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Making the Grade : Smallholder Farmers, Emerging Standards, and Development Assistance Programs in Africa - A Research Program Synthesis

Jaffee, Steven; Henson, Spencer; Diaz Rios, Luz
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Market access has been identified as one of the foremost factors influencing the performance of small-scale producers in developing countries, and in particular least-developed countries. Smallholder access to markets for higher-value or differentiated agricultural and food products (hereafter HVAF) is recognized as a vital opportunity to enhance and diversify the livelihoods of lower-income farm households and reduce rural poverty more generally (World Bank 2007a). Smallholder participation in HVAF markets is typically constrained by inadequate farm-level resources, farm-to-market logistical bottlenecks, and more general transaction costs in matching and aggregating dispersed supplies to meet buyer and consumer demand. These traditional constraints have been amplified and, in some cases, surpassed by a new set of challenges associated with compliance with product and process standards, set and enforced by governments as well as private supply-chain leaders. In the face of emerging challenges and opportunities associated with standards and serving HVAF markets...

Innovating Development Finance : From Financing Sources to Financial Solutions

Girishankar, Navin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
As early as 2000, development partners embarked on a decade-long search for "innovative" or alternative sources of Official Development Assistance to help finance achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. For their part, developing countries have sought not only more financial flows but better financial solutions, for example, through partnerships that mobilize private finance for public service delivery, risk mitigation efforts that promote private entry in the productive sectors, and support for carbon trading. This paper offers a framework to organize and understand this heterogeneous mix of innovations in fund-raising and financial solutions for development. It also provides, for the first time, a stocktaking of actual innovations that make up the international landscape and highlights the World Bank Group s role to date. The stocktaking shows that innovative finance mechanisms have played a more significant role in supporting financial solutions on the ground than in identifying and exploiting "alternative sources of ODA." Innovative fund-raising therefore should be viewed as a complement to - rather than a substitute for - traditional efforts to mobilize official flows...

Reducing the Transaction Costs of Development Assistance : Ghana’s Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) Experience from 2003 to 2007

Cavalcanti, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.09%
This paper examines whether the structure of the Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) in Ghana evolved over time to minimize transaction costs commonly found in accessing and delivering development assistance in multi-donor settings. While the MDBS was expected to reduce the transaction costs involved in dealing with multiple development agencies, it created three additional sources of transaction costs: coordination failures, the costs of collective action, and measurement costs. The answer that emerges from this paper is that the structure of the MDBS evolved to mitigate these transaction costs. The problems associated with coordination was addressed by delegating the policy dialogue to sector-specific groups aimed at reaching agreements over a narrower set of issues and amongst a smaller group of participants. Also, the MDBS reduced the cost of collective action by devising rules that allowed all the participating agencies to have a role in the decision-making process, and, in doing so, encouraged these agencies to increase the share of their contribution coming through the MDBS...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Português
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65.85%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; FAO Statistics Division
Fonte: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Publicador: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Arab Development Assistance : Four Decades of Cooperation

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Over the past four decades, Arab aid, which has been relatively under-studied, has played an important role in global development finance. Arab donors- predominantly the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-have been among the most generous in the world, with official development assistance (ODA) averaging 1.5 percent of their combined gross national income (GNI) during the period 1973-2008, more than twice the United Nations target of 0.7 percent and five times the average of the Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development (OECD)- Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries. In addition to government-to-government aid, Arab donors have established a number of specialized financial institutions to provide development assistance to low-income countries. Assistance through these institutions increased substantially by 4.4 percent per year in real terms over the period 1990-2008. There are good reasons to believe that Arab aid will continue to play an important role in international development assistance into the foreseeable future. Arab donors have recently increased their aid volumes...

International Development Cooperation : Set of Lectures

Bartenev, Vladimir; Glazunova, Elena
Fonte: World Bank, Moscow Publicador: World Bank, Moscow
Português
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56.27%
This set of lectures is structured in accordance with the aforementioned objectives. It is divided into four parts. Part one examines the theoretical-methodological issues of development studies that remain largely a terra incognita for the Russian audience. The authors deliberately differentiated between two terms, development and international development assistance . The most voluminous Part two examines the key issues pertaining to aid architecture. In the beginning the authors reconstruct the terminological and institutional-legal system in which international development assistance is provided currently, classify the main criteria, forms, and modalities of aid, as well as identify key international development actors. The first introductory lecture is followed by a description of the latest trends in composition and distribution of aid flows with breakdowns by donor group, aid modality, region, country, income group, and sector. There is an analysis of those trends which hinder progress in increasing aid effectiveness. The authors develop the idea that international development assistance is a form of cooperation in which both donors and recipients (regardless of the differences in their motivation...

