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A (in)discrição: aspectos do decoro em 'Dom Quixote' de Miguel de Cervantes; The (in)discretion: the decorum aspects in Dom Quixote de Miguel de Cervantes

Tini, Valéria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2007 Português
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Este trabalho tem o objetivo de verificar a presença do conceito de discrição em três capítulos da obra Don Quijote de la Mancha, de Miguel de Cervantes. Tais capítulos estão localizados na segunda parte da obra e se referem aos conselhos dados por Dom Quixote ao seu fiel escudeiro, Sancho Pança, antes que este assumisse seu governo na ilha Barataria. O conceito de discrição é bastante amplo e complexo. Fazem parte dele atitudes morais e sociais que visam a uma adequada atuação social do indivíduo no universo em que ele se encontra. O exercício da discrição requer o conhecimento de alguns elementos que funcionam como uma espécie de pré-requisito para a sua prática. Entre eles estão a prudência, o discernimento, a cultura e a erudição. Contribuem para a apreensão do conceito de discrição os tratados sobre comportamento social dos séculos XVI e XVII, sobre os quais teceremos comentários específicos, relacionando-os, sempre que possível, ao Quixote de Cervantes. Em nossas considerações, também verificaremos a maneira específica como Cervantes trabalha o conceito de discrição em sua narrativa. Por vezes, o autor subverte as regras do decoro literário, promovendo a quebra da rigidez do conceito, utilizando-o de uma maneira que demonstra variedade em sua aplicação.; This dissertation aims at examining the presence of the concept of discretion in three chapters of Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes. Such chapters belong to the second part of mentioned book and they refer to the pieces of advice given by dom Quixote to Sancho Pança...

A discricionariedade no processo decisório da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações - ANATEL; Discretion in the making decision process of the national telecommunication agency

Coscione, Milene Louise Renée
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2012 Português
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Esta dissertação de mestrado se propõe a analisar a discricionariedade nos processos decisórios das Agências Reguladoras e, em especial, da ANATEL, em um contexto de transformações na relação Estado - sociedade civil, no qual se evidencia espaço alargado de atuação estatal na mediação ativa de interesses legítimos. A ampliação dos bordes da discricionariedade administrativa propicia, na mesma proporção, o aumento do risco de cometimento de arbitrariedades pelas autoridades públicas e, especificamente, pelo regulador setorial. O regulado apresenta-se, assim, em condição de hiposuficiência com relação ao regulador. A casuística da ANATEL evidencia a inexistência de parâmetros concretos e objetivos que possibilitem o acompanhamento do processo formativo de suas decisões regulatórias discricionárias e a sua eventual confrontação pelos interessados e pelos órgãos de fiscalização, especialmente, pelo Poder Judiciário. Temos a convicção de que a discricionariedade nos processos decisórios declaratórios das Agências Reguladoras, no âmbito do exercício da mediação ativa de interesses legítimos contrapostos, não é incondicionada e ilimitada, está subsumida à ordem jurídica. Da mesma forma...

As funções extrajudiciais do Ministério Público: natureza jurídica, discricionariedade e limites; Public Prosecution's extrajudicial activities: juridical nature, discretion and limits.

Ribeiro, Carlos Vinícius Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2011 Português
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O Ministério Público, desde o período imediatamente anterior à Constituição da República de 1988, recebeu novas funções que não faziam parte da clássica titularidade da ação penal pública. Juntamente com essa novel plêiade de funções, atribuiu-se também à instituição novas ferramentas para a consecução de suas finalidades, marcadamente ligadas à tutela e à defesa de interesses metaindividuais. O manejo desses instrumentos no âmbito do próprio Ministério Público possibilita, em grande medida, a resolução concertada de conflitos, contornando a morosidade e a onerosidade do sistema judicial. Essas atividades, que possuem natureza jurídica de função administrativa, apresentam muitas zonas de discricionariedade, que, mal interpretada e manejada, pode desbordar em arbitrariedade disfarçada de independência funcional. Com isso, filtros e balizas ao exercício dessas atividades protojudiciais do Ministério Público são sugeridos, bem como se demonstram alguns mecanismos de controle que poderão ser utilizados, de maneira anterior ou posterior, para o exercício, pelo Ministério Público, de suas funções administrativas finalísticas na tutela e na defesa de interesses de massa.; The Public Prosecution...

Fiscal policy discretion, private spending, and crisis episodes?

