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Seasonal metabolic depression, substrate utilisation and changes in scaling patterns during the first year cycle of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae)

Souza, S. C. R. de; Carvalho, J. E. de; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Bicudo, J. E. P. W.; Bianconcini, M. S. C.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Ltd Publicador: Company of Biologists Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 307-318
Português
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55.81%
The tegus increase in body mass after hatching until early autumn, when the energy intake becomes gradually reduced. Resting rates of oxygen consumption in winter drop to 20% of the values in the active season (Vo(2)=0.0636 ml g(-1) h(-1)) and are nearly temperature insensitive over the range of 17-25degreesC (Q(10)=1.55). During dormancy, plasma glucose levels are 60% lower than those in active animals, while total protein, total lipids and beta-hydroxybutyrate are elevated by 24%, 43% and 113%, respectively. In addition, a significant depletion of liver carbohydrate (50%) and of fat deposited in the visceral fat bodies (24%) and in the tail (25%) and a slight loss of skeletal muscle protein (14%) were measured halfway through the inactive period. Otherwise, glycogen content is increased 4-fold in the brain and 2.3-fold in the heart of dormant lizards, declining by the onset of arousal. During early arousal, the young tegus are still anorexic, although Vo(2) is significantly greater than winter rates. The fat deposits analysed are further reduced (62% and 45%, respectively) and there is a large decrease in tail muscle protein (50%) together with a significant increase in glycogen (2-3-fold) and an increase in plasma glucose (40%)...

Effect of diets with varying starch content on muscle glycogen concentrations during training and replenishment after highintensity exercise

Mesquita, Vanesa Silva de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: viii, 59 p. : il.
Português
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Pós-graduação em Zootecnia - FCAV; Muscle glycogen is an important energy substrate and a potentially limiting factor of performance in horses. Due to the large number of studies using low-starch, high-fat and fiber concentrates for the management of metabolic diseases, the use of such feeds has become widely popular. However, there is scarce evidence of the effectiveness of such feeds on glycogen maintenance and replenishment. To evaluate the effect of three diets varying in starch content on the maintenance of glycogen leveis during a training period and on repletion of glycogen stores after high-intensity exercise, six previously conditioned Thoroughbred horses were used in a 3 x 3 Latin Square design. Horses were fed (at 1 kg/100kg BW/day) either a high-starch (HS), a moderately starch-rich, high-fat concentrate (MS) or a low-starch, high-fat and fiber concentrate (LS). Forage was fed at 1.25 kg/100 kg BW/day in ali treatments. Horses were trained for three weeks and then underwent three days of strenuous exercise designed to substantially deplete glycogen reserves, and were subsequently observed over four days of recovery. Muscle biopsies were obtained before depletion and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-depletion. Day one of depletion was an incremental exercise test (IET) and blood was sampled at each speed step for plasma glucose and lactate. During the IET horses wore a loose-fit mask for assessment of Oxygen consumption (V02)...

Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities

Lima-Silva,A.E.; De-Oliveira,F.R.; Nakamura,F.Y.; Gevaerd,M.S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
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55.82%
This study examined the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on the time to exhaustion for moderate and heavy exercise. Seven men participated in a randomized order in two diet and exercise regimens each lasting 3 days with a 1-week interval for washout. The tests were performed at 50% of the difference between the first (LT1) and second (LT2) lactate breakpoint for moderate exercise (below LT2) and at 25% of the difference between the maximal load and LT2 for heavy exercise (above LT2) until exhaustion. Forty-eight hours before each experimental session, subjects performed a 90-min cycling exercise followed by 5-min rest periods and a subsequent 1-min cycling bout at 125% VO2max/1-min rest periods until exhaustion to deplete muscle glycogen. A diet providing 10% (CHOlow) or 65% (CHOmod) energy as carbohydrates was consumed for 2 days until the day of the experimental test. In the exercise below LT2, time to exhaustion did not differ between the CHOmod and the CHOlow diets (57.22 ± 24.24 vs 57.16 ± 25.24 min). In the exercise above LT2, time to exhaustion decreased significantly from 23.16 ± 8.76 min on the CHOmod diet to 18.30 ± 5.86 min on the CHOlow diet (P < 0.05). The rate of carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration were reduced for CHOlow only during exercise above LT2. These results suggest that muscle glycogen depletion followed by a period of a low carbohydrate diet impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

Effect of muscle glycogen depletion on in vivo insulin action in man.

