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Rapeseed oil‑rich diet alters hepatic mitochondrial membrane lipid composition and disrupts bioenergetics

Monteiro, João P.; Pereira, Cláudia V.; Silva, Ana M.; Maciel, Elisabete; Baldeiras, Inês; Peixoto, Francisco; Domingues, Maria R.; Jurado, Amália S.; Oliveira, Paulo J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.51%
Diet is directly related with physiological alterations occurring at a cell and subcellular level. However, the role of diet manipulation on mitochondrial physiology is still largely unexplored. Aiming at correlating diet with alterations of mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics, Wistar-Han male rats were fed for 11, 22 and 33 days with a rapeseed oil-based diet and mitochondrial bioenergetics, and membrane composition were compared at each time point with a standard diet group. Considerable differences were noticed in mitochondrial membrane lipid composition, namely in terms of fatty acyl chains and relative proportions of phospholipid classes, the modified diet inducing a decrease in the saturated to unsaturated molar ratio and an increase in the phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine molar ratio. Mass spectrometry lipid analysis showed significant differences in the major species of cardiolipin, with an apparent increased incorporation of oleic acid as a result of exposure to the modified diet. Rats fed the modified diet during 22 days showed decreased hepatic mitochondrial state 3 respiration and were more susceptible to Ca2+-induced transition pore opening. Rapeseed oil-enriched diet also appeared to promote a decrease in hydroperoxide production by the respiratory chain...

Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity

Monteiro, João P.; Silva, Ana M.; Jurado, A. S.; Oliveira, Paulo J.
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd. Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities.; The project was supported by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT...

Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity

Monteiro, João P.; Silva, Ana M.; Jurado, Amália S.; Oliveira, Paulo J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities.

Eventos adversos na administração de dieta enteral em unidade de terapia intensiva: análise comparativa entre o volume prescrito e o administrado.; Adverse events related to the administration of enteral diet in the unit of intensive care: analyses to compare the volume precribed with the administrated.

Poltronieri, Mairy Jussara de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/06/2006 Português
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Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, descritivo, prospectivo, que teve como objetivos comparar o volume de dieta enteral prescrito com o administrado aos pacientes internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI); comparar as necessidades calóricas diárias (NCD) dos pacientes com as necessidades calóricas prescritas (NCP) e as administradas (NCA); identificar os motivos e os fatores associados a não administração do volume da dieta enteral prescrita aos pacientes. O estudo foi realizado no período de 21 de agosto a 21 de novembro de 2005, em duas UTIs gerais de um hospital privado do Município de São Paulo. A coleta dos dados foi feita diariamente por meio de informações contidas no prontuário e na folha de controle da Unidade. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva para caracterizar a amostra de pacientes, a dieta enteral e os motivos da não administração do volume prescrito. A comparação das médias do volume prescrito com o administrado, assim como das médias das NCD com as NCP e as NCA foram feitas com o teste t-Student para amostras pareadas. Para as comparações, segundo faixas de volumes e calorias foi utilizado o índice Kappa. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. O método de regressão logística aplicado para verificar os fatores associados à não administração da dieta enteral foi o Stepwise forward que incorporou ao modelo as variáveis que apresentaram significância estatística (p<0...

Uso de adoçantes e alimentos dietéticos por pessoas diabéticas; Use of sweeteners and diet food by diabetic people

Sousa, Gisele de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
O impacto do diabetes mellitus como sério problema de saúde pública está no fato de que a maioria das complicações crônicas inerentes a doença é incapacitante para a realização das atividades diárias e produtivas, compromete a qualidade de vida e é onerosa para o sistema de saúde. A terapia nutricional é parte fundamental do cuidado do diabetes e tem como principal alvo manter a glicemia mais próxima possível do valor normal, balanceando dieta, medicamentos e exercício físico. É comum o uso de adoçantes dietéticos em substituição ao açúcar por pessoas com diabetes, pois possuem alto poder adoçante conferindo ao alimento pouca ou nenhuma caloria. O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar o uso de adoçantes e alimentos dietéticos por pessoas diabéticas cadastradas em um Serviço de Medicina Preventiva ? SEMPRE do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, os dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário composto de variáveis sócio-demográficas, variáveis relacionadas à doença e referentes ao consumo de adoçantes e alimentos dietéticos. Os dados foram registrados em planilhas construídas no MS Excel e a análise estatística foi realizada através do programa SPSS. A coleta de dados ocorreu nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 2005. Participaram do estudo 65 pessoas diabéticas...