Agnello, Luca; Furceri, Davide; Sousa, Ricardo M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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NIPE_WP_31_2011; In this paper, we assess the impact of fiscal policy discretion on economic activity in the short and medium-term. Using a panel of 132 countries from 1960 to 2008, we find that fiscal policy discretion provides a net stimulus to the economy in the short-run and crowding-in effects are amplified once crisis episodes are controlled for– in particular, banking crises - giving a great scope for fiscal policy stimulus packages. However, crowding-out effects take over in the long-run – especially, in the case of debt crises -, in line with the concerns about long-term debt sustainability.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Fiscal policy responsiveness, persistence and discretion

Afonso, António; Agnello, Luca; Furceri, Davide
Fonte: European Central Bank Publicador: European Central Bank
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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We decompose fiscal policy in three components: i) responsiveness, ii) persistence and iii) discretion. Using a sample of 132 countries, our results point out that fiscal policy tends to be more persistent than to respond to output conditions. We also found that while the effect of cross-country covariates is positive (negative) for discretion, it is negative (positive) for persistence thereby suggesting that countries with higher persistence have lower discretion and vice versa. In particular, while government size, country size and income have negative effects on the discretion component of fiscal policy, they tend to increase fiscal policy persistence.

Fiscal Policy Responiveness, Persistence and Discretion

Afonso, António; Agnello, Luca; Furceri, Davide
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
We decompose fiscal policy in three components: i) responsiveness, ii) persistence and iii) discretion. Using a sample of 132 countries, our results point out that fiscal policy tends to be more persistent than to respond to output conditions. We also found that while the effect of cross-country covariates is positive (negative) for discretion, it is negative (positive) for persistence thereby suggesting that countries with higher persistence have lower discretion and vice versa. In particular, while government size, country size and income have negative effects on the discretion component of fiscal policy, they tend to increase fiscal policy persistence.

Judicial Fact Discretion

Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Following legal realists, we model the causes and consequences of trial judges exercising discretion in finding facts in a trial. We identify two motivations for the exercise of such discretion: judicial policy preferences and judges’ aversion to reversal on appeal when the law is unsettled. In the latter case, judges exercising fact discretion find the facts that fit the settled precedents, even when they have no policy preferences. In a standard model of a tort, judicial fact discretion leads to setting of damages unpredictable from true facts of the case but predictable from knowledge of judicial preferences, distorts the number and severity of accidents, and generates welfare losses. It also encourages litigants to take extreme positions in court and raises the incidence of litigation relative to settlement, especially in new and complex disputes for which the law is unsettled.; Economics

Rules versus Discretion at the Federal Reserve: On to the Second Century

Friedman, Benjamin Morton
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Much of the experience of the U.S. Federal Reserve System, during the institution’s first hundred years, has revolved around controversies that fit squarely within the classical debate over rules versus discretion in economic policymaking. This paper looks back at the major episodes in this history since World War II, including the initial freeing of monetary policy from war-related interest-pegging, the Federal Reserve’s delayed but ultimately successful response to the inflation of the 1970s and early 1980s, the brief experiment with monetary aggregate targets, the extraordinary actions prompted by the 2007-9 financial crisis, and the current tentative exploration of inflation targeting. The paper concludes that the tension between the desire for rule-based policymaking and the practicalities that lead central bankers to preserve discretion in actual policy decisions does not admit of any easy, straightforward solution, and therefore that this tension is likely to persist into the Federal Reserve’s next century too.; Economics

Souplesse et méfiance de la coopération policière transnationale

Perras, Chantal
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Même si la coopération policière transnationale est l’objet ces dernières années d’un engouement souvent attribué à des vertus d’efficacité, il reste que relativement peu d’informations sont disponibles sur le processus en lui-même. L’objectif général de la thèse était de fournir une analyse englobant à la fois les préoccupations des autorités politiques et celles des acteurs judiciaires et policiers. Ces acteurs occupent tous des rôles nécessaires dans le système de la coopération policière transnationale, mais outre cette constatation, les études à leur sujet ne se recoupent pas véritablement. C’est donc dire que, d’une part, les études sur les acteurs politiques se concentrent sur les décisions prises par ceux-ci, sur l’élaboration de concepts et sur la signature de conventions. D’autre part, les études sur les acteurs policiers et judiciaires mettent l’accent sur le déroulement quotidien des activités policières transnationales et sur ce qui s’ensuit, c’est-à-dire les procédures judiciaires. À l’aide de concepts tels que la discrétion et la souplesse, la familiarité, la confiance, la méfiance, le scepticisme et l’évitement, nous tentons de rallier les récents concepts de reconnaissance mutuelle et de confiance mutuelle avec ce qui se passe effectivement dans le monde opérationnel. La thèse...

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : Application of a Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report evaluates the framework of decentralization reforms instituted in decentralizing countries. Decentralization is a multi-faceted process which includes giving discretion to local governments and establishing accountability mechanisms at three different levels of governance: political, administrative and fiscal. Therefore, the analysis of the decentralization reforms should also be based on an inter-disciplinary approach. The report applies this framework to ten countries and two sectors and uses the case studies as the primary data collection tool. These case studies provide detailed contextual analysis of the political, administrative and fiscal aspects of decentralization. The countries identified for the case studies are Angola, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kerala/India, Philippines, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Rwanda and Punjab/Pakistan. The sectors identified are health and education. The review of these case studies suggests that most of the local governments do not fare well on many assessment criteria of well-designed decentralization. In addition to the insubstantial discretion available to the local governments...

