O trabalho trata da abordagem da delinqüência frente à sociedade informática e dos riscos trazidos pelas tecnologias, estimuladoras da prática do delito por conta de suas características especiais. Tal análise concluirá que as condutas praticadas na nova realidade apontam para a necessidade de adaptação do Direito Penal pela criação de novos valores e, então, novo bem jurídico a ser protegido. Em seguida, frente aos principais delitos tipificados nos ordenamentos jurídicos, será apresentada a vitimodogmática que servirá de instrumento para uma interpretação das figuras penais sob a ótica de sua gênese e a contribuição que a vítima tem em tal processo.; This study is about the delinquency considering the informatic society and the risks posed by technology, stimulating crime occurence due to its special characteristics. This analysis concludes that the conduct charged in new environment points to the need of reorganizing criminal law through the creation of new values and new rights to be protected. Therefore, facing the main crime concerns in legal systems, the victimodogmatic will be presented as an instrument for the interpretation of criminal figures from the perspective of its genesis and the contribution that the victim has in this process.
O objeto deste estudo situa-se no campo poroso das práticas ilícitas e sua repressão, no contexto da cidade de São Paulo, a partir da década de 30 do século XX. Através da categoria de análise ilegalismo e sua gestão diferenciada, investigou-se de que maneira práticas de controle social remotas e prolongadas, marcadas pelo arbítrio policial e pela desativação seletiva da lei, como as detenções correcionais, conectaram-se a economias criminais urbanas que, até meados da década de 60, se estabeleceram sobretudo em torno da prostituição, bem como estiveram implicadas em seu declínio. As detenções correcionais, enquanto modos de se imiscuir nas atividades criminais pelas forças policiais, associadas ainda a padrões exagerados de violência institucional, se revelaram cruciais à emergência da delinquência urbana, na década de 70, como fenômeno atinente à criminalidade patrimonial de massa, difusa, de rua. Já nos anos 90, a consolidação de uma nova economia criminal urbana, o comércio varejista de drogas ilícitas, ao lado do intenso recrutamento daquela criminalidade avulsa e patrimonial à prisão, contribuiu à emergência de um fenômeno atribuído neste trabalho como articulação da criminalidade, para o qual...
Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and substance abuse disorder (SAD) in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL) was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years) and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%). They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%), SAD (53.6%), and ADHD (43.5%). Both ADHD (p <0.001) and CD (p <0.01) had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.
The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’ delinquency. However, perceptions of older sibling popularity directly predicted reduced delinquency for girls with older sisters. A significant interaction effect was found for girls with older brothers. Older brother delinquency predicted girls’ delinquency for girls who perceived their older brother to be relatively popular. There was no delinquency concordance for girls who perceived their older brothers to be less popular.
This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5–12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M= 17.26, SD=3.17). Participants were 288 males with childhood ADHD and 209 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited into the follow-up study. Delinquency information gathered yearly during the second through eighth follow-up provided a comprehensive history of juvenile delinquency for all participants. Four childhood diagnostic groups [ADHD-only (N=47), ADHD+ODD (N=135), ADHD+CD (N=106), and comparison (N=209)] were used to examine group differences on delinquency outcomes. Analyses were conducted across three dimensions of delinquency (i.e., severity, age of initiation, and variety). Individuals with childhood ADHD+CD displayed significantly worse delinquency outcomes than the other three groups, across almost all indices of offending. When compared to comparison participants, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD in childhood displayed earlier ages of delinquency initiation, a greater variety of offending...
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g....
In Polen und Deutschland gehört es inzwischen zum gesicherten Stand wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis, daß es sich bei den meisten Jugend(straf)taten um geringfügige Normverstöße handelt. Die Arbeit verdeutlicht die abweichenden strukturellen Ansätze im Umgang mit jugendlichen Rechtsbrechern und nutzt diese Erkenntnisse für einen kritischen Vergleich.
Indem verschiedene Modelle und rechtliche Problemlösungen vorgefunden werden, offenbaren sich gravierende Unterschiede in den rechtlichen Ausprägungen und den Organisationsprinzipien der Jugend(kriminal)rechtspflege.
Den Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung bildet eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Begriff und den methodischen Grundanliegen der Bagatelle, bevor auf die unterschiedlichen Lösungskonzepte in beiden Ländern eingegangen wird. Am Ende steht die Entwicklung einer für die Arbeit operablen jugendspezifischen Bagatelldefinition. Ferner werden die bestehenden Systeme jugendrechtlicher Kontrolle vergleichend gegenübergestellt. Dieser Abschnitt bildet den Schwerpunkt der Arbeit. Überdies konzentriert sich die Betrachtung auf die Notwendigkeit jugendspezifischer Intervention auf Bagatelldelinquenz. Grundanliegen, Begriff und Vielgestaltigkeit von Diversion als maßgebliches Bewältigungskonzept schließen sich an...
