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Prolonged recruitment manoeuvre improves lung function with less ultrastructural damage in experimental mild acute lung injury

RZEZINSKI, Andreia F.; OLIVEIRA, Gisele P.; SANTIAGO, Viviane R.; SANTOS, Raquel S.; ORNELLAS, Debora S.; MORALES, Marcelo M.; CAPELOZZI, Vera L.; AMATO, Marcelo B. P.; CONDE, Marcus B.; PELOSI, Paolo; ROCCO, Patricia R. M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.81%
The effects of prolonged recruitment manoeuvre (PRM) were compared with sustained inflation (SI) in paraquat-induced mild acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Twenty-four hours after ALI induction, rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with VT = 6 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cmH(2)O for 1 h. SI was performed with an instantaneous pressure increase of 40 cmH(2)O that was sustained for 40 s, while PRM was done by a step-wise increase in positive inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 15-20-25 cmH(2)O above a PEEP of 15 cm H(2)O (maximal PIP = 40 cmH(2)O), with interposed periods of PIP = 10 cmH(2)O above a PEEP = 15 cmH(2)O. Lung static elastance and the amount of alveolar collapse were more reduced with PRM than SI, yielding improved oxygenation. Additionally, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and type III procollagen mRNA expressions in lung tissue and lung epithelial cell apoptosis decreased more in PRM. In conclusion, PRM improved lung function, with less damage to alveolar epithelium, resulting in reduced pulmonary injury. (C) 2009 Elsevier BLV. All rights reserved.; Centres of Excellence Program (PRONEX-FAPERJ); Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Carlos Chagas Filho; Rio de Janeiro State Research Supporting Foundation (FAPERJ); Sao Paulo State Research Supporting Foundation (FAPESP)

Impaired lung function in individuals chronically exposed to biomass combustion

Ferraz da Silva, Luiz Fernando; Dias Medici Saldiva, Silvia Regina; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Dolhnikoff, Marisa
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE; SAN DIEGO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Background: The use of biomass for cooking and heating is considered an important factor associated with respiratory diseases. However, few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mu in diameter (PM2.5), symptoms and lung function in the same population. Objectives: To evaluate the respiratory effects of biomass combustion and compare the results with those of individuals from the same community in Brazil using liquefied petroleum gas (Gas). Methods: 1402 individuals in 260 residences were divided into three groups according to exposure (Gas, Indoor-Biomass, Outside-Biomass). Respiratory symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Reflectance of paper filters was used to assess particulate matter exposure. In 48 residences the amount of PM2.5 was also quantified. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 120 individuals. Results: Reflectance index correlated directly with PM2.5 (r=0.92) and was used to estimate exposure (ePM2.5). There was a significant increase in ePM2.5 in Indoor-Biomass and Outside-Biomass, compared to Gas. There was a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for cough, wheezing and dyspnea in adults exposed to Indoor-Biomass (OR=2.93, 2.33, 2.59, respectively) and Outside-Biomass (OR=1.78...

Efeito da exposição à queima de biomassa na prevalência de sintomas e na função respiratória em uma comunidade do interior do Brasil; Effect of exposure to biomass combustion on respiratory symptoms and lung function in a countryside community of Brazil

Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2010 Português
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55.74%
Introdução: O uso de biomassa como combustível para aquecimento e preparação de alimentos vem sendo considerado como um importante fator associado à prevalência aumentada de sintomas respiratórios e à perda de função pulmonar. No presente estudo apresentamos os efeitos respiratórios da exposição crônica à combustão de biomassa (BM) dentro (BMD) ou fora (BMF) do domicílio em uma população do interior do Brasil e comparamos os resultados aos de indivíduos da mesma população que utilizam gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP). Métodos: Foram incluídos 1402 indivíduos em 260 domicílios divididos em três grupos de acordo com a exposição (GLP, BMD, BMF). Os sintomas respiratórios foram avaliados utilizando questionários validados. O índice de refletância de filtros de papel foi utilizado para avaliar a exposição à biomassa. Em 48 domicílios a concentração de material particulado PM2,5 também foi quantificada. Provas de função pulmonar (PFP) foram realizadas em 120 indivíduos. Resultados: O índice de refletância correlacionou-se diretamente com a concentração de PM2,5 (r=0,92, p<0,001) e foi portanto utilizado para estimar a exposição (ePM2,5). Demonstramos aumento significativo do ePM2,5 no grupo BMD e BMF em comparação com o grupo GLP (p<0...