Bogardus, C; Thuillez, P; Ravussin, E; Vasquez, B; Narimiga, M; Azhar, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1983 Português
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56.05%
In rats, muscle glycogen depletion has been associated with increased insulin action. Whether this also occurs in man has not been reported. After 4 d rest, 13 males (E Group) had a percutaneous muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle followed by a euglycemic clamp at plasma insulin congruent to 100 microU/ml and congruent to 1,900 microU/ml, with simultaneous indirect calorimetry. This was repeated 1 wk later, but after glycogen-depleting exercise the night before the euglycemic clamp. Seven subjects underwent the same protocol but were also re-fed 100 g carbohydrate (CHO) after the exercise (EF group). In both groups, the mean muscle glycogen content was approximately 40% lower (P less than 0.01) after exercise compared with the muscle glycogen content measured after rest. In the E group, the mean muscle glycogen synthase activity (percent independent of glucose-6-phosphate) increased threefold (P less than 0.001) after exercise, but increased only twofold in the EF group (P less than 0.02 between groups). In both groups, the mean basal and insulin-stimulated CHO oxidation rates were lower in the post-exercise, glycogen-depleted condition compared with the rested, glycogen-replete condition. The mean insulin-stimulated CHO storage rate increased significantly in the E group after exercise but not in the EF group. In the E group...

Effects of muscle glycogen depletion on some metabolic and physiological responses to submaximal treadmill exercise.

Davie, A J; Evans, D L; Hodgson, D R; Rose, R J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 Português
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56.09%
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced muscle glycogen concentration on some physiological and metabolic responses during moderate intensity treadmill exercise in horses. Six Thoroughbred geldings were randomly allocated to 2 treatments (protocols A and B) or control in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design. In protocol A, horses performed low intensity exercise while horses in protocol B performed short bursts of high intensity exercise. Protocol A was designed to induce glycogen depletion mainly of slow twitch muscle fibers while protocol B aimed to deplete mainly fast twitch muscle fibers. Horses in the control group did not undergo exercise prior to the exercise test. Five hours after glycogen depletion, horses performed treadmill exercise at 60% VO2max at a treadmill slope of 10% until fatigue (20-30 min). The induced glycogen depletion prior to exercise had no significant effect on plasma glucose, insulin, or lactate concentrations during the exercise test, and there was no effect on glycogen utilization rate, although respiratory exchange ratios were lower in the glycogen-depleted groups. The VO2, heart rate and central blood temperature did not vary significantly between the protocols A and B and control throughout the exercise test. It was concluded that 20-30% depletion of glycogen concentration in the middle gluteal muscle resulted in a shift towards fat metabolism...

The non-selective innervation of muscle fibres and mixed composition of motor units in a muscle of neonatal rat.

Jones, S P; Ridge, R M; Rowlerson, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1987 Português
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46.02%
1. Motor-unit size was measured by tension recording in neonatal (3-5 day) rat skeletal muscle (fourth deep lumbrical muscle). Each unit was then depleted of glycogen and its fibres studied in mid-belly frozen sections, by staining for glycogen (periodic acid-Schiff reagent and antibody labelling for slow myosin. The contralateral muscle acted as control, and further controls for the method are described. 2. All the motor units contained both slow-myosin-containing (S; antibody-positive) and slow-myosin-free (F; antibody-negative) fibres. 3. The proportion of each unit that was made up of S fibres was compared with the whole muscle. Of the twelve units studied seven were not selectively innervated, four may have been selectively innervated in favour of F fibres, and one was selectively innervated in favour of S fibres. The last unit was much smaller than the others. 4. Fibre cross-sectional areas were measured in units and in the whole muscles. Mean cross-sectional areas for individual F fibres in all the motor units were smaller than in the corresponding whole muscles (ratio 0.71), implying that small fibres have higher levels of polyneuronal innervation than larger ones (each small fibre occurring in more overlapping units than each larger fibre). There was no such difference in S fibres (ratio 0.96). 5. Motor-unit sizes (as a percentage of whole muscle) were smaller when obtained from summed fibre cross-sectional areas than from fibre counts (this follows from 4...

Glycogen depletion of bag1 fibers elicited by stimulation of static gamma axons in cat peroneus brevis muscle spindles.

