Bérgamo, L. P. D. (2011). Trajetória dos maus-tratos infantis: um estudo na perspectiva da Psicopatologia do Desenvolvimento. Tese de Doutorado, Departamento de Psicologia e Educação, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto - SP. Esta pesquisa teve por objeto de estudo o fenômeno dos maus-tratos contra crianças, norteando-se pela hipótese da existência de uma trajetória dessa problemática, caracterizada por sua continuidade no tempo, baseando-se numa articulação entre fase desenvolvimental - tipo de maltrato - tipo de consequência para a criança. Adotou-se como referencial a Psicopatologia Desenvolvimental, onde fenômeno ocorreria por problemas no sistema cuidador(es)-criançaambiente, associados a fatores de risco nos contextos "desenvolvimental" (características do cuidador e da criança), "interacional" (características da relação cuidador-criança e na família) e o "mais amplo" (características do entorno e percepção do apoio social). O objetivo geral foi verificar a existência de uma trajetória dos maus-tratos, buscando compreender sua constituição e manutenção no tempo. Especificamente, objetivou-se conhecer como os maustratos se manifestam em diferentes fases do desenvolvimento infantil e identificar as variáveis associadas...
O presente estudo exploratório examinou o desenvolvimento mental e a qualidade do funcionamento sócio-emocional de 16 crianças entre os 3 e os 6 anos, institucionalizadas em Centros de Acolhimento
Temporário, relacionando-os com a qualidade das narrativas sobre o apego das suas cuidadoras. Foram utilizadas a Escala de Desenvolvimento Mental de Griffiths, o Questionário de Comportamentos, as
Narrativas sobre o Apego e o Attachment Q-Sort. Os resultados revelaram que o nível de desenvolvimento das crianças foi inferior aos valores normativos. Além disso, os valores apresentados ao nível da psicopatologia,
em termos de sintomas de internalização e de externalização, aproximaram-se dos valores
clínicos. Não obstante e, em contraste com o esperado, a maioria das crianças apresentou valores próximos da segurança (base segura), os quais não estão associados com a qualidade das narrativas sobre o apego
das suas cuidadoras. Os resultados são discutidos com base no impacto da privação em meio institucional para o desenvolvimento na infância.; This exploratory study examined mental development and the quality of socio-emotional functioning of 16 institutionalized children, aged from 3 to 6 years old, relating them with the quality of their caregivers’
attachment narratives. Griffiths Developmental Scales...
The papers in this special issue have in common an interest in developmental variations in the heritability of substance use, abuse, and problems. A number of the studies are longitudinal, and even those that are cross-sectional are analytically focused on whether heritability, shared, and nonshared environmentality effects are constant or change over the period from onset of use to the time when problem use is more constant. This commentary provides an overview of the work from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Findings are linked to the existing longitudinal/developmental literature on the epigenesis of substance use disorders and similarities and contradictions are noted. Suggestions for next step work, involving the need for increased differentiation of the substance abuse phenotypes, the utilization of phenotypic measures that delineate heterogeneity of course, and more precise definition of the specific environmental variations that underlie shared and nonshared environmental liability, are provided.
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.
Maser et al. (2009) identify several problems with the categorical DSM, and suggest that a shift to a mixed categorical-dimensional system is warranted. Maser et al. support their argument by citing evidence related to mood and anxiety disorders, among other conditions. In this commentary, I consider the applicability of several issues raised by Maser et al. to two disruptive behavior disorders in youth, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The issues include paradigm shifts concerning (a) the diagnostic threshold, (b) symptoms, and (c) distress/psychosocial impairment. Within each topic, several developmental psychopathology principles that parallel and extend the Maser et al. issues are presented and described. This commentary also provides examples of dimensions that could be useful for conceptualizing ODD and CD within a mixed categorical-dimensional classification system.
Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report anxiety symptoms post-treatment. This paper underscores the need to attend to the unique developmental characteristics of the adolescent period when designing and delivering treatment, in an effort to enhance treatment effectiveness. Informed by the literature from developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and clinical child and adolescent psychology, we review the ‘why’ and the ‘how’ of developmentally appropriate CBT for anxious adolescents. ‘Why’ it is important to consider developmental factors in designing and delivering CBT for anxious adolescents is addressed by examining the age-related findings of treatment outcome studies and exploring the influence of developmental factors, including cognitive capacities, on engagement in CBT. ‘How’ clinicians can developmentally tailor CBT for anxious adolescents in six key domains of treatment design and delivery is illustrated with suggestions drawn from both clinically and research-oriented literature. Finally...