Fungibility of Donor Assistance to Liberia : Focusing on Aid to the Health Sector, A Case Study

Fairbank, Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.17%
The main purpose of this work is to develop a case study assessing the recent patterns and impacts of ODA (official development assistance) and DAH (development assistance for health) to Liberia on overall government spending and domestic revenue generation as well as domestic government health spending. Specifically, the study will examine the recent flows of ODA and DAH resources into the country and test whether it is possible to determine the degree of fungibility in domestic budgetary expenditures and revenues, overall, as well as in domestic health budgetary spending and receipts (from internal and external sources) as a result of (or due to) ODA and DAH. The study will distinguish between targeted/earmarked aid and general budget support, and will attempt to distinguish commitments from actual disbursements (both for DAH and for government).

Democratic conditionality in development assistance

Rich, Roland
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 161519 bytes; 354 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
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66.04%
[Introduction]: President Bush’s address to the United Nations Conference on Financing for Development with its startling announcement of a 50% increase in United States Official Development Assistance (ODA) has put the issue of aid conditionality at the forefront of the development debate. To understand and evaluate the impact of the announcement, it is worthwhile examining the concept of ODA and the role of conditionality in that concept. The paper will then consider to what extent, and to what effect, has democratic governance become one of the conditions for the granting of ODA.; no

Ayuda oficial al desarrollo científico-tecnológica: una evaluación macroeconómica de la distribución geográfica y sectorial; Official development assistance for science and technology: a macroeconomic evaluation of the geographical and sectorial distribution

Quiñones Montellano, Ainoa; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Sociedad de Economía Mundial Publicador: Sociedad de Economía Mundial
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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66.11%
RESUMEN. La innovación y el acceso al conocimiento son elementos decisivos para los procesos de desarrollo económico. No obstante, aunque la globalización facilita una expansión sin precedentes del conocimiento, la sociedad del siglo XXI tiene aún pendiente garantizar un acceso equitativo a los beneficios de la innovación para expandir las oportunidades de progreso a todos los pueblos. En este contexto, las políticas internacionales de cooperación científicotecnológica para el desarrollo (cooperación CT) pretenden promover el progreso tecnológico, científico e innovador de los países en desarrollo. En este trabajo caracterizamos las políticas de cooperación CT (identificando sus principales objetivos, actores y sectores de destino), y analizamos la evolución y la distribución geográfica y sectorial de los flujos de Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo científico-tecnológica (AOD-CT). El trabajo concluye que las políticas de cooperación CT son una apuesta, desde la innovación, por una estrategia inclusiva de desarrollo internacional.; ABSTRACT. Innovation and access to knowledge are critical elements for the processes of economic development. Nevertheless, although globalization facilitates an unprecedented expansion of knowledge...

Ayuda oficial española al desarrollo: los retos de la especialización geográfica y sectorial; Spanish official development assistance: the geographical and sector specialization challenges

Larrú Ramos, José María; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT Publicador: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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66.02%
RESUMEN. España cierra un ciclo de fuerte expansión de su política pública de ayuda internacional para el desarrollo, e inicia una nueva etapa de crisis y ajuste presupuestario en la que deberá revisar su estrategia de cooperación. En este artículo se describen los hechos estilizados que caracterizan la estructura de la Ayuda Oficial española al Desarrollo (AOD). Para ello se analiza la distribución geográfica, sectorial e instrumental de la AOD, comparando los niveles de coordi-nación logrados por los dos últimos Gobiernos del PP y del PSOE, y se proponen criterios de política económica para diseñar una política pública de cooperación verdaderamente selectiva y “estratégica”.; ABSTRACT. Spain closes a cycle of strong growth in its public policy of foreign aid for development, and starts a new period of crisis and fiscal adjustment in which the co-operation strategy must be revised. This article describes the stylized facts that characterize the Spanish Official Development Assistance (ODA). We analyze the geographical, sectorial and instrumental ODA distribution, comparing the different patterns followed by the last two Governments of the PP and the PSOE, and we propose economic policy criteria to design a truly selective and “strategic” public policy of inter-national co-operation.

