-infected L929 cells, and various other cell types, that generally harbor amino acids substitutions in the σ3 outer capsid protein. The Vero cell-adapted virus remained sensitive to an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases; furthermore, in the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance, t he virus has partially lost its ability to resist interferon. The positions of the amino acids substitutions on the known protein structures suggest an effect on binding of the viral σ1 protein to the cell surface and on μ1 disassembly from the outer capsid.; L'établissement de la persistance virale en culture cellulaire a précédemment mené à la sélection de mutants de réovirus...

Amino acids substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins of a Vero cell-adapted mammalian orthoreovirus are required for optimal virus binding and disassembly

Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.62%
In a recent study, the serotype 3 Dearing strain of mammalian orthoreovirus was adapted to Vero cells; cells that exhibit a limited ability to support the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response upon infection. The Vero cell-adapted virus (VeroAV) exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins but no changes in the σ3 protein. Accordingly, the virus was shown not to behave as a classical uncoating mutant. In the present study, an increased ability of the virus to bind at the Vero cell surface was observed and is likely associated with an increased ability to bind onto cell-surface sialic acid residues. In addition, the kinetics of μ1 disassembly from the virions appears to be altered. The plasmid-based reverse genetics approach confirmed the importance of σ1 amino acids substitutions in VeroAV's ability to efficiently infect Vero cells, although μ1 co-adaptation appears necessary to optimize viral infection. This approach of combining in vitro selection of reoviruses with reverse genetics to identify pertinent amino acids substitutions appears promising in the context of eventual reovirus modification to increase its potential as an oncolytic virus.; Dans une étude récente...