Associação da função pulmonar em estudantes do ensino fundamental com a qualidade do ar nas cidades de Atibaia e Cubatão; Association of lung function in elementary school students with air quality in the cities of Cubatão and Atibaia

Guanabara, Ana Paula de Siqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2011 Português
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Introdução: As disfunções respiratórias agudas por exposição à poluição atmosférica afetam a principalmente crianças e idosos. Estes grupos são mais vulneráveis, apresentando quadros de morbidade e mortalidade em função dos efeitos dos poluentes sobre a função respiratória. A qualidade do ar que respiramos tem sido de grande interesse científico, para que se possa minimizar os impactos da poluição sobre a saúde da população. Atualmente, sabe-se que os poluentes atmosféricos estão associados a uma grande variedade de sintomas, disfunções e doenças agudas e crônicas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a associação entre poluição atmosférica e alterações da função pulmonar em crianças do ensino fundamental nas cidades Cubatão e Atibaia. Método: O método aplicado foi subdividido em fases. Inicialmente foi realizada mensuração de PTS, MP10 e O3 na cidade de Atibaia, para caracterização da concentração destes poluentes na região central do município e comparação com as concentrações da estação da CETESB Cubatão/Centro. Na seqüência foram aplicados questionários de sintomas respiratórios em ambos os municípios, em estudantes do ensino fundamental. Por ultimo foram realizados os testes espirométricos para verificar a função respiratória dos participantes. Resultados: Os resultados das medidas de concentração de poluentes em Atibaia indicam uma boa qualidade do ar. A média mensurada respectivamente foram de 36...

Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

Arbex, M.A.; Martins, L.C.; Pereira, L.A.A.; Negrini, F.; Cardoso, A.A.; Melchert, W.R.; Arbex, R.F.; Saldiva, P.H.N.; Zanobetti, A.; Braga, A.L.F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 527-534
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. on predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%...

Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

Arbex,M.A.; Martins,L.C.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Negrini,F.; Cardoso,A.A.; Melchert,W.R.; Arbex,R.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Zanobetti,A.; Braga,A.L.F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%...

The effects of ambient ozone on lung function in children: a reanalysis of six summer camp studies.

Kinney, P L; Thurston, G D; Raizenne, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 Português
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55.87%
Studies of children attending summer camps often have observed relationships between daily outdoor ozone (O3) concentrations and decreased lung function that are qualitatively similar to results seen in human chamber studies. The former studies, focusing on the pulmonary effects of O3 and associated pollutants on children under natural conditions of exposure, are potentially of great importance to understanding the public health impact of ambient O3. However, a thorough assessment of the results of these studies has been hampered by differences in the analysis and reporting of data across the various studies. We obtained data sets from six summer camp studies carried out by three separate investigative groups, including two New Jersey studies performed by New York University, two studies in Ontario carried out by Health and Welfare Canada, and two studies in southern California. The data consisted of sequential, daily measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and 1-hr O3 concentration in the hour preceding lung function measurements for each child. We analyzed the relationships between lung function and O3 using linear regression models that fit subject-specific intercepts and a single...

Environmental correlates of impaired lung function in non-smokers with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ)

Piitulainen, E.; Tornling, G.; Eriksson, S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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BACKGROUND—Active smoking is the most important risk factor for pulmonary emphysema in subjects with severe α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of environmental risk factors other than active smoking on lung function and on respiratory symptoms in non-smoking PiZZ individuals.
METHODS—Lifetime exposure to passive smoking, domiciliary use of a kerosene (paraffin) heater or gas cooker, and all occupations since leaving school were reported by 205 non-smoking PiZZ individuals (95 men and 110 women) included in the Swedish AAT deficiency register. Lung function test results and histories of respiratory symptoms (chronic bronchitis, recurrent wheezing, and exertional dyspnoea) were elicited from the AAT register records.
RESULTS—After adjustment for age, agricultural employment and domiciliary kerosene heater usage, but not gas cooker usage or passive smoking, were both associated with significantly decreased lung function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed age, sex, kerosene heater usage, and agricultural employment to be independent determinants of lung function impairment. Age and passive smoking for 10 years or more, both at home and at the work place, were associated with the presence of chronic bronchitis. Age and agricultural employment for ⩾10 years were associated with recurrent wheezing and exertional dyspnoea.
CONCLUSIONS—Domiciliary kerosene heater usage and an agricultural occupation therefore appear to be environmental factors associated with decreased lung function in non-smoking PiZZ individuals...

Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function

Gilliland, F.; Berhane, K.; McConnell, R.; Gauderman, W; Vora, H.; Rappaport, E.; Avol, E.; Peters, J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 Português
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55.8%
BACKGROUND—Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood and in utero exposure to maternal smoking are associated with adverse effects on lung growth and development.
METHODS—A study was undertaken of the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to ETS, and pulmonary function in 3357 school children residing in 12 Southern California communities. Current and past exposure to household ETS and exposure to maternal smoking in utero were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents of 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students in 1993.Standard linear regression techniques were used to estimate the effects of in utero and ETS exposure on lung function, adjusting for age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, height, weight, asthma, personal smoking, and selected household characteristics.
RESULTS—In utero exposure to maternal smoking was associated with reduced peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (-3.0%, 95% CI -4.4 to -1.4), mean mid expiratory flow (MMEF) (-4.6%, 95% CI -7.0 to -2.3), and forced expiratory flow (FEF75) (-6.2%, 95% CI -9.1 to -3.1), but not forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Adjusting for household ETS exposure did not substantially change these estimates. The reductions in flows associated with in utero exposure did not significantly vary with sex...

Statin Use Reduces Decline in Lung Function: VA Normative Aging Study

Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.68%
Rationale: Decreased lung function has been linked to increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Statins have demonstrated antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Male Sex Hormones Exacerbate Lung Function Impairment after Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

Voltz, James W.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Carey, Michelle A.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Ferguson, Catherine D.; Flake, Gordon P.; Bonner, James C.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
The roles of sex hormones as modulators of lung function and disease have received significant attention as differential sex responses to various lung insults have been recently reported. The present study used a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in C57BL/6 mice to examine potential sex differences in physiological and pathological outcomes. Endpoints measured included invasive lung function assessment, immunological response, lung collagen deposition, and a quantitative histological analysis of pulmonary fibrosis. Male mice had significantly higher basal static lung compliance than female mice (P < 0.05) and a more pronounced decline in static compliance after bleomycin administration when expressed as overall change or percentage of baseline change (P < 0.05). In contrast, there were no significant differences between the sexes in immune cell infiltration into the lung or in total lung collagen content after bleomycin. Total lung histopathology scores measured using the Ashcroft method did not differ between the sexes, while a quantitative histopathology scoring system designed to determine where within the lung the fibrosis occurred indicated a tendency toward more fibrosis immediately adjacent to airways in bleomycin-treated male versus female mice. Furthermore...

Postnatal Estradiol Up-regulates Lung Nitric Oxide Synthases and Improves Lung Function in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

McCurnin, Donald C.; Pierce, Richard A.; Willis, Brigham C.; Chang, Ling Yi; Yoder, Bradley A.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Ballard, Philip L.; Clyman, Ronald I.; Waleh, Nahid; Maniscalco, William; Crapo, James D.; Grubb, Peter H.; Shaul, Philip W.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.81%
Rationale: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in lung development and perinatal lung function, and pulmonary NO synthases (NOS) are decreased in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) following preterm birth. Fetal estradiol levels increase during late gestation and estradiol up-regulates NOS, suggesting that after preterm birth estradiol deprivation causes attenuated lung NOS resulting in impaired pulmonary function.

Hemolytic Phospholipase C Inhibition Protects Lung Function during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Wargo, Matthew J.; Gross, Maegan J.; Rajamani, Sathish; Allard, Jenna L.; Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Allen, Gilman B.; Vasil, Michael L.; Leclair, Laurie W.; Hogan, Deborah A.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Rationale: The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes both acute and chronic lung infections and is particularly problematic in patients with cystic fibrosis and those undergoing mechanical ventilation. Decreased lung function contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality during P. aeruginosa infection, and damage inflicted by P. aeruginosa virulence factors contributes to lung function decline.

Influence of C-159T SNP of the CD14 gene promoter on lung function in smokers with chronic bronchitis

Zhou, Haibo; Alexis, Neil E; Almond, Martha; Donohue, James; LaForce, Craig; Bromberg, Philip A.; Peden, David B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.8%
CD14, a co-receptor for endotoxin, plays a significant role in the inflammatory response to this environmentally important pollutant. The C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD14 gene promoter is reported to affect expression of CD14, with TT homozygous persons having higher CD14 expression. This SNP has been linked to pathogenesis of asthma and with cardiovascular diseases in smokers. We hypothesize that CD14 also plays a role in development of COPD in smokers who are exposed to inhaled endotoxin by cigarette smoking and to endotoxin released from Gram-negative microbes colonizing their airways. To assess the effect of the C-159T SNP of the CD14 gene promoter on lung function and GOLD score in smokers with COPD, we recruited 246 smokers with COPD with a range of 10–156 pack-year smoking exposures. We found that the C-159T single gene polymorphism of the CD14 gene promoter may play a role in modulating severity of obstructive impairment in smokers with COPD: The TT genotype was associated with lower lung function in smokers with a moderate smoking history. However, the CC genotype was associated with decreased lung function in heavy smokers (>56 pack-years). The result on CC genotype in risk for COPD is analogous with the effect of this genotype in risk for asthma. CD14 may be a factor in the pathophysiology of COPD...

