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Local and Community Driven Development : Moving to Scale in Theory and Practice

Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans P.; De Regt, Jacomina P.; Spector, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Services are failing poor urban and rural people in the developing world, and poverty remains concentrated in rural areas and urban slums. This state of affairs prevails despite prolonged efforts by many governments to improve rural and urban services and development programs. This book focuses on how communities and local governments can be empowered to contribute to their own development and, in the process, improve infrastructure, governance, services, and economic and social development, that is, ultimately, the broad range of activities for sustainable poverty reduction. Countries and their development partners have been trying to involve communities and local governments in their own development since the end of Second World War, when the first colonies gained independence in South Asia. Pioneers in both India and Bangladesh (then a part of Pakistan) developed a clear vision of how it will be done: local development should be planned and managed by local citizens, their communities, and their local governments within a clearly defined decentralized framework that devolves real power and resources to local governments and communities. Capacity support will be provided by technical institutions and sectors and nongovernmental institutions.

Identifying Aid Effectiveness Challenges in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

Ishihara, Yoichiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Fragile and conflict-affected states face daunting challenges for development. Aid has a greater importance on development in these states than in others, and therefore aid effectiveness management and delivery of aid bears serious consideration. Despite its significance, aid effectiveness is appreciably lower in fragile and conflict-affected states than in others. What are the key aid effectiveness challenges in these states and how can these issues be better addressed? As important initial steps, this paper aims to identify (i) aid effectiveness challenges facing fragile and conflict-affected states and (ii) good aid effectiveness examples using the results of the Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness, which was designed as a mechanism to support global and country level accountability. Both fragile and conflict-affected states (recipients) and development partners (providers) are mutually accountable for aid effectiveness; therefore, this paper focuses on both sides. While the analysis confirms the significantly lower aid effectiveness performance in fragile and conflict-affected states -- especially on aid on budget...

Contracts, Land Tenure and Rural Development in Timor-Leste

Nixon, Rod
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
As in other societies in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, customary social organization features strongly in rural Timor-Leste. As well as providing avenues for conflict resolution, the influence of customary systems extends to land tenure. As the state, development partners, private investors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and others seek to promote rural development in Timor-Leste, they will be forced to engage in some way with customary ownership and use claims which prevail in the districts. A further dimension of the subsistence nature of the Timor-Leste economy is the fact that the use of contracts in connection with agribusiness transactions is rare. This presents a further challenge to the objective of increasing private sector investment in the rural economy. Based on field visits, this Justice for the Poor (J4P) briefing note looks at the rural economy of Timor-Leste and considers approaches that could help promote productive and equitable relationships between communities and other rural development partners and contribute to mutually beneficial rural development outcomes.

The Dynamics of Conflict, Development Assistance and Peace-Building : Sri Lanka 2000-05

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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56.1%
Significant transformations in the socio-political and economic landscape of Sri Lanka in recent years encouraged five development partners-World Bank, Asia Foundation, and the governments of the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Sweden to collaborate on a conflict assessment in 2005. This reflects a growing trend in the development partner community of combining efforts, pooling resources, and taking advantage of comparative strengths to engage in conflict analysis exercises. The multi-donor conflict assessment revisits the underlying structures of conflict, identified in the previous conflict assessment, and explores the current dynamics of conflict factors with a particular focus on the peace process and international engagement. This note presents key findings of the assessment, in particular, the approaches supported by development partners in Sri Lanka. While this is drawn solely from the Sri Lanka experience, it is likely to have a broad relevance to many such countries.

International Development Cooperation : Set of Lectures

Bartenev, Vladimir; Glazunova, Elena
Fonte: World Bank, Moscow Publicador: World Bank, Moscow
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
This set of lectures is structured in accordance with the aforementioned objectives. It is divided into four parts. Part one examines the theoretical-methodological issues of development studies that remain largely a terra incognita for the Russian audience. The authors deliberately differentiated between two terms, development and international development assistance . The most voluminous Part two examines the key issues pertaining to aid architecture. In the beginning the authors reconstruct the terminological and institutional-legal system in which international development assistance is provided currently, classify the main criteria, forms, and modalities of aid, as well as identify key international development actors. The first introductory lecture is followed by a description of the latest trends in composition and distribution of aid flows with breakdowns by donor group, aid modality, region, country, income group, and sector. There is an analysis of those trends which hinder progress in increasing aid effectiveness. The authors develop the idea that international development assistance is a form of cooperation in which both donors and recipients (regardless of the differences in their motivation...