Emonet-Dénand, F; Jami, L; Laporte, Y; Tankov, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1980 Português
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46.09%
1. The distribution of static fusimotor axons to intrafusal muscle fibres in cat peroneus brevis spindles has been studied with the glycogen depletion method. 2. In each of six experiments three to seven static axons were stimulated. The muscle was subsequently quick-frozen and cut in serial transverse sections that were stained for glycogen. In each muscle, nearly all the spindles were examined for depletion. 3. Intrafusal muscle fibres displaying zones of complete glycogen depletion were observed in fifty-two whole spindles and seven half-spindles. Chain fibres were depleted in forty-eight (92%) of the whole spindles, bag2 fibres in thirty-five spindles (67%) and bag1 fibres in nineteen spindles (36%). 4. Seven other experiments were performed to test whether small amplitude sinusoidal stretching (30--100 Hz) of the muscle might produce glycogen depletion in bag1 fibres. Two hundred and seven spindles were examined. In nearly all of them the glycogen content of the intrafusal muscle fibres was normal. Two muscles had limited atrophic portions within which a few depleted spindles were found. 5. These experiments show that the intrafusal distribution of static gamma axons is not restricted to chain and bag2 fibres but that in a significant number of spindles the bag1 fibres are also supplied by static gamma axons.

Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad

Stephenson, D G; Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M M
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/1999 Português
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45.95%
Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization.A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80 % of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59 ± 0.20 % min−1 in a relaxing solution (200 nm [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66 ± 0.38 % min−1) when the preparations were exposed to 30 μm [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes.Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional...

Dissociation between muscle tricarboxylic acid cycle pool size and aerobic energy provision during prolonged exercise in humans

Gibala, Martin J; González-Alonso, José; Saltin, Bengt
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.89%
It has been suggested that a decrease in the total concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (TCAIs) - secondary to a reduction in glycogen availability - compromises oxidative energy provision in skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. We therefore studied six men (28 ± 2 years) during 90 min of leg kicking exercise at an intensity equivalent to 70 % of maximum. Biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise, and thigh oxygen uptake (VO2,thigh) was calculated according to the Fick principle. The sum of six measured TCAIs (≈95 % of total pool size) was 1.30 ± 0.15 mmol (kg dry wt)−1 at rest and increased (P ≤ 0.05) rapidly during exercise to a peak value of 3.15 ± 0.23 mmol (kg dry wt)−1 after 10 min. Thereafter, the [TCAI] declined to 2.14 ± 0.23, 1.73 ± 0.32 and 1.62 ± 0.10 mmol (kg dry wt)−1 after 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively (P ≤ 0.05vs.10 min). Despite the 50 % decrease in [TCAI], aerobic energy provision was not compromised, as evidenced by stable VO2,thigh values throughout the entire exercise bout and little change in muscle [phosphocreatine] after 10 min. The largest decrease in [TCAI] (Δ + 1.00 ± 0.24 mmol (kg dry wt)−1) occurred from 10 to 30 min of exercise despite the fact that muscle [glycogen] remained relatively high at this point in exercise (≈274 ± 24 mmol (kg dry wt)−1 after 30 min; ≈65 % of rest value). Conversely...

Effects of depletion exercise and light training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in men

Goforth, Harold W.; Laurent, Didier; Prusaczyk, William K.; Schneider, Kevin E.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.06%
Supercompensated muscle glycogen can be achieved by using several carbohydrate (CHO)-loading protocols. This study compared the effectiveness of two “modified” CHO-loading protocols. Additionally, we determined the effect of light cycle training on muscle glycogen. Subjects completed a depletion (D, n = 15) or nondepletion (ND, n = 10) CHO-loading protocol. After a 2-day adaptation period in a metabolic ward, the D group performed a 120-min cycle exercise at 65% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) followed by 1-min sprints at 120% V̇O2 peak to exhaustion. The ND group performed only 20-min cycle exercise at 65% V̇O2 peak. For the next 6 days, both groups ate the same high-CHO diets and performed 20-min daily cycle exercise at 65% V̇O2 peak followed by a CHO beverage (105 g of CHO). Muscle glycogen concentrations of the vastus lateralis were measured daily with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the morning of day 5, muscle glycogen concentrations had increased 1.45 (D) and 1.24 (ND) times baseline (P < 0.001) but did not differ significantly between groups. However, on day 7, muscle glycogen of the D group was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that of the ND group (130 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 5 mmol/l). Daily cycle exercise decreased muscle glycogen by 10 ± 2 (D) and 14 ± 5 mmol/l (ND)...