Alimentos normais, light/diet e orgânicos: o consumo segundo as classes econômicas e suas elasticidades-renda; Regular food, light/diet and organic: consumption according to the different economic classes and their income elasticities

Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Esse trabalho apresenta as informações referentes ao comportamento de várias categorias de gastos, com destaque para o padrão de despesa e de aquisição física familiar com alimentos consumidos no domicílio, caracterizados como alimentos normais, orgânicos e light/diet, segundo as diferentes classes econômicas (alta, média e baixa). Também foram obtidas as elasticidades-renda da despesa e do consumo físico (kg) de vários itens de alimentos orgânicos e light/diet, comparando-as com os valores obtidos das elasticidades dos mesmos alimentos e/ou grupos de alimentos normais. Usando os dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF 2008-2009, a população é dividida em três classes econômicas, a partir de uma metodologia que maximiza a desigualdade entre estratos, ou minimiza a desigualdade dentro dos estratos. Já o método econométrico usado na estimativa das elasticidades consiste em calcular a despesa média em dez classes de renda familiar per capita e ajustar uma função poligonal com três segmentos mostrando como o logaritmo da despesa per capita média por classe varia em função do logaritmo da renda per capita. Constata-se que para os domicílios de classe baixa a alimentação tem um peso maior no orçamento familiar e o padrão dietético é mais restrito...

Efeitos de dieta palatável sobre a resposta de estresse em ratos; Effects of palatable diet on stress response in rats

Daniela Ortolani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Tem sido proposto que o acesso a alimentos palatáveis atenua a resposta de estresse. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o efeito de uma dieta palatável sobre parâmetros comportamentais e hormonais de ratos submetidos a estresse por choque nas patas. Ratos controles e estressados preferiram dieta palatável à comercial e a diminuição da ingestão alimentar induzida pelo estresse foi abolida em ratos com acesso a dieta palatável. Como conseqüência das diferenças de ingestão alimentar entre os grupos, ratos estressados e alimentados com dieta comercial consumiram quantidade inferior de calorias quando comparados com os controles, enquanto que ratos com acesso a dieta palatável ingeriram quantidade maior de calorias, não sendo alterado pelo estresse. Apesar dessas diferenças o peso corporal não se alterou. Ratos submetidos ao estresse aumentaram o número de entradas e o tempo de permanência no braço aberto do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), e também o número de imersões de cabeça. O número de estiramentos e de avaliações de risco foi diminuído pelo estresse por choque nas patas. A dieta palatável também diminuiu o número de avaliações de risco. Os animais submetidos ao estresse e com acesso ao alimento palatável apresentaram maior latência para o primeiro cruzamento e permaneceram mais tempo no centro do campo aberto. O número de levantamentos avaliado no campo aberto aumentou com a ingestão de dieta palatável...

Avaliação toxicológica subcrônica de dieta cetogênica à base de trienantina em ratos jovens.; Subchronic toxicologicalevaluation of a ketogenic diet based upon trienantin in rats.

Lucena, Ana Luiza de Melo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.53%
The classic ketogenic diet, rich in long chain triacylglycerols (LCT), is characterised by a high concentration of lipids and a low concentation of carbohydrates and proteins, promoting ketonemia and ketonuria, a property used in the treatment of disorders that affect cerebral metabolism and function, for example epilepsy resistant to medication. Medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are considered alternative substrates to LCT in the production of this diet, to promote a more rapid increase in the levels of the body´s blood ketones. Trienantin, a medium chain triacyglycerol from enantic fatty acid (7:0), has been used with success with children suffering hereditary metabolic syndromes, but has had few studies about its toxicological effects. The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate the toxicity of a subchronic consumption of a ketogenic diet with a trienantin base on young rats, and is submitted in the form of two articles. The first, under the name of: Substitution of LCT with MCT in nutritional therapy: an emphasis on ketogenic therapy presents a revision of the ketogenic diet, comparing the data of LCT and MCT in animal and clinical studies. The more rapid ketonemia promoted by MCT allows a lower quantity of lipids and a greater proportion of proteins and carbohydrates...