Strategic Directions for Human Development in Papua New Guinea

Asian Development Bank; Australian Agency for International Development; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
There is an emerging consensus in Papua New Guinea (PNG) -- both at the governmental level and among civil society more generally -- that human development outcomes are far less than satisfactory and that service provision in many parts of the country is collapsing despite the significant level of both government and development partner financing of the human development sectors. In response, the government and the Joint Donors -- the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the World Bank -- embarked on a Human Development Review to suggest options for improving human development outcomes and government expenditure efficiency. In this review of strategy options for health, HIV/AIDS, and education, it is argued that human development sectors are at an important crossroad with a large unfinished agenda and a range of critical challenges.

The Republic of Uganda - Public Expenditure Review : Report on the Progress and Challenges of Budget Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This PER emphasizes the importance of the government and its development partners developing a systematic program and a sequenced approach to address identified concerns to allow Uganda to achieve macrostability, fiscal sustainability, and poverty reduction. The report is organized in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the macro challenges Uganda faces and how these are linked to fiscal considerations. Macrostability has largely been achieved with satisfactory growth rates higher than in the previous year. But the unprecedented terms of trade shock has resulted in the decline of total receipts from exports. The reduction of foreign exchange revenues in combination with lower revenue collections has led to fiscal constraints. Chapter 2 notes the need to ensure stakeholder contribution to the budget process and to improve quality of budget planning, choices, and predictability. Chapter 3 analyzes the health, education, and water and sanitation sectors and describes the great progress made in aloocative efficiency --although these sectors are experiencing major challenges in achieving operational efficiency. Chapter 4 discusses how the government has "commitment control systems (CCSs)" to address the problem of arrears. Chapter 5 identifies how Uganda uses tracking systems to identify problems in flow of funds. Chapter 6 discusses the growing challenges for budget preparation...

Vietnam 2010 : Entering the 21st Century

World Bank; Asian Development Bank; United Nations Development Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The study outlines the socioeconomic development strategy for Vietnam, during the first decade of the twenty first century, envisaging sustainable economic development, to rapidly adjust to social stability, while maintaining cultural, and traditional ties. The aim is to become a socialist market economy, fully integrated into the global economy, internationally competitive, with characteristics of an industrialized, and knowledge-based society within twenty years. This vision articulates the eradication of hunger, and hard-core poverty, emphasizing universal lower secondary education. Likewise, it intends to reduce child malnutrition, increase life expectancy, and raise access to clean water in urban areas. However, the vision requires a doubling of the GDP by 2010, through increased investments and growing exports, declining agricultural inputs, but increasing the industrial, and services share. Part I of the report, still undergoing extensive consultations within the Government, and civil society, provides the strategic directions for the country...

Hardship and Vulnerability in the Pacific Island Countries : A Regional Companion to the World Development Report 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.05%
In many Pacific island countries, meeting non-food basic needs is a growing challenge and further complicated by substantial economic and environmental risks. Hardship and vulnerability are increasingly prominent concerns in Pacific island countries, but the knowledge base to guide policymaking is limited. Family and community networks are central to life in most Pacific island countries, providing critical support to members in need and acting as safety nets when individuals or households experience losses from shocks. The primary objective of this report is to present solid empirical evidence of hardship, vulnerability to shocks, and risk management in the Pacific region. The report is primarily a stocktaking exercise that brings together existing evidence and new analysis of available data using a consistent framework. The report takes a "micro" perspective that of the individual and household but accounts for the important role of communities, the state, and international partners. This report focuses on risks...

Benchmarking Immunization Program Performance in the Africa Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
The report intends to help shape the Africa Region's engagement in immunization, and, its major findings both validate conventional wisdom on immunization, and challenge the development community to explore new interventions. According to the study, the majority of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have well-performing, or improved immunization programs reflecting the high priority governments and development partners attach to this basic health service. The overriding message is that robust implementation was essential to sustained success in the countries profiled in the case studies, and, countries found their own solutions, and pursued different strategies. The report also raises some provocative questions about the relationship between different programmatic instruments, and immunization program performance. Finally, some of the case studies highlight how programs are adapting to the rapidly changing environment in which development interventions are taking place. This new application of the benchmarking methodology may be of interest to immunization program managers, whose process can be used to analyze performance variation among districts, and to develop action plans for addressing major bottlenecks in the periphery. The report further emphasizes the importance of remaining vigilant...