Second to fourth digit ratio: A predictor of adult lung function

Park, I-Nae; Yum, Ho-Kee; Lee, Sang Chul; Oh, Jin Kyu; Kim, Tae Beom
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio) is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female) aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162), univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a significant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042). In male ever-smokers (n = 69), lung functions (FVC and FEV1) were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83), lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio) were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245...

Decreased PM10 Exposure Attenuates Age-Related Lung Function Decline: Genetic Variants in p53, p21, and CCND1 Modify This Effect

Imboden, Medea; Schindler, Christian; Curjuric, Ivan; Berger, Wolfgang; Liu, Sally L.J.; Russi, Erich W.; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Schwartz, Joel David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Background: Decreasing exposure to airborne particulates was previously associated with reduced age-related decline in lung function. However, whether the benefit from improved air quality depends on genetic background is not known. Recent evidence points to the involvement of the genes p53 and p21 and of the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) in the response of bronchial cells to air pollution. Objective: We determined in 4,326 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) whether four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes [CCND1 (rs9344 [P242P], rs667515), p53 (rs1042522 [R72P]), and p21 (rs1801270 [S31R])] modified the previously observed attenuation of the decline in the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF25–75) associated with improved air quality. Methods: Subjects of the prospective population-based SAPALDIA cohort were assessed in 1991 and 2002 by spirometry, questionnaires, and biological sample collection for genotyping. We assigned spatially resolved concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) to each participant’s residential history 12 months before the baseline and follow-up assessments. Results: The effect of diminishing PM10 exposure on FEF25–75 decline appeared to be modified by p53 R72P...

Association between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and Lung Function among Urban Women

Suglia, Shakira Franco; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Rosalind Jo
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
Background: Although a number of studies have documented the relationship between lung function and traffic-related pollution among children, few have focused on adult lung function or examined community-based populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between black carbon (BC), a surrogate of traffic-related particles, and lung function among women in the Maternal–Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, an urban cohort in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: We estimated local BC levels using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model, derived using ambient and indoor monitor data. We examined associations between percent predicted pulmonary function and predicted BC using linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographics (individual and neighborhood levels), smoking status, occupational exposure, type of cooking fuel, and a diagnosis of asthma or chronic bronchitis. Results: The sample of 272 women 18–42 years of age included 57% who self-identified as Hispanic versus 43% white, and 18% who were current smokers. Mean ± SD predicted annual BC exposure level was 0.62 ± 0.2 μg/m3. In adjusted analysis, BC (per interquartile range increase) was associated with a 1.1% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI), −2.5% to 0.3%] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec...

Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia

Liu, X.; Salter, A.; Thomas, P.; Leigh, J.; Wang, H.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19–58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20–64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group...

Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.81%
Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

Influência da fisioterapia aquática na função pulmonar de pacientes com espondilite anquilosante: série de casos; Influence of aquatic physical therapy on lung function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: case series

Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida; Ide, Maiza Ritomy; Buosi, Damaris Franzini
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/2006 Português
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Espondilite anquilosante (EA) é uma patologia reumática caracterizada porcomprometimento progressivo da coluna vertebral e articulações, com envolvimento pulmonar que leva a um padrão ventilatório restritivo, geralmente assintomático. A cinesioterapia aquática é recomendada, pois os princípios físicos da água auxiliam a redução de sintomas e a realização de exercícios. Este estudo visou avaliar os efeitos de um programa de fisioterapia aquática na função pulmonar de pacientes com EA, por meio de análise de parâmetros espirométricos (CVF= capacidade vital forçada, VEF = volume expiratório forçado, VVM = ventilação voluntária máxima). Quatro pacientes com EA (três homens e uma mulher, com idade média de 33,25 anos) foram submetidos à avaliação da capacidade funcional pulmonar antes e após a intervenção. Um programa de fisioterapia aquática foi aplicado três vezes por semana durante 10 semanas. A CVF aumentou em um sujeito, o VEF aumentou em um e diminuiu em outro, permanecendo inalterado nos demais. O índice de Tiffeneau apresentou redução em um sujeito e aumento em dois. A VVM aumentou em um, reduziu-se em outro e permaneceu inalterada nos demais sujeitos. Vê-se pois que os resultados da avaliação espirométrica não foram uniformes nos quatro participantes...