Total Skeletal Muscle PGC-1 Deficiency Uncouples Mitochondrial Derangements from Fiber Type Determination and Insulin Sensitivity

Zechner, Christoph; Lai, Ling; Fong, Juliet L.; Geng, Tuoyu; Yan, Zhen; Rumsey, John W.; Collia, Deanna; Chen, Zhouji; Wozniak, David F.; Leone, Teresa C.; Kelly, Daniel P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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55.72%
Evidence is emerging that the PGC-1 coactivators serve a critical role in skeletal muscle metabolism, function, and disease. Mice with total PGC-1 deficiency in skeletal muscle (PGC-1α−/−βf/f/MLC-Cre mice) were generated and characterized. PGC-1α−/−βf/f/MLC-Cre mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in exercise performance compared to single PGC-1α- or PGC-1β-deficient mice and wild-type controls. The exercise phenotype of the PGC-1α−/−βf/f/MLC-Cre mice was associated with a marked diminution in muscle respiratory capacity and mitochondrial structural derangements consistent with fusion/fission and biogenic defects together with rapid depletion of muscle glycogen stores during exercise. Surprisingly, the skeletal muscle fiber type profile of the PGC-1α−/−βf/f/MLC-Cre mice was not significantly different than the wild-type mice. Moreover, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were not altered in the PGC-1α−/−βf/f/MLC-Cre mice. Taken together, we conclude that PGC-1 coactivators are necessary for the oxidative and mitochondrial programs of skeletal muscle but are dispensable for fundamental fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity.

Oxygen Generating Biomaterials Preserve Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis under Hypoxic and Ischemic Conditions

Ward, Catherine L.; Corona, Benjamin T.; Yoo, James J.; Harrison, Benjamin S.; Christ, George J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/08/2013 Português
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55.89%
Provision of supplemental oxygen to maintain soft tissue viability acutely following trauma in which vascularization has been compromised would be beneficial for limb and tissue salvage. For this application, an oxygen generating biomaterial that may be injected directly into the soft tissue could provide an unprecedented treatment in the acute trauma setting. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if sodium percarbonate (SPO), an oxygen generating biomaterial, is capable of maintaining resting skeletal muscle homeostasis under otherwise hypoxic conditions. In the current studies, a biologically and physiologically compatible range of SPO (1–2 mg/mL) was shown to: 1) improve the maintenance of contractility and attenuate the accumulation of HIF1α, depletion of intramuscular glycogen, and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) that occurred following ∼30 minutes of hypoxia in primarily resting (duty cycle = 0.2 s train/120 s contraction interval <0.002) rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in vitro (95% N2–5% CO2, 37°C); 2) attenuate elevations of rat EDL muscle resting tension that occurred during contractile fatigue testing (3 bouts of 25 100 Hz tetanic contractions; duty cycle = 0.2 s/2 s = 0.1) under oxygenated conditions in vitro (95% O2–5% CO2...

Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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65.95%
Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct pools. Furthermore, each glycogen granule has its own metabolic machinery with glycolytic enzymes and regulating proteins. One pool of such glycogenolytic complexes is localized within the myofibrils in close contact with key proteins involved in the excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We and others have provided experimental evidence in favour of a direct role of decreased glycogen, localized within the myofibrils, for the reduction in SR Ca2+ release during fatigue. This is consistent with compartmentalized energy turnover and distinctly localized glycogen pools being of key importance for SR Ca2+ release and thereby affecting muscle contractility and fatigability.

Glycogen Content Regulates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-∂ (PPAR-∂) Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle

Philp, Andrew; MacKenzie, Matthew G.; Belew, Micah Y.; Towler, Mhairi C.; Corstorphine, Alan; Papalamprou, Angela; Hardie, D. Grahame; Baar, Keith
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2013 Português
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45.98%
Performing exercise in a glycogen depleted state increases skeletal muscle lipid utilization and the transcription of genes regulating mitochondrial β-oxidation. Potential candidates for glycogen-mediated metabolic adaptation are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and the transcription factor/nuclear receptor PPAR-∂. It was therefore the aim of the present study to examine whether acute exercise with or without glycogen manipulation affects PGC-1α and PPAR-∂ function in rodent skeletal muscle. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (n = 4): control [CON]; normal glycogen control [NG-C]; normal glycogen exercise [NG-E]; low glycogen control [LG-C]; and low glycogen exercise [LG-E]). Gastrocnemius (GTN) muscles were collected immediately following exercise and analyzed for glycogen content, PPAR-∂ activity via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, AMPK α1/α2 kinase activity, and the localization of AMPK and PGC-1α. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen by 47 and 75% relative to CON in the NG-E and LG-E groups, respectively. Exercise that started with low glycogen (LG-E) finished with higher AMPK-α2 activity (147%, p<0.05), nuclear AMPK-α2 and PGC-1α...