Securing Durable Development in Afghanistan : Policy Notes for the Government

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
The government of Afghanistan has an opportunity in the coming months to turn the country around. It is now opportune to improve security, governance, and development. Unprecedented international military support, political attention and aid are available to Afghanistan. The government is inheriting years of good economic performance, notable progress on social outcomes, and continuing strong support from the international community. Gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 12 percent in the last five years with moderate inflation and a stable Afghani. The National Solidarity Program is spurring community-driven rural development in nearly all districts of the country and the large opium economy is in retreat. Significant progress has been achieved in basic education and health. Gender indicators are improving. The government and its development partners have an obligation to seize this opportunity for all Afghans. All donors made an explicit commitment at the London Conference in January 2010 to progressively cede leadership to the Afghan people. The donors agreed to route half of their development aid through the national budget from the current one-fifth in the next two years...

Five Key Messages : Recommendations for Capacity Development in Africa; Cing meseages cles: recommandations pour le developpment des capacities en Afrique

Madavo, Callisto
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
A Task Force was set up to recommend changes in the way the Bank affects African capacity, both directly through operations aimed at capacity development, and indirectly through the way it conducts its overall business of development lending and cooperation in Africa. Key messages are emerging, which can inform and stimulate the efforts of all parties in capacity development on the continent-African countries, external partners, and the Bank. The Task Force regards these as a work in progress around which further discussion and reflection are on-going. The five key messages are: 1) capacity is the missing link in Africa's achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); 2) capacity development aims at an effective state, and an engaged society; 3) Africans must take the lead in capacity development and aid management; 4) external partners must engage existing capacity in all African countries; and, 5) achieving capacity outcomes requires independent monitoring. A renewed compact will require the commitment of African leaders and their development partners...

The World Bank Annual Report 2000; Volume 1. Annual Review and Summary Financial Information

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: World Bank Annual Report; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This annual report, which covers the period from July 1, 1999 to June 30, 2000, spells out the guiding principles of the Bank's work: country ownership, long-term integrated approach, partnership, and results focus. This vision was put into practice under a pilot approach, the Comprehensive Development Framework. The following are some of the highlights of Fiscal Year 2000: a) The share of projects at risk of not achieving their development objectives fell to an estimated 15 percent of the total in fiscal 2000, or roughly half the rate of fiscal 1998. b) New lending commitments declined to $15.3 billion. c) Seven countries qualified for debt relief under the enhanced initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, six of them in Africa. d) The Bank and the International Monetary Fund began to help countries prepare Poverty Reduction Strategies, which are becoming the basis for debt relief and concessional lending by the Bank, the Fund, and other development partners. e) The Bank announced up to $1 billion support to help borrowers of the International Development Association to combat HIV/AIDS...

Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity Development in Africa : Selected Proceedings, Johannesburg, 25-29 September 2000

Development Bank of Southern Africa; African Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Johannesburg Publicador: Johannesburg
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The importance of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function within public administration has been magnified by the growing voice of civil society, which has brought the issues of good governance and more effective public administration to the fore. The global trend towards more accountable, responsive and efficient government has bolstered the appeal for M&E capacity development, which has been the central focus of efforts to improve governance in the context of a comprehensive development framework. Evaluation has become increasingly important in Africa owing to stagnant, and negative economic growth rates, together with concerns related to governance, and doubts about the efficacy of development assistance. These are selected proceedings from the seminar and workshop on "Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity Development for Africa" as a follow-up to the regional seminar, to foster networking among M&E practitioners, and to share knowledge on M&E in the context of improved governance, accountability, and effective development delivery...

Reaching Across the Waters : Facing the Risks of Cooperation in International Waters

Subramanian, Ashok; Brown, Bridget; Wolf, Aaron
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This study reviews the experience of cooperation in selected international river basins and during selected time periods in those basins. The review is from a country perspective and focuses on the countries' perceived risks and opportunities in engaging in regional cooperation deals in response to the prospects for cooperation. It is primarily aimed at external development partners who promote regional public goods (river basin institutions and agreements) and support cooperative activities and investments in international waters. We also believe that countries and individuals engaged in international waters issues will find this study and reflections helpful in enhancing their knowledge and advancing their actions with respect to regional cooperation. The specific purpose of the study is to alert teams engaged in promoting cooperation in international waters to the need for a careful risk analysis and for the formulation of a risk reduction strategy to help countries move toward cooperation.