Efeito de dieta cetogênica à base de óleo de coco sobre as crises convulsivas de ratos portadores de epilepsia induzida por pilocarpina; Effect of the ketogenic diet based on coconut oil upon seizures of rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine

Rêgo, Elisabete da Silva Mendonça
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Epilepsy is a chronic disturbance of brain function characterized by the presence of recurrent and spontaneous seizures, making one of the most frequent and severe neurological diseases, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide, mainly children. Among these, 40% had antiepileptic drug refractory seizures. Non-drug options as surgery, vagus nerve stimulation and the ketogenic diet are timely. This diet, used since 1921 in treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy is characterized by a high concentration of lipids and often by low concentration of carbohydrates and proteins. Traditionally, the ketogenic diet use long chain triacylglycerols (LCT), however, the medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are considered an alternative substrate for promoting faster ketonemia-ketonuria. The oil from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a natural source of MCT, and is used for several purposes, including therapeutic. This dissertation aims to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet based on coconut oil and soybean oil on epileptic seizures in rats, consists of a review chapter, entitled Drug-resistant epilepsies: an emphasis on treatment ketogenic, and an article from the results, entitled Effects of ketogenic diet based on coconut oil on the seizures of rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. The article deals an experimental study conducted in Wistar rats...

Repercussão da ingestão crônica de dieta termolizada em parâmetros morfo-funcionais do tecido hepático; Effect of chronic ingestion of diet thermolyzed in morpho-functional parameters of liver tissue

Silva, Elisa Batista Oliveira e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
AGEs, Advanced Glycation End Products, are heterogeneous compounds with pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties. These compounds are formed in the body (particularly under conditions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress) and in environment, being the diet their main source exogenous. Neutral or alkaline food, subjected heat-treated at temperatures above 100°C with low humidity, for prolonged periods had increased formation of AGEs, conditions frequently encountered in the typical Western diet, which is a source of high levels of AGEs. The heat treatment of food, in addition to form AGEs, contributes to reducing labile vitamin with anti-glycation action and essential for humans, thiamin. The chronic consumption of diet rich in AGEs and deficient in thiamin are conditions that promote oxidative stress, carbonyl stress and persisted inflammation, contributing to the aging process with the development of several chronic diseases. When absorbed, dietary AGEs are added to those produced in the body increasing your body pool, through the kidney and liver, undergo catabolism and degradation to be eliminated. In particular, the liver is the main organ of clearance and catabolism of AGEs, becoming an easy target for the damaging effects of AGEs. In cases of thiamin deficiency...

Efeitos da dieta cetogênica à base de trienantina nos episódios convulsivos de ratos portadores de epilepsia induzida por pilocarpina; Effects of the ketogenic diet based on triheptanoin in sezures of rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine

Gomes, Tâmara Kelly de Castro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Nutrição; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The main importance of temporal lobe epilepsy due to its high prevalence and high proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy to treatment, making it necessary in this case, the use of alternative therapies, such as the ketogenic diet. This diet is rich in fat, low in carbohydrates and proteins, and since 1921 has been used for patients unresponsive to medical therapy. This dissertation deals with the investigation of the effects of the ketogenic diet based on triheptanoin in epileptic seizures in rats and was developed in the form of two articles. The first article, The role of the ketogenic diet on oxidative stress occurring in epilepsy, presents a review of the relationship between oxidative stress and epilepsy, highlighting the possible beneficial effect of ketogenic diet in this context. Several results show that, in fact, this dietary method reduces oxidative stress markers. The second article, entitled Effects of ketogenic diet based on triheptanoin in seizures of rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine, describes the experimental study conducted in Wistar rats were divided into three groups, named according to the diet received, in control (standard diet AIN-93G), CetoTAGC7 (ketogenic based in triheptanoin; AIN-93G diet modified to contain 4% soybean oil...

Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women

Farnsworth, E.; Luscombe-Marsh, N.; Noakes, M.; Wittert, G.; Argyiou, E.; Clifton, P.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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36.53%
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether varying the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of weight-loss diets benefits body composition or metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 2 weight-loss diets differing in protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, and markers of bone turnover. DESIGN: A parallel design included either a high-protein diet of meat, poultry, and dairy foods (HP diet: 27% of energy as protein, 44% as carbohydrate, and 29% as fat) or a standard-protein diet low in those foods (SP diet: 16% of energy as protein, 57% as carbohydrate, and 27% as fat) during 12 wk of energy restriction (6-6.3 MJ/d) and 4 wk of energy balance ( approximately 8.2 MJ/d). Fifty-seven overweight volunteers with fasting insulin concentrations > 12 mU/L completed the study. RESULTS: Weight loss (7.9 +/- 0.5 kg) and total fat loss (6.9 +/- 0.4 kg) did not differ between diet groups. In women, total lean mass was significantly (P = 0.02) better preserved with the HP diet (-0.1 +/- 0.3 kg) than with the SP diet (-1.5 +/- 0.3 kg). Those fed the HP diet had significantly (P < 0.03) less glycemic response at weeks 0 and 16 than did those fed the SP diet. After weight loss, the glycemic response decreased significantly (P < 0.05) more in the HP diet group. The reduction in serum triacylglycerol concentrations was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the HP diet group (23%) than in the SP diet group (10%). Markers of bone turnover...

Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations 24-h satiety and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber

Lejeune, M.; Westerterp, K.; Adam, T.; Luscombe-Marsh, N.; Westerterp-Plantagena, M.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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36.54%
Background: The mechanism of protein-induced satiety remains unclear. Objective: The objective was to investigate 24-h satiety and related hormones and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein (HP) diet in a respiration chamber. Design: Twelve healthy women aged 18–40 y were fed in energy balance an adequate-protein (AP: 10%, 60%, and 30% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) or an HP (30%, 40%, and 30% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) diet in a randomized crossover design. Substrate oxidation, 24-h energy expenditure (EE), appetite profile, and ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Results: Sleeping metabolic rate (6.40 ± 0.47 compared with 6.12 ± 0.40 MJ/d; P < 0.05), diet-induced thermogenesis (0.91 ± 0.25 compared with 0.69 ± 0.24 MJ/d; P < 0.05), and satiety were significantly higher, and activity-induced EE (1.68 ± 0.32 compared with 1.86 ± 0.41; P < 0.05), respiratory quotient (0.84 ± 0.02 compared with 0.88 ± 0.03; P < 0.0005), and hunger were significantly lower during the HP diet. There was a tendency for a greater 24-h EE during the HP diet (P = 0.05). Although energy intake was not significantly different between the diet groups...

Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects

Tay, J.; Brinkworth, G.; Noakes, M.; Keogh, J.; Clifton, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effects of an energy-reduced, isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate, high-fat (VLCHF) diet and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on weight loss and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes. BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of the VLCHF diet, no studies have compared the chronic effects of weight loss and metabolic change to a conventional HCLF diet under isocaloric conditions. METHODS: A total of 88 abdominally obese adults were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6 to 7 MJ, 30% deficit), planned isocaloric VLCHF or HCLF diet for 24 weeks in an outpatient clinical trial. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at weeks 0 and 24. RESULTS: Weight loss was similar in both groups (VLCHF -11.9 +/- 6.3 kg, HCLF -10.1 +/- 5.7 kg; p = 0.17). Blood pressure, CRP, fasting glucose, and insulin reduced similarly with weight loss in both diets. The VLCHF diet produced greater decreases in triacylglycerols (VLCHF -0.64 +/- 0.62 mmol/l, HCLF -0.35 +/- 0.49 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (VLCHF 0.25 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, HCLF 0.08 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; p = 0.002). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the HCLF diet but remained unchanged in the VLCHF diet (VLCHF 0.06 +/- 0.58 mmol/l...

Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo

Brinkworth, G.; Noakes, M.; Buckley, J.; Keogh, J.; Clifton, P.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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36.53%
BACKGROUND: Long-term weight loss and cardiometabolic effects of a very-low-carbohydrate, high-saturated-fat diet (LC) and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (LF) have not been evaluated under isocaloric conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare an energy-controlled LC diet with an LF diet at 1 y. DESIGN: Men and women (n = 118) with abdominal obesity and at least one additional metabolic syndrome risk factor were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6-7 MJ) LC diet (4%, 35%, and 61% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) or an isocaloric LF diet (46%, 24%, and 30% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) for 1 y. Weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants (59%) completed the trial: 33 in the LC group and 36 in the LF group. Both groups lost similar amounts of weight (LC: -14.5 +/- 1.7 kg; LF: -11.5 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.14, time x diet) and body fat (LC: -11.3 +/- 1.5 kg; LF: -9.4 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.30). Blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein decreased independently of diet composition. Compared with the LF group, the LC group had greater decreases in triglycerides (-0.36 +/- 0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.67...

Maternal cafeteria diet consumption and the programming of food preferences in the offspring: the role of the mu-opioid receptor.

Gugusheff, Jessica Rose
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Numerous studies in rodent models have shown that the offspring of dams fed a high-fat high-sugar (cafeteria) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation develop a specific preference for the same kinds of foods in adulthood. Furthermore, studies into potential mechanisms have revealed that the offspring of cafeteria diet fed dams also have altered expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway including the mu-opioid receptor. The current work used a rodent model to look specifically at the role of the mu-opioid receptor in the programming of food preferences and investigated when during development exposure to a maternal cafeteria-style diet could be most harmful. The first aim of this thesis was to isolate whether exposure to a cafeteria diet before birth or in the pre-weaning period had a greater effect on the adult food preferences of the offspring. Using a cross-fostering method, we demonstrated that the male offspring of control or cafeteria diet fed (JF) dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams exhibited higher fat intake when challenged with a cafeteria diet at 7 weeks of age than offspring exposed to the cafeteria diet only before birth or not at all. Building on this work, we then investigated the effect of maternal cafeteria diet exposure on the postnatal development of the mu-opioid receptor. Using an in situ hybridisation method...

