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How and Why Does History Matter for Development Policy?

Woolcock, Michael; Szreter, Simon; Rao, Vijayendra
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
The consensus among scholars and policymakers that "institutions matter" for development has led inexorably to a conclusion that "history matters," since institutions clearly form and evolve over time. Unfortunately, however, the next logical step has not yet been taken, which is to recognize that historians (and not only economic historians) might also have useful and distinctive insights to offer. This paper endeavors to open and sustain a constructive dialogue between history -- understood as both "the past" and "the discipline" -- and development policy by (a) clarifying what the craft of historical scholarship entails, especially as it pertains to understanding causal mechanisms, contexts, and complex processes of institutional change; (b) providing examples of historical research that support, qualify, or challenge the most influential research (by economists and economic historians) in contemporary development policy; and (c) offering some general principles and specific implications that historians...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Português
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66.01%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; FAO Statistics Division
Fonte: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Publicador: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Participation, Social Accountability and Transparency Mechanisms in Development Policy Loans in Latin America, 2000-2003

Reuben, William; Arévalo, Blanche
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.04%
A document review of development policy lending projects in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, approved in fiscal years (FY) 2000-03 at the World Bank, reveals increasing civil society involvement in loan design and goals, context, and activities supported by the loans. This study examines the tools used by the World Bank to promote public transparency, community participation, social auditing, and accountability in development policy lending during the past four years, and assesses the extent to which these objectives have been met.

Jordan - Development Policy Review : A Reforming State in a Volatile Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.07%
Since the early 1990s, Jordan has initiated efforts toward far-reaching stabilization and structural reform. The reforms have aimed at laying the foundations for a reduced role of the state, private-sector-export-oriented-growth, employment, poverty reduction, and overall improvement in the welfare of the population. Due to this intensive effort, inflation has been reduced, the current account of the balance of payments has been stabilized, and budget deficits have been reduced. In addition, structural reforms have encompassed domestic taxation/subsidy policies, trade liberalization policies, monetary/financial sector policies, exchange rate policies, administered prices, and privatization. The reforms initiated since 1989 have made Jordan one of the leaders of reform in the Middle East and north Africa region, despite its experiencing several changes in government and adverse external shocks in the 1990s. The country has further integrated into the global economy, with a major shift in trade policy that included an Association Agreement with the European Union in 1999...

The agricultural development policy and WTO accession of Lao PDR

Akkharath, Inthadom
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 120183 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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65.92%
The New Economic Mechanism was introduced in 1986 and since then the Lao Government has geared the country towards a market economy, encouraged the development of the private sector and decentralised management. Taking into account the fact that agriculture and forestry form the back bone of the country’s economy, the government has employed a two-pronged socio-economic development approach, one for the uplands and the other for the lowlands. In the former case the focus is on self-sufficiency in food, agricultural diversification and conservation of natural resources, while in the latter case it is on commercialised agriculture production, using agricultural intensification to both maintain the already existing market momentum and trigger industrial sector development, particularly agro-industry. An area-based approach is adopted to facilitate this development. Also, the government has committed itself to eradicating poverty and ridding the country of its LDC status by the year 2020.; no

Human development policy: Theorizing and modeling

Yonehara, Aki Murakami
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
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66.06%
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2006; For more than half a century after World War II, a tremendous effort has been made for international development, both financially and intellectually. Some development economists believed that national economic growth would contribute to solving the problems of poverty in developing countries; others believed that improving the productivity of human resources was the critical source of economic growth. These concepts of development have justified educational development as a tool of economic growth. Human development theory questions such concepts of development that have focused exclusively on economic growth, and it considers humans themselves as the end of development, not a tool of economic growth. However, this philosophical theory of human development is not readily transformed into practical policy. What does "human development" mean? What role does educational development have in human development? How is it possible to embody this abstract concept as a policy? To answer these questions, this study sets three main aims: (I) to clarify the meaning of human development; (II) to propose a theoretical model of human development to specify a role of education in human development policy; and (III) to test the theoretical model empirically by applying Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling to Tanzania's survey data. Theoretical analysis of human development finds that "human development" means the process of expanding individuals' constitutive freedom...