Zur Kriminalitätsberichterstattung in der Presse liegen mittlerweile einige differenzierte Untersuchungen vor. Vor allem in den letzten Jahren wurde zunehmend die Notwendigkeit erkannt, eingehende Analysen seriöser Tageszeitungen und Wochenzeitschriften durchzuführen. Detaillierte Studien über längere Zeiträume sind bislang jedoch kaum zu finden. Bei der vorliegenden Dissertation handelt es sich um eine empirische Längsschnittuntersuchung zum Thema "Jugendkriminalität im Spiegel der Lokalpresse". Über einen Zeitraum von 25 Jahren (1975-2000) wurde sowohl das Ausmaß als auch die Art und Weise der Berichterstattung über Jugendkriminalität im Kreis Tübingen analysiert. Eine zentrale Fragestellung hierbei war, ob die Berichterstattung über Straftaten nichtdeutscher junger Tatverdächtiger zur Stigmatisierung dieser Personengruppe und dadurch zur Verfestigung bestehender Vorurteile beiträgt. Die Ergebnisse der Presseanalyse wurden den Daten der Jugendgerichtshilfestatistik gegenübergestellt. Auf dieser Basis konnten die Differenzen zwischen der statistischen Realität von Jugendkriminalität in Tübingen und deren Repräsentation in der Lokalpresse deutlich gemacht und detailliert beschrieben werden.; There is presently a growing body of research on media and crime in Germany. Especially in recent years we realised the necessity of a serious analysis of daily newspapers and magazines. But until now we can only find a few detailed studies over a long period of time. This dissertation presents the results of an analysis about juvenile delinquency in the local press. It focuses on forming an understanding of the question what is being published and how it is being published. A central issue is in which way the crimes carried out by young immigrants are reported and if these reports are biased due to racist prejudices. To prove this matter of concern we analysed the reporting of a local newspaper in Tübingen over 25 years (1975 – 2000). We compared this long term study to the statistical results of the juvenile court assistance (Jugendgerichtshilfe). In this way we were able to reveal the differences between the statistical representation of juvenile delinquency in Tübingen and the representation of this subject in the local press in detail.
Mentoring is one of the most commonly used interventions to prevent, divert, and remediate youth engaged in, or thought to be at risk for delinquent behavior, school failure, aggression, or other antisocial behavior. In this update we report on a meta-analytic review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions that have been evaluated for their effects on delinquency outcomes for youth (e.g., arrest or conviction as a delinquent, self-reported involvement) and key associated outcomes (aggression, drug use, academic functioning). Of 164 identified studies published between 1970 and 2011, 46 met criteria for inclusion. Mean effects sizes were significant and positive for delinquency and academic functioning with trends (marginal significance level) for aggression and drug use. Effect sizes were modest by Cohen’s differentiation. However, there was heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies for each outcome. The obtained patterns of effects suggest mentoring may be valuable for those at-risk or already involved in delinquency and for associated outcomes. Comparison of study design (RCT vs. QE) did not show significant differences in effects. Moderator analysis showed larger effects when professional development was the motivation of the mentors for involvement...
Early family/parent training programs are intended to serve many purposes, one
of them being the prevention of child behavior problems including antisocial behavior
and delinquency. While early family/parent training may not often be implemented with
the expressed aim of preventing antisocial behavior, delinquency, and crime – sometimes
these programs are aimed at more general, non-crime outcomes – its relevance to the
prevention of crime has been suggested in developmentally-based criminological and
The main objective of this review is to assess the available research evidence on
the effects of early family/parent training on child behavior problems including antisocial
behavior and delinquency. In addition to assessing the overall impact of early
family/parent training, this review will also investigate, to the extent possible, in which
settings and under what conditions it is most effective.
Justice practitioners have tremendous discretion on how to handle juvenile
offenders. Police officers, district attorneys, juvenile court intake officers, juvenile
and family court judges, and other officials can decide whether the juvenile should
be “officially processed” by the juvenile justice system, diverted from the system to a
program, counseling or some other services, or to do nothing at all (release the
juvenile altogether). An important policy question is which strategy leads to the best
outcomes for juveniles. This is an important question in the United States, but many
other nations are concerned with the decision to formally process or divert juvenile
offenders. There have been a number of randomized experiments in the juvenile
courts that have examined the impact of juvenile system processing that should be
gathered together in a systematic fashion to provide rigorous evidence about the
impact of this decision on subsequent offending by juveniles. Our objective is to answer the question: Does juvenile system processing reduce
subsequent delinquency? Based on the evidence presented in this report, juvenile system processing appears
to not have a crime control effect, and across all measures appears to increase
delinquency. This was true across measures of prevalence...