Standard short-term diet ameliorates the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet in rats

Cambri, L. T.; Ghezzi, A. C.; Arsa, G.; Botezelli, J. D.; Mello, M. A. R. de
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 335-341
Português
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36.56%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 08/53255-8; Markers of metabolic abnormalities are commonly found in rodents fed a fructose-rich diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of a short-term standard diet to rats is able to improve the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet. The male pups, immediately after birth, were divided in three groups according to the diet for 90 days. Standard diet: a standard diet for the whole experimental period; fructose (60% fructose-rich diet): fructose-rich diet during the entire experimental period; fructose/standard (FS): fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period up to 60 days of age and standard diet from 60 to 90 days of age. A fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period to 60 days reduced weight gain (P<0.05), as well as the weight of adipose tissues in all the regions analyzed (epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and posterior subcutaneous), and it altered the lipid profile (elevation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol; P<0.05). When a standard diet was administered after the fructose-rich diet...

’The food nature intended you to eat’: nutritional primitivism in low-carbohydrate diet discourse.

Knight, Christine Anne
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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36.55%
In this thesis I examine the low-carbohydrate diet trend as one response to the twin obesity and diabetes epidemics. Sociological and cultural studies of dieting to date have been dominated by feminist critique of the thin ideal. Because of their focus on health, low-carbohydrate diets cannot be adequately understood via a feminist approach. Instead, I take a multidisciplinary approach drawing on literature from cultural and literary theory, sociology, history and philosophy in the broader fields of food studies, public health and postcolonial studies. Methodologically, this thesis is based on a close reading of five bestselling low-carbohydrate diet books (Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution, The South Beach Diet, Protein Power, The Zone and Sugar Busters), supplemented by interviews with low-carbohydrate dieters living in South Australia. What I term nutritional primitivism is one of the distinguishing features of low-carbohydrate diet discourse, though it is not unique to low-carbohydrate dieting. I use the phrase nutritional primitivism to refer to the pursuit of supposedly simpler, more natural and more authentic ways of eating as part of a quest for health. I argue that nutritional primitivism in low-carbohydrate diet discourse comprises appeals to Nature...

An educator's perspective of Dr. Feingold's K-P (Kaiser- Permanents) elimination diet for hyperkinetic children and others

Campbell, Joannes.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Do evaluation of the literature and a regional observational report support Dr. Feingold's claim that the K-P (Kaiser-Permanente) elimination diet improves the behaviours of hyperkinetic children, and others? Dr. Feingold suggests that some hyperkinetic children, and other children as well, are genetically predisposed to intolerance of food additives, particularly food colours and flavours. He claims that the K-P diet, that eliminates salicylates and artificial food colours and flavours, improves the hyperkinetic child's behaviour, muscle co-ordination, and scholastic performance. Public acceptance of the K-P diet has outstripped acceptance in the medical and scientific communities. Evaluation of available data and additional studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion of acceptance or rejection of the K-P diet for hyperkinetic children and others. My interest in the K-P elimination diet for hyperkinetic children is educational. My experience as an elementary school teacher in special education and in the classroom from K-8 has taught me that attentiveness is crucial to learning. Hyperkinesis appears to impair a child's ability to attend. Learning problems appear, followed by behavioural and social problems. l If we accept the possibility of a relationship between diet and attentiveness...

Associations between depression subtypes, depression severity and diet quality: cross-sectional findings from the BiDirect study

Rahe, C.; Baune, B.T.; Unrath, M.; Arolt, V.; Wellmann, J.; Wersching, H.; Berger, K.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Depression is supposed to be associated with an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in diet quality between patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression and population-based controls. Additionally, we aimed to examine effects of specific depression characteristics on diet by analyzing if diet quality varies between patients with distinct depression subtypes, and if depression severity is associated with diet quality.The study included 1660 participants from the BiDirect Study (n = 840 patients with depression, n = 820 population-based controls). The psychiatric assessment was based on clinical interviews and a combination of depression scales in order to provide the classification of depression subtypes and severity. Diet quality scores, reflecting the adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, were calculated on the basis of an 18-item food frequency questionnaire. Using analysis of covariance, we calculated adjusted means of diet quality scores and tested differences between groups (adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle-, and health-related factors).We found no differences in diet quality between controls and patients with depression if depression was considered as one entity. However...