So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic).
Recent years have evidenced a tremendous increase in research using a developmental psychopathology framework to examine clinical diagnoses among youth. Despite this increase, a relative dearth of literature systematically examines the development of co-occurring conditions among youth. In this introduction to the Special Issue on comorbidity among youth, we suggest that a developmental psychopathology perspective can provide an important foundation for the diagnosis of mental health problems among youth. As a potential framework for future investigations, we consider several developmental psychopathology principles that can inform assessment and diagnosis among youth psychological disorders. We use these principles as a foundation for considering co-occurring psychological disorders and provide potential explanations for comorbidity that can be addressed in future research that uses a developmental psychopathology perspective.
A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence.
This commentary reviews and reflects on the studies of this special section: studies that collectively provide compelling evidence for meaningful changes in stress- and emotionally reactive psychophysiological systems with the transition from middle childhood into adolescence. The observed changes were complex and often overlaid upon ontogenetic differences in basal levels of activation of these systems. Maturational increases in responsiveness to stressors were stressor dependent and differentially expressed across autonomic and hormonal measures. Pubertal status increased the impact of some affective valence manipulations, although not significantly influencing others, including negative affect-related potentiation of startle/reflexes. Such ontogenetic increases in stressor and affect sensitivity may have implications for developmental psychopathology. Developmental increases in stressor reactivity may normally aid youth in responding adaptively to the challenges of adolescence, but may result in stress dysregulation among at-risk adolescents, increasing further their vulnerability for psychopathology. Pubertal-related increases in sensitivity to emotionally laden stimuli may exacerbate individual predispositions for exaggerated affective processing...
Three hypotheses have been posited as competing explanations for the comorbidity or co-occurrence of language difficulties and behavioural problems among children: (1) language difficulties confer risk for behaviour problems, (2) behaviour problems confer risk for language difficulties, and (3) shared risk factors account for their co-occurrence. We use a developmental psychopathology perspective to propose a model that integrates these explanations, and incorporates several potential moderating, mediating, and shared risk factors. We propose that temperamental negative emotionality and working memory deficits operate to initiate the pathway that may culminate in comorbid language and behaviour problems. We hypothesise that contextual factors (e.g. parent–child interactional processes) and child-specific factors (e.g. adaptive communication) may exacerbate or offset this risk and thus contribute to multiple developmental pathways. The proposed model underscores the importance of considering transactional processes from multiple domains to understand how configurations of risk and protective factors translate into different patterns of children’s linguistic and behavioural functioning.
Temperament refers to early-appearing variation in emotional reactivity. The core dimensions of temperament and optimal method for assessment continue to be sources of considerable discussion. Nevertheless, the moderate stability of most temperamental traits and the strong influence of genetic and unique environmental factors have been well established, along with temperament’s association with childhood psychiatric disorders. Both a temperamental predisposition toward experiencing negative emotions and low inhibitory control are linked to many psychiatric conditions, while other dimensions, such as levels of extraversion, vary by, and likely even within, disorders. Accumulating research directed at understanding the mechanism of these links between temperament and psychopathology indicate that, at least for most disorders, the two constructs cannot be viewed as simply different points along a shared continuum. The effect of temperament upon psychopathology has been found to be mediated and moderated by a number of both internal and external factors. Additional research is needed to help further define the core dimensions of temperament and the complex mechanisms through which temperamental traits interact with other influences in affecting developmental trajectories.
Over the past decades, developmental psychopathology has coalesced into a discipline that has made significant contributions toward the understanding of risk, psychopathology, and resilience in individuals across the life course. The overarching goal of the discipline has been to elucidate the interplay among biological, psychological, and social-contextual aspects of normal and abnormal development. In addition to directing efforts toward bridging fields of study and aiding in elucidating important truths about the processes underlying adaptation and maladaptation, investigators in developmental psychopathology have been equally devoted to developing and evaluating methods for preventing and ameliorating maladaptive and psychopathological outcomes. Increasingly, efforts are being made to conduct investigations at multiple levels of analysis and to translate basic research knowledge into real world contexts. In this article, the contributions, challenges, and future directions of the field are highlighted.