An Optimized Histochemical Method to Assess Skeletal Muscle Glycogen and Lipid Stores Reveals Two Metabolically Distinct Populations of Type I Muscle Fibers

Prats, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Nordby, Pernille; Andersen, Jesper L.; Helge, Jørn W.; Dela, Flemming; Baba, Otto; Ploug, Thorkil
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2013 Português
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55.88%
Skeletal muscle energy metabolism has been a research focus of physiologists for more than a century. Yet, how the use of intramuscular carbohydrate and lipid energy stores are coordinated during different types of exercise remains a subject of debate. Controversy arises from contradicting data from numerous studies, which used different methodological approaches. Here we review the “pros and cons” of previously used histochemical methods and describe an optimized method to ensure the preservation and specificity of detection of both intramyocellular carbohydrate and lipid stores. For optimal preservation of muscle energy stores, air drying cryosections or cycles of freezing-thawing need to be avoided. Furthermore, optimization of the imaging settings in order to specifically image intracellular lipid droplets stained with oil red O or Bodipy-493/503 is shown. When co-staining lipid droplets with associated proteins, Bodipy-493/503 should be the dye of choice, since oil red O creates precipitates on the lipid droplets blocking the light. In order to increase the specificity of glycogen stain, an antibody against glycogen is used. The resulting method reveals the existence of two metabolically distinct myosin heavy chain I expressing fibers: I-1 fibers have a smaller crossectional area...

A New Muscle Glycogen Storage Disease Associated with Glycogenin-1 Deficiency

Malfatti, Edoardo; Nilsson, Johanna; Hedberg-Oldfors, Carola; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Michel, Fabrice; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Cristina; Viennet, Gabriel; Akman, H. Orhan; Kornblum, Cornelia; den Bergh, Peter Van; Romero, Norma B.; Engel, Andrew G.; DiMauro,
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46%
We describe a slowly progressive myopathy in 7 unrelated adult patients with storage of polyglucosan in muscle fibers. Genetic investigation revealed homozygous or compound heterozygous deleterious variants in the glycogenin-1 gene (GYG1). Most patients showed depletion of glycogenin-1 in skeletal muscle, whereas 1 showed presence of glycogenin-1 lacking the C-terminal that normally binds glycogen synthase. Our results indicate that either depletion of glycogenin-1 or impaired interaction with glycogen synthase underlies this new form of glycogen storage disease that differs from a previously reported patient with GYG1 mutations who showed profound glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle and accumulation of glycogenin-1.

Efeitos da ingestão de cafeína sobre a contribuição anaeróbia e o desempenho em ciclismo de 4.000m após depleção de glicogênio muscular; Effect of caffeine ingestion on anaerobic contribution and 4-km cycling time Trial performance after muscle glycogen depletion

Cavalcante, Marcos David da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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106.09%
Several research has shown that caffeine ingestion (1, 2, 7 trimethylxanthine) increases performance. Due to these findings and their removal from the list of banned substances in 2004 by the international anti doping agency, athletes of various sports have widely used caffeine in order to increase performance during competitions. Studies have shown an increase in performance in high-intensity exercise after caffeine ingestion. The increase in performance with the use of caffeine in this type of performance, seems to be related to increasing the anaerobic contribution . On the other hand, depletion of glycogen stores appear to reduce performance during high intensity exercise. This reduction according studies appears to be due to a reduction of the anaerobic contribution. More recently, research has been conducted in order to investigate whether supplementation of carbohydrate with the addition of caffeine provides the additional effect on performance. Thus, the goal of this dissertation was: 1) review the main findings about the effects on performance in time trial and what the mechanisms involved in the combined supplementation of caffeine and carbohydrate (review article). 2) verify if intake of caffeine can reverse the impairment in performance and anaerobic contribution caused by depletion of muscle glycogen during 4000m cycling time trial (results article). In the studies reviewed in the review article found that most studies with combined ingestion of caffeine and carbohydrate showed a further increase in performance. However...