Briefing Book from Development Partners of Moldova; Note informative din partea partenerilor de dezvoltare ai Moldovei

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
Português
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56.15%
The community of development partners in the Republic of Moldova would be honored to engage in the development policy dialogue with the new Government. This briefing book from development partners is offered as a first step in such a dialogue and is solely intended to assist the new Government by providing development partners views and proposals that it can use to the extent it considers useful and relevant. These recommendations are based on Moldova s existing policy orientations as set out in the National Development Strategy Moldova 2020, its international obligations, and the Association Agreement (AA) with the European Union (EU). Moldova made a formal commitment to accelerate the country s development by making it capital-intensive, sustainable and knowledge-driven. With a strategic framework outlining Moldova s development path in place, it is now critical to accelerate implementation of the reforms including those set out in the Association Agenda to move closer to the EU. Moldova faces significant risks in the financial sector...

Cambodia : Rural Sector Strategy Note, Towards a Strategy for Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Recovering from three decades of conflict, over this last decade, Cambodia has undergone dramatic economic, political, and social transitions. Cambodia experienced rapid institutional changes as it restored peace, moved from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy, and moved from isolation to regional and global integration. Cambodia has achieved political and macroeconomic stability, and has initiated key structural reforms. Nevertheless, Cambodia's economy remains vulnerable, and economic growth has not translated into widespread poverty reduction. With a GDP per capita of US$280, and social indicators showing little progress since the 1960s, Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The legacies of war - the losses in physical and social capital, depleted human capital, and the remaining land mines - will continue to challenge the country's overall development in the short, and medium terms. In addition, the country's small and open economy is faced with the challenge of establishing institutions and infrastructure that will allow it to realize the benefits, and mitigate the risks of regional and global integration, in an increasingly competitive regional environment. To a great extent, progress will depend on achievements in rural areas. The purpose of this Note is to provide a broad framework to explore options for Cambodia's future directions for rural development with the government...

The Drive to Partnership : Aid Coordination, and the World Bank

Eriksson, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The report reviews the Bank's experience with aid coordination, which lies at the intersection of many development effectiveness challenges. While globalization has brought new opportunities for development rewards, poverty has increased, and concessional aid shrunk. In 1995, the Bank focused on enhanced development effectiveness, emphasizing on linkages with the development community. An evaluative research was undertaken in 1998/99, and since then, aid coordination, and partnership has intensified, through initiatives such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), a process by which low-income countries are preparing PRSPs, and, efforts among developing agencies, and bilateral donors are being made. However, the report finds that many challenges still lie ahead, and, examines results-based conceptual frameworks, through the determinants of effective country-led aid coordination, and mutual responsibility under country leadership, through selected country experiences, measuring the quality of aid coordination. While the review concludes that the development community has been well-served by the Bank's leadership...

Lessons from Armenia's Institutional and Governance Review

Mukherjee, Amitabha; Shahzadeyan, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Institutional and Governance Reviews (IGRs) are a new tool in the Bank's package of analytical and advisory activities (see PREMnote 75). Because they are politically sensitive, the development of these reviews involves careful tradeoffs. Though each requires thorough analysis of a country's institutional shortcomings, the final product must be acceptable to country authorities and other development partners. To be credible and acceptable, an IGR must reflect extensive participation by a variety of national stakeholders. In Armenia the Bank's IGR team engaged the government (executive, legislature, judiciary), civil society (nongovernmental organizations, political parties, trade unions, academics), and other development partners from the outset. This approach resulted in widespread acceptance of the report's analysis and recommendations within both Armenia and the Bank. Armenia's IGR was a pioneering effort by the Bank's Europe and Central Asia Region to systematically evaluate a country's public institutions and develop a program of reforms supported by follow-up operations. The IGR had two main objectives. First...

CHOOSING ACCURATELY: COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ON PROSPECTING PARTNERS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION

Quadros, Ruy; Santos, Glicia Vieira dos; Consoni, Flávia; Quintão, Rubia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The paper discusses the results of a project aimed at developing and testing a methodology for the identification, qualification and classification of capabilities of Brazilian research groups (RGs) in technologies applicable to the automotive industry. The project was commissioned by the major R&D centre of a multinational corporation in the business of car manufacturing. The point of departure is the literature pointing out the need for firms to manage systematically rather than empirically their external sources of innovation. Regarding routines for prospecting and qualifying external R&D (Research and Development) partners, an important function in managing external sources, the paper introduces the concept of strategic search (competitive intelligence). The contribution of this paper is proposition of a new use for the methodology snowball sampling. Snowball sampling was originally used to map risk groups (“hidden populations” usually belonging to both social extremes: the deprived and the elites), ie carriers of the AIDS (SIDA) virus, drug addicts, chemical dependents, etc. The major steps of the methodology developed and tested by the authors are described. Such methodology is presented as a tool for strategic search. The result of the implementation of the methodology is a database with quantitative and qualitative information on Brazilian technological competencies applicable to the automotive industry in the technological areas of Materials...