Self-control improvement programs are intended to serve many purposes, most
notably improving self-control. Yet, interventions such as these often aim to reduce
delinquency and problem behaviors. However, there is currently no summary
statement available regarding whether or not these programs are effective in
improving self-control and reducing delinquency and problem behaviors. The main objective of this review is to assess the available research evidence on the
effect of self-control improvement programs on self-control and delinquency and
problem behaviors. In addition to investigating the overall effect of early selfcontrol
improvement programs, this review will examine, to the extent possible, the
context in which these programs may be most successful. The studies included in this systematic review indicate that self-control
improvement programs are an effective intervention for improving self-control and
reducing delinquency and problem behaviors, and that the effect of these programs
appears to be rather robust across various weighting procedures, and across context,
outcome source, and based on both published and unpublished data.
Die vorliegende Dissertation widmet sich der Analyse der Einflussfaktoren von Verhaltensstörungen und Delinquenz bei Jugendlichen in Mali, mit einer sozio-psychologischen und einer kriminologischen Ausrichtung in Bezug auf ihre Persönlichkeitszüge und auf die Deliktschwere.
Hauptziel der Arbeit war es, sowohl eine analytisch-deskriptive als auch eine präskriptive Analyse der Verhaltensstörungen bei Jugendlichen mit abweichendem Verhalten durchzuführen, und die Art und Schwere der Delinquenz festzustellen.
Die dreimonatigen Untersuchungen wurden 1996 bis 1997 mit einer Befragung von 150 Jugendlichen männlichen Geschlechts in einer Erziehungs- und Strafvollzugsanstalt (Untersuchungsgruppe von 100 Versuchspersonen) sowie in zwei Gymnasien (Vergleichsgruppe mit 50 Versuchspersonen) durchgeführt. Die Befragung setzte sich aus einem biografischen Fragebogen und, für die Untersuchung der individuellen Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, aus verschiedenen Persönlichkeits- und Intelligenztests zusammen. Die Tests beinhalten den Frustrationstest von Rosenzweig (Erwachsenenform), den Grundintelligenztest von Cattell (Form B) und die “Advanced Progressive Matrices” von Raven. Die statistische Auswertung aller erhaltenen Daten erfolgte mit Hilfe des Programms SPSS.
Anhand des biografischen Fragebogens haben wir die soziofamiliäre Umgebung untersucht...
Adolescent delinquency is a common phenomenon that has been studied extensively for decades. Much is known about the factors which influence youth involvement in activities such as underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. However, to this point, there exists only limited theoretical and empirical research which focuses on the personal and social characteristics of adolescents who abstain from antisocial behaviour altogether. This study seeks to examine the personal attributes, impact of peers, and social bonds that influence refrainment from delinquency. This study uses the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, Cycle 3, conducted in 1998-1999 to investigate the correlates of abstention.
Prior research has established causal links between certain variables and abstention (such as few associations with delinquent peers, less autonomy, and strong academic inclinations). Moffitt (1993) argues that abstainers are more likely to be socially excluded from deviant peer groups based on their unappealing personal characteristics. This study attempts to ground the mixed results garnered from several studies regarding Moffitt’s abstention hypotheses. Further, this study examines in more depth the direct, mediating...
A contribuição desta pesquisa para o conhecimento científico está em tecer considerações sobre a viabilidade do estudo da criminalidade brasileira à luz das noções de carreiras criminosas e de trajetórias desenvolvimentais, contendo uma parte inteiramente dedicada ao estudo teórico pertinente, e outra contendo uma busca de conhecimentos por meio de pesquisa empírica. Do ponto de vista teórico, oferece uma síntese das proposições referentes aos conceitos de carreiras criminosas e de trajetórias de desenvolvimento da conduta delituosa; do ponto de vista empírico, estuda a atividade infracional de 157 adolescentes jurisdicionados do sexo masculino de modo a verificar a existência ou inexistência de carreiras, ou seja, padrões de atividades infracionais, oferecendo informações e sugestões para a implementação de políticas públicas aplicadas em favor do desenvolvimento individual e social, com as vistas voltadas ao fenômeno da delinqüência juvenil. O enfoque empírico da pesquisa é o descritivo, valendo-se de informações constantes em processos judiciais infracionais arquivados no cartório da Vara da Infância, da Juventude e do Idoso, da Comarca de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, buscando-se, sob uma perspectiva longitudinal retrospectiva...