Motor units of juvenile rat lumbrical muscles and fibre type compositions of the glycogen-depleted component.

Ridge, R M; Rowlerson, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/1996 Português
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45.97%
1. Fourth deep lumbrical muscles were dissected out, with their nerve supply, from juvenile rats aged 8-15 days (a period corresponding to maximal rate of decline of polyneuronal innervation), and aged 28, 29 and 30 days (when developmental synapse elimination is complete). Preparations were superfused with rat Ringer solution at 25 degrees C. 2. Isometric twitches and tetani were recorded from the whole muscles and from a single motor unit in the muscle. Unit isolation was by partial section of the sural or lateral plantar nerves. The axon of a single unit occurred naturally in the sural nerve in some cases. 3. Fibres in single units were depleted of glycogen by repetitive stimulation, and studied histologically in frozen midbelly sections of the muscle, stained for glycogen with periodic acid-Schiff's reagent (PAS). Most fibre counts were based on transmittance measurements made with an image analysis system. Contralateral muscles were unstimulated and acted as controls. 4. Motor unit sizes were estimated from tetanic tensions and from muscle fibre cross-sectional area measurements. Comparison of the two methods indicated that in most units glycogen depletion was not complete. This effect was maximal at 8 and 10 days postnatally. It is suggested that this is due to weak neuromuscular transmission at synapses in the process of natural elimination during development. 5. Other sections (serial and semi-serial) were immunostained with a polyclonal antibody raised against slow myosin. Fibres staining for the antibody (slow; S-fibres) contribute about 12-9% of muscle fibres depending on age. In some muscles...

Glycogen storage and muscle glucose transporters (GLUT-4) of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running

Gomes, Fernando R.; Rezende, Enrico L.; Malisch, Jessica L.; Lee, Sun K.; Rivas, Donato A.; Kelly, Scott A.; Lytle, Christian; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Garland, Theodore
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.03%
To examine the evolution of endurance-exercise behaviour, we have selectively bred four replicate lines of laboratory mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running (`high runner' or HR lines), while also maintaining four non-selected control (C) lines. By generation 16, HR mice ran ∼2.7-fold more than C mice, mainly by running faster (especially in females), a differential maintained through subsequent generations, suggesting an evolutionary limit of unknown origin. We hypothesized that HR mice would have higher glycogen levels before nightly running, show greater depletion of those depots during their more intense wheel running, and have increased glycogen synthase activity and GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle. We sampled females from generation 35 at three times (photophase 07:00 h–19:00 h) during days 5–6 of wheel access, as in the routine selection protocol: Group 1, day 5, 16:00 h–17:30 h, wheels blocked from 13:00 h; Group 2, day 6, 02:00 h–03:30 h (immediately after peak running); and Group 3, day 6, 07:00 h–08:30 h. An additional Group 4, sampled 16:00 h–17:30 h, never had wheels. HR individuals with the mini-muscle phenotype (50% reduced hindlimb muscle mass) were distinguished for statistical analyses comparing C...

The conversion of dopamine to epinephrine and nor-epinephrine is breed dependent

O'Neill,H.A.; Webb,E.C.; Frylinck,L.; Strydom,P.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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65.78%
In previous reports, Nguni type cattle have shown to have a lower glycolytic potential with less glycogen measured in muscles 1 h post-mortem. With the release of catecholamines in the immediate pre-slaughter period, there is potential for depletion of muscle glycogen, because of the fact that epinephrine activates muscle adenylate cyclase and thereby stimulates glycogen breakdown. Epinephrine and nor-epinephrine are secreted as a result of any "fight or flight" situation. Tyrosine is a conditionally non-essential large neutral amino acid and the precursor of the neurotransmitters dopamine, nor-epinephrine and epinephrine. Ante-mortem stress experienced by an animal may be influenced by amino acids that provide substrates for neurotransmitter synthesis. The Nguni type cattle showed 55.8% and 55.1% greater urinary nor-epinephrine values than for the Brahman- and Simmental type cattle respectively. The Nguni type cattle showed 35.6% and 43.8% greater urinary epinephrine values than the Brahman- and Simmental type cattle respectively. The higher urinary nor-epinephrine and epinephrine levels measured in Nguni type cattle could either be explained by a greater neuronal out flux immediately prior to slaughter or a slower re-uptake.