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Development Policy Review : Improving Institutions, Fiscal Policies and Structural Reforms for Greater Growth Resilience and Sustained Job Creation (Vol. 1 of 2)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Development Policy Review : Improving Institutions, Fiscal Policies and Structural Reforms for Greater Growth Resilience and Sustained Job Creation (Vol. 2 of 2)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

Jordan - Policies for High and Sustained Growth for Job Creation : Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 2012 Development Policy Review (Vol. 1 of 2) : Synthesis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

Madagascar : Development Policy Review, Sustaining Growth for Enhanced Poverty Reduction, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The country's approach to poverty reduction is outlined in the 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, and draws on a development approach in which growth and poverty reduction are mutually reinforcing. Three areas of focus are identified in the PRSP: (1) restoration of law and improvements in governance; (2) promotion of broad-based growth; and (3) promotion of systems for establishing human and material security. The DPR presents Madagascar's development policy agenda in an integrated framework within which issues of policy consistency, priorities, and sequencing could be addressed. This DPR focuses on growth and growth strategy. It highlights the main structural and institutional impediments to achieving sustained growth and the factors constraining the ability of the poor to participate in economic growth. Emphasis is put on issues and sectors that contribute directly to growth: private sector development issues, including the availability of credit; elements of competitiveness such as infrastructure and education; and issues in sectors considered sources of growth. While the impact of government policy on poverty i s most directly felt through public expenditure and service delivery, these are dealt with in great detail in the accompanying PER...

Madagascar : Development Policy Review, Sustaining Growth for Enhanced Poverty Reduction - Technical annex

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
The country's approach to poverty reduction is outlined in the 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, and draws on a development approach in which growth and poverty reduction are mutually reinforcing. Three areas of focus are identified in the PRSP: (1) restoration of law and improvements in governance; (2) promotion of broad-based growth; and (3) promotion of systems for establishing human and material security. The DPR presents Madagascar's development policy agenda in an integrated framework within which issues of policy consistency, priorities, and sequencing could be addressed. This DPR focuses on growth and growth strategy. It highlights the main structural and institutional impediments to achieving sustained growth and the factors constraining the ability of the poor to participate in economic growth. Emphasis is put on issues and sectors that contribute directly to growth: private sector development issues, including the availability of credit; elements of competitiveness such as infrastructure and education; and issues in sectors considered sources of growth. While the impact of government policy on poverty i s most directly felt through public expenditure and service delivery, these are dealt with in great detail in the accompanying PER...

Pakistan Development Policy Review : A New Dawn?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
This Development Policy Review describes, and evaluates the Government of Pakistan's policies, in six critical areas : governance, investing in people, macroeconomic sustainability, the financial sector, the investment climate for the private sector, and, agriculture and irrigation. Governance reforms are aimed at addressing four major issues: devolution, civil service reform, reduction of corruption and improvement of financial management, and institutionalizing realistic budget processes. On investing in people, the social gap (reinforced by gender discrepancies) show high illiteracy, and ill-health rates, which limits the possibilities for economic growth. To this end, spending commitments prioritize on social sectors, and effective service delivery. As for macroeconomic sustainability, the unsustainable public debt poses a serious problem, exacerbated by defense spending, which diminishes development expenditure. This challenges the move of public debt dynamics towards improving the investment climate...

Guyana - Development Policy Review : The Challenges of Governance and Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The objective of this Development Policy Review, is to provide an up-to-date, integrated assessment of Guyana's development policy agenda, with the main focus on governance, growth, and poverty alleviation. The report consists of three parts: assessment of development outcomes, discussion of the development policy agenda, and, assessment of the medium-term outlook. It discusses some of the key political economy issues, critical to this review - ethnic and political tensions, as well as the surge in crime and violence. The report draws on the extensive wealth of existing analysis, within, and outside the Bank, and, highlights critical areas where further research is needed. Among the key structural measures adopted recently, are the amendment of the tax law, and of the procurement law, and the start of implementation of the sugar restructuring program. These achievements come on top of progress made in other reform areas, since the adoption of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) in 2001. The pressing issue is the implementation of the remaining reform agenda. The PRSP needs to be updated...

Research for Development : A World Bank Perspective on Future Directions for Research

Development Economics Senior Vice Presidency
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
This paper provides an overview of the history of development research at the World Bank and points to new future directions in both what we research and how we research. Six main messages emerge. First, research and data have long been essential elements of the Bank's country programs and its contributions to global public goods, and this will remain the case. Second, development thinking is in a state of flux and uncertainty; it is time to reconsider both the Bank's research priorities and how it does research. Third, a more open and strategic approach to research is needed -- an approach that is firmly grounded in the key knowledge gaps for development policy emerging from the experiences of developing countries, including the questions that policy makers in those countries ask. Fourth, four major sets of problems merit high priority for our future research: (i) securing economic transformation; (ii) broadening opportunities to participate in the benefits of, and contribute to, such transformation; (iii) dealing with emerging risks at all levels; and (iv) assessing the results of development efforts...