In this introductory chapter, guided by developmental psychopathology and developmental science as overarching integrative theoretical frameworks, the authors define three constructs related to social anxiety in childhood (behavioral inhibition, anxious solitude/withdrawal, and social anxiety disorder) and analyze commonalities and differences in the content and assessment of these constructs. They then highlight controversies between developmental and clinical approaches to the definition of these constructs, the role of biology in social anxiety, age of onset of social anxiety, information processing biases in social anxiety, heterogeneity in the social and emotional adjustment of socially anxious children, and targets of intervention for childhood social anxiety.
Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.
Underage alcohol use can be viewed as a developmental phenomenon because many kinds of developmental changes and expectations appear to influence this behavior and also because it has consequences for development. Data on alcohol use, abuse, and dependence show clear age-related patterns. Moreover, many of the effects that alcohol use has on the drinker, in both the short and long term, depend on the developmental timing of alcohol use or exposure. Finally, many developmental connections have been observed in the risk and protective factors that predict the likelihood of problem alcohol use in young people. Therefore, efforts to understand and address underage drinking would benefit from a developmental perspective, and the general principles of developmental psychopathology offer a useful conceptual framework for research and prevention concerned with underage drinking.
In the past 25 years research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has emerged as a vital area within the field of developmental psychopathology. Extensive animal research has provided knowledge of the substrates and physiological mechanisms that guide development of stress reactivity and regulation using methods that are not feasible in humans. Recent advances in understanding the anatomy and physiology of the HPA axis in humans and its interactions with other stress-mediating systems, including accurate assessment of salivary cortisol, more sophisticated neuroimaging methods, and a variety of genetic analyses, have led to greater knowledge of how psychological and biological processes impact functioning.A growing body of research on HPA axis regulation and reactivity in relation to psychopathology has drawn increased focus on the prenatal period, infancy, and the pubertal transition as potentially sensitive periods of stress system development in children. Theories such as the Allostatic Load Model have guided research by integrating multiple physiological systems and mechanisms by which stress can affect mental and physical health. However, almost none of the prominent theoretical models in stress physiology are truly developmental...
Although children’s security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory (EST-R) within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children’s security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children’s trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of EST-R to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad...
Boyce, W. Thomas; Frank, Ellen; Jensen, Peter S.; Kessler, Ronald; Nelson, Charles A.; Steinberg, Laurence
Fonte: Cambridge University Press (CUP)Publicador: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Accumulating evidence suggests that social contexts in early life have important and complex effects on childhood psychopathology. Spurred by the lack of an explicit operational definition that could guide the study of such effects, we define a social context operationally as “a set of interpersonal conditions, relevant to a particular behavior or disorder and external to, but shaped and interpreted by, the individual child.” Building on this definition, we offer a series of recommendations for future research, based on five theoretically derived propositions: (a) Contexts are nested and multidimensional; (b) contexts broaden, differentiate, and deepen with age, becoming more specific in their effects; (c) contexts and children are mutually determining; (d) a context's meaning to the child determines its effects on the child and arises from the context's ability to provide for fundamental needs; and (e) contexts should be selected for assessment in light of specific questions or outcomes. As reflected in an increasingly rich legacy of literature on child development and psychopathology, social contexts appear to influence emerging mental disorders through dynamic, bidirectional interactions with individual children. Future research will benefit from examining not only statistical interactions between child- and context-specific factors...
The integrative field of developmental psychopathology is having a huge impact on our understanding of human health and behavior. In this paper, I use the example of children’s early stress exposure to illustrate how developmental psychopathologists now tend to deemphasize diagnostic categories and, instead, emphasize the social and biological contexts, events and circumstances that have created opportunities for maladaptive responses and health problems in youth. This example shows that developmental psychopathology is increasing understanding of how children develop the abilities that allow them to cope effectively with challenges and what leads to failures in development of these abilities. Integrating research about the neurobiology of learning may prove to be a powerful future direction to understand how the environment regulates behavior. Learning processes become increasingly intricate and fine-tuned as relevant neuroanatomical systems develop, and as the range, complexity and amount of environmental information increases for the developing child. A focus on these processes allows psychopathologists to formulate questions about which neural mechanisms children use to process information, how these mechanisms are themselves shaped by social context...