Este texto pretende proporcionar a la vez el estado de los conocimientos empíricos y un marco de análisis global para reflexionar sobre la evolución de la delincuencia de menores en Francia desde los años setenta. Lejos de los estereotipos moralizadores del debate mediático-político y de los enfoques comportamentalistas, lo que aquí se propone es demostrar que el análisis de la evolución de la delincuencia de menores es inseparable de la del derecho penal, del funcionamiento de las instituciones penales, de los procesos de remisiones al sistema penal y de las evoluciones económicas, sociales y políticas que favorecen o no la integración social de los jóvenes. Este marco de análisis global articula así los tres conceptos de criminalización, judicialización y guetización.; This paper intends to provide both the current state of empirical knowledge and a framework for global analysis to consider the evolution of juvenile delinquency in France since the 1970s. Beyond the moralizing stereotypes of the media-political debate and naive behaviorist approaches, what we propose here is to demonstrate that the analysis of the evolution of juvenile delinquency is inseparable from the evolution of criminal law, the operation of criminal institutions...
This paper presents delinquency acts prevalence among the Colombian youth. The case studies data gathered from the National Police where the youth had been reported with delinquent acts in 2003 in Santiago de Cali. The analysis unit had 3677 young men and women, ages 10 to 17 that had a criminal record belonging to the different city areas. The average age among the group was of 15.75. The most common delinquent act was common theft, followed by drug trafficking on women and carrying illegal fire arms on men. Sixteen and seventeen year old men had the highest index of delinquency as compared to women. The results show the importance of biological and evolving variables such as age and sex in the manifestation of this behavior. As a consequence, it is very important to start with separate age and gender intervention programs that can generate a positive impact on these people for the prevention and lowering of juvenile delinquency; En el presente trabajo se estudia la prevalencia del tipo de acto delictivo en un grupo de jóvenes infractores de Leyes colombianas. Se estudiaron datos de la Policía Nacional, en la cual se encontraban reportados los jóvenes que presentaron conductas delictivas en el año 2003 en Santiago de Cali, dentro de las categorías tipo o descripción del acto delictivo...
Abstract: This thesis tests the applicability of computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for building skills that prevent deviancy and delinquency among youth. This is accomplished by first understanding cognitive behavioral therapy through an extensive literature review and then through data analysis of the SMART program which emphasizes anger management and conflict resolution skills using a pre- and post-test questionnaire. This thesis uses the SMART program as a self-administered cognitive behavioral intervention with youth between the ages of 12 and 17 who are on juvenile probation with a juvenile delinquent status. This is an innovative way of using the SMART program from previous studies. Results of this effort reveal that participants exhibited modest improvements from pre-test to post-test, although results were statistically insignificant. However, this thesis finds that there are important applications for computer-based methods of cognitive behavioral therapy in juvenile delinquency prevention which are currently underutilized as exemplified in Monroe County, New York. It is suggested that the local community corrections consider implementing cognitive behavioral programs using an action research model which emphasizes youth...
Susan Miller; Adjudicated juveniles often have histories of childhood sexual abuse. Children who are sexually abused are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior as juveniles and criminal behavior as adults. Childhood sexual abuse poses mental health risks that potentially contribute to delinquent and criminal behavior. In the past decade, the U.S. government has begun to examine the availability of mental health services in juvenile correctional facilities. In order for these mental health services to be effective, juvenile justice policies must take into account the contexts of the lives of these youth and design interventions and mental health services accordingly. Previous research has not examined how and if the juvenile justice system has addressed the issue of sexual abuse. The first purpose of this project was to examine previous research on child sexual abuse and delinquency. The second purpose of this project was to explore how the state of Delaware approaches adjudicated juveniles who have experienced sexual abuse. Interviews were conducted with professionals within the juvenile justice system including family court judges, juvenile probation officers, and advocates who specialize in childhood sexual abuse. These interviews examined how Delaware identifies childhood sexual abuse victims under juvenile justice custody...
O comportamento infrator em adolescentes do sexo feminino tem sido relacionado à ocorrência de eventos estressores, assim como à presença de outros fatores de risco individuais e contextuais. Este estudo investigou a trajetória de vida de 50 adolescentes do sexo feminino, de 13 a 20 anos, que cumpriam medidas socioeducativas em órgão governamental, na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, que tinham por objetivo investigar o desenvolvimento das adolescentes e a exposição a fatores de risco. Os resultados apontaram a ocorrência de repetidas rupturas nas relações com os cuidadores e violência intra e extrafamiliar. Conclui-se que a falta de estabilidade e a fragilidade dos vínculos estabelecidos durante o desenvolvimento, assim como os demais eventos estressores vivenciados, podem estar associados à manifestação dos comportamentos desadaptativos destas adolescentes e podem ser entendidos como facilitadores para a entrada na vida infracional.Palavras-chave: comportamento infracional; fatores de risco; adolescência. ; Delinquent behavior of female adolescents have been related to the occurrence of stressful events...