Tunisia - Development Policy Review : Towards Innovation-driven Growth; Tunisienne - Revue des politiquesde developpement : vers une croissance tireepar l'innovation

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Tunisia must move from a low value-added and low cost economy to a higher value-added, knowledge intensive economy in order to significantly reduce unemployment, its overriding challenge. This Development Policy Review (DPR) provides a discussion of the key issues and challenges that are involved in achieving this goal. Towards this end, it discusses trade integration, innovation policies and enabling environment reforms (macro stability, economic regulation and governance, financial sector and labor market reforms and capital account opening) that could facilitate the structural transformation of the economy. The DPR is organized as follows: chapter one reviews growth and employment outcomes and challenges; chapter two discusses the rationale for increasing the pace of structural transformation of the economy in order to boost growth and reduce unemployment; chapter three examines the strengths and weaknesses of Tunisia's innovation system and strategies and proposes reform options in light of the international experience; chapter four discusses key aspects of Tunisia's global integration that could further contribute to innovation and productivity growth; chapters five discusses the key improvement in the enabling environment needed to support innovation and productivity growth (economic regulation...

Nicaragua - Development Policy Review : Sustaining Broad-Based Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
This document reviews Nicaragua's development agenda from a growth perspective. That focus emerges from the country's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), which traces the widespread poverty observed in Nicaragua, to the collapse of the 1980s, and considers a continued, broadly-based economic recovery as the best way to eliminate it. The focus on growth guides the review of policy developments in various economic, social, and infrastructure sectors. The Development Policy Review (DPR) has the objective of providing analytical underpinnings, both for the Government in developing and refining its growth strategy, and the Bank and other donors, in designing their assistance programs for Nicaragua. The macroeconomic program agreed with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) seeks to promote sustained growth, and poverty reduction in a stable manner, by connecting the country's large fiscal, and external imbalances, addressing key vulnerabilities, and removing long-standing barriers to growth. Key focal points of the program are measures to improve governance...

Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteristics, reform program design features, and task team leader skills, among other variables, on intended development results, while still controlling for country characteristics. It finds that a variable used to reflect congruence or "line of sight" between the policy reforms supported and the results framework is a critical ingredient for success. Task team leader skills in general, and task team leadership by staff affiliated with the former "Economic Policy" department of the World Bank, also increase the chance of success. Conversely, a weaker set of supported reforms in these operations tends to reduce the chance of success. Reforms supported in the energy sector seem to reduce the likelihood of success...

Surviving On Their Own: How Leaders In Appalachia’s Remote Rural Communities Make Economic Development Policy

Feldman, Stefanie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Formato: 1081165 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
There is growing support for metropolitan-focused economic development policy in the United States. Defenders of this metropolitan agenda push aside concerns regarding whether rural communities are left out of this framework by pointing out that over half of rural residents live within metropolitan areas. Additional rural areas that are outside of metropolitan boundaries are still interconnected with metropolitan areas through the exchange of goods and people. Hence, the argument goes, when metropolitan economies grow, benefits spill into rural communities. But arguments that rural and metropolitan areas are not so different leave the most remote rural areas out of economic development discussions. Historical disadvantages created persistent poverty in remote areas: a lack of access to urban markets, poor infrastructure and underinvestment, and policies that have pulled human capital out of the rural communities and into distant urban centers. Unfortunately, there is no clear strategy for how to help these communities thrive and there is a void in academic literature that assesses development from the perspective of remoteness. This thesis offers analysis of economic opportunities for the most remote rural communities in the United States. Given that there has been so little focus on economic development opportunities in remote rural areas...

Tiny, Poor and War-Torn: Development Policy Challenges for East Timor

Hill, Hal
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Following its decisive vote for independence on 30 August 1999, East Timor will soon become the world's newest country. The country has a particularly tragic history: centuries of Portuguese colonialism and neglect, 24 years of troubled occupation by Indonesia, and the horrific violence and massive destruction of infrastructure which occurred in the wake of the 1999 vote for independence. The country will start from one of the lowest points conceivable on the scale of socioeconomic development-extremely low income, very limited bureaucratic capacities, barely functioning institutions, and potentially hostile elements in its giant neighbor. The formidable development policy challenges facing this new country are the subject of this paper.