¿Altruismo o interés?: el papel de la inmigración en la asignación geográfica de la ayuda oficial española al desarrollo; Altruism or interest?: the role of immigration flows in the geographical allocation of Spanish official development assistance

Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio; Gutiérrez Sobrao, David
Fonte: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA) Publicador: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
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65.99%
RESUMEN. Aunque el “eclecticismo” con el que se distribuye geográficamente la Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo (AOD) no tiene visos de cambiar, sí se han alterado las prioridades del sistema internacional, “redefiniéndose” el mapamundi de la ayuda del siglo XXI. Uno de los fenómenos más relevantes es la intensificación de los flujos migratorios emitidos por los países en desarrollo y recibidos por los países desarrollados. No obstante, hasta la fecha no se ha estudiado la influencia que la inmigración ejerce en la asignación geográfica de la ayuda. Este artículo analiza en qué medida los flujos migratorios han modificado el patrón de asignación de la AOD española y revela que la inmigración es relevante tanto para la selección de países socios, como para la asignación de cuotas de ayuda, lo que agrava la fragmentación de los recursos y “difumina” la estrategia geográfica de la cooperación oficial española.; ABSTRACT. Although the “eclecticism” of the geographical distribution of Official Development Assistance (ODA) does not seem to change, the priorities of the international system have actually changed, “reshaping” the aid map of the 21st Century. One of the most relevant phenomenon is the intensification of the immigration flows emitted by developing countries and received by developed countries. However...

The human rights-based approach to development assistance

O'Keefe, Geoffrey
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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66.3%
The Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to development assistance has gained considerable prominence within the development community over the past decade. This rise of the HRBA is seen in the wide range of organisations that have adopted it, which includes multilateral agencies, bilateral donors and non-government organisations (NGOs). This list does not, however, include the Australian Government's Overseas Aid Program (AusAID). The HRBA is an attempt by aid organisations to place the norms and standards of the international human rights framework at the centre of development assistance. Apart from this very loose definition, there is little consensus as to what constitutes a HRBA. This is evident in the myriad of understandings and policies of various development organisations. Most organisations apply the relevant UN conventions and declarations on human rights to frame their HRBAs. In the past, the development establishment has enthusiastically adopted theoretically homogenous approaches; this however, has not ensured the success of development assistance. By lacking a uniform theory, the HRBA seems to be more flexible and adaptable than previous development plans and theories. In practice, the HRBA often embraces several key means to achieving its goal of sustainable development...

The Impact of Rising Chinese Trade and Development Assistance in West Africa

Pigato, Miria; Gourdon, Julien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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66.06%
The rapid economic rise of China over the last twenty years has sustained high global demand and prices for primary commodities such as oil and minerals, greatly benefitting Sub-Saharan (SSA) African countries. China now represents more than 20 percent of SSA's trade, up from just 2.3 percent in 1985. West Africa's share in China's trade is still quite low, 0.6 percent in 2012, but it is rising rapidly. Exports to China - oil, iron, phosphates, gold, cotton, cocoa and cashew nuts, have grown fast. However, they have not grown as rapidly as imports, resulting in a large trade deficit with China (13 percent of West Africa's GDP over 2009-2012). Reasons include a strong consumption demand for inexpensive Chinese products as well as the import-content requirements in development assistance agreements. Looking at the impact of China on West Africa, it appears that West African producers do not compete with China on third markets; by and large their products are complementary. However, West African producers are finding difficult to compete with China in their own domestic as well as in regional markets. The paper's main messages are as follows: Chinese demand for primary commodities is likely to continue in the near future...

Lesotho : Development in a Challenging Environment

Hassan, Fareed M.A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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56.23%
The report reviews the Bank's development assistance to Lesotho, a poor country, of predominantly rural populations, landlocked and completely surrounded by, and economically dependent on, South Africa. Not surprisingly, a major development challenge for the country is that half the population lives below the poverty line, and income inequality is among the highest in the world. Other challenges are low quality of education, and health services, widespread HIV/AIDS, weak institutions, and lagging private sector development. Given the circumstances, Bank assistance evolved from an emphasis on stabilization and growth, to a focus on poverty reduction and private sector development towards the end of the 1990s. Throughout this period, the Bank supported joint work with the Government, and the International Monetary Fund on successive Policy Framework Papers, as well a Poverty Assessment, and a Strategic Economic Options Report; regrettably, other analytical work was not fully completed, and, notably absent were periodic reviews of public expenditures. Although the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) featured substantial macroeconomic impact...

A Case for Aid : Building a Consensus for Development Assistance

Wolfensohn, James D.; Stern, Nicholas; Goldin, Ian; Rogers, Halsey; Karlsson, Mats
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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66.2%
This publication includes readings related to the U.N. International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Monterrey, Mexico, in March 2002:(a) "A Partnership for Development and Peace," a keynote speech given by World Bank president James D. Wolfensohn, two weeks before the Monterrey event;(b) "Making the Case for Aid," a note by World Bank chief economist Nicholas Stern, discussing the consensus that emerged from Monterrey;(c) "The Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance," a report presented at Monterrey, detailing lessons from the World Bank's experience, written by Ian Goldin, Halsey Rogers, and Nicholas Stern;(d) "The Monterrey Consensus," the official United Nations document outlining the major agreements reached at the conference, with an introduction by Mats Karlsson, World Bank vice president for external and U.N. affairs.

Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity Development in Africa : Selected Proceedings, Johannesburg, 25-29 September 2000

Development Bank of Southern Africa; African Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Johannesburg Publicador: Johannesburg
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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66.02%
The importance of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function within public administration has been magnified by the growing voice of civil society, which has brought the issues of good governance and more effective public administration to the fore. The global trend towards more accountable, responsive and efficient government has bolstered the appeal for M&E capacity development, which has been the central focus of efforts to improve governance in the context of a comprehensive development framework. Evaluation has become increasingly important in Africa owing to stagnant, and negative economic growth rates, together with concerns related to governance, and doubts about the efficacy of development assistance. These are selected proceedings from the seminar and workshop on "Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity Development for Africa" as a follow-up to the regional seminar, to foster networking among M&E practitioners, and to share knowledge on M&E in the context of improved governance, accountability, and effective development delivery...

Japan's Official Development Assistance : Recent Issues and Future Directions

Kawai, Masahiro; Takagi, Shinji
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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66.22%
Japan remains the world's largest national donor of aid funds. But the Japanese government, facing prolonged economic stagnation and mounting public sector debt, is under increasing public pressure to reduce aid budgets and to use official development assistance in more explicit pursuit of Japan's own economic and political interests. Internationally, Japan continues to attract criticism for its emphasis on infrastructure projects and its limited willingness to participate in multilateral partnerships. The authors argue that Japan can meet these domestic and international challenges by developing a coherent national strategy for official development assistance, broadly designed to enhance effectiveness, accountability, and transparency.

Mainstreaming Climate Adaptation into Development Assistance in Mozambique : Institutional Barriers and Opportunities

Sietz, Diana; Boschütz, Maria; Klein, Richard J.T.; Lotsch, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Based on a literature review and expert interviews, this paper analyzes the most important climate impacts on development goals and explores relevant institutions in the context of mainstreaming climate adaptation into development assistance in Mozambique. Climate variability and change can significantly hinder progress toward attaining the Millennium Development Goals and poverty aggravates the country's climate vulnerability. Because Mozambique is one of the major recipients of official development assistance in the world, there is a clear interest in ensuring that the risks of climate impacts are incorporated into the country's development investments. A screening of donor activities at the sub-national level shows that a high share of development assistance is invested in climate-sensitive sectors, partly in areas that are particularly exposed to droughts, floods, and cyclones. The authors find that Mozambique has a supportive legislative environment and donors have a high awareness of climate risks. However...

Regional Variation in the Allocation of Development Assistance for Health

Hanlon, Michael; Graves, Casey M.; Brooks, Benjamin P.C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Lavado, Rouselle; Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Dieleman, Joseph L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
Português
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66.07%
The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study has published disability-adjusted life year (DALY) data at both regional and country levels from 1990 to 2010. Concurrently, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) has published estimates of development assistance for health (DAH) at the country-disease level for this same period of time. We use disease burden data from the GBD 2010 study and financing data from IHME to calculate ratios of DAH to DALYs across regions and diseases. We examine the magnitude of these ratios and how they have varied over time. There is remarkable variation in the level of development assistance for health (DAH) per disability adjusted life-year (DALY) across regions and diseases.