State Discretion as a Paradox of EU Evolution

FOROWICZ, Magdalena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The notion of State discretion is a fundamental concept for the determination of powers and the effective functioning of regional and international legal systems. It is an inherently controversial notion in a system such as the European Union, as it implies that a freedom of decision and interpretation is left to Member States. State discretion disturbs and fosters diversity, thereby potentially threatening the coherent development and harmonisation of EU law and policies. Nonetheless, as part of an expanding EU, it becomes increasingly difficult to build consensus among States with varied legal, economic and political traditions. The increasingly pluralist nature of the EU membership and regime often requires patience and compromise. In this context, the notion of State discretion could play an important role in improving the efficiency of EU law and relations between EU Institutions and Member States. This Working Paper envisages State discretion as process which is defined in the ex ante legislative phase and the ex post judicial phase. As an alternative to the principle of subsidiarity, this paper proposes a different and more comprehensive framework for interpreting relations between Member States and EU Institutions. It is also part of a longer study focusing on several areas of EU Law.

Employee discretion and performance pay

Ortega, Jaime
Fonte: American Accounting Association Publicador: American Accounting Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study examines the relationship between performance pay and the decision to delegate the choice of work methods and scheduling. I compare two theoretical approaches, based on specific knowledge and measurement costs, respectively. Both perspectives suggest a complementarity between discretion and performance pay, but the former predicts a positive effect of job complexity on discretion and performance pay, and the latter implies a negative effect. Results suggest that group and firm-wide incentives are used to decentralize decisions and to take advantage of employees' specific knowledge, whereas piece rates are driven by performance measurement considerations and are not associated with more discretion.

Why do employers give discretion? Family versus performance concerns

Ortega, Jaime
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using a large data set of Western European employees, I examine two sets of reasons behind employers' decisions to give discretion: performance concerns (firms give discretion in order to improve performance) and family concerns (firms wish to improve the employees' work–family balance). I find more support for the former than for the latter. Discretion is positively related to the use of "high-performance" work practices and to employee position and ability, and is smaller in larger establishments, which suggests that loss of control matters to employers. Evidence about family concerns is less compelling. Female participation in the labor force has a positive effect on discretion over work schedules, but women have less discretion than men, and employees with small children do not have more discretion than other employees. Large and governmental organizations, which are expected to care more about work–family balance, do not offer more discretion over work schedules than other types of organizations.

Public accountability of public prosecutions

Yang, Kenny
Fonte: Murdoch University Publicador: Murdoch University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 48 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The role of the Prosecutor and the exercise of Prosecutorial discretion can have an enormous impact on the outcome of criminal proceedings. The exercise of Prosecutorial discretion is, however, often secretive and misunderstood. There have been concerns that a lack of accountability and transparency can result in a fertile bed for corruption. This article considers the development of the prosecution system in Australia. It analyses the discretion that the Prosecutor wields and examines Australian attempts at safeguarding this discretion. It points out the problems with the Australian system of prosecution and suggests that there is room for greater public accountability of the Prosecutor's role. In the search for a solution to the Prosecutorial conundrum, the article examines the Japanese model of "democratic" public prosecution to see if such a system could be adopted in Australia.

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : A Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This economic and sector work (ESW) report presents an analytical framework of local governance through the lens of accountability. It intends to establish a methodological basis for analyzing linkages between decentralization and accountability and is based on desk reviews and interviews. The main objective of this report is to present a coherent and comprehensive approach for decentralizing countries to achieve a high degree of local government discretion accompanied by robust accountability mechanisms. This report, which is a direct response to this growing interest, presents various social accountability mechanisms that could complement public sector accountability approaches. It also highlights the operational challenges the Bank's projects on local governance reform must often confront. Accordingly, the findings of this ESW provide, in one comprehensive framework, guidance on both macro policy-making and implementation of decentralization reforms.

Student Perceptions of Discretion in Discipline: Seeking Resolution and Restoration in a Punitive Culture

Webb, Owen D.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study examined high school student perceptions of discretion utilized by educators in high school disciplinary proceedings. Using a sample of 6 high school students who had experienced differing levels of formal discipline, the study investigated the discretionary factors that influence an educator's decision making. The study was a generic qualitative study where the primary source of data collection was open-ended interviews to ensure the integrity of the research as a study of student voices and perceptions. Journaling was also employed to record observations and to identify researcher assumptions. The data were analyzed employing aspects of a grounded theory approach. The findings were coded to reveal 5 areas high school students identified in relation to discipline and discretion: punitive discipline versus problem resolution, effective processes, educator discretion, student discretion, and the student-educator relationship. The final discussion highlights the need for a community vision for high school discipline in order to channel discretion and to uphold students' best interests. Restorative justice is proposed as a feasible vision for high school discipline, whereby participants' responses are measured against a restorative paradigm.

Street-level labour inspection in China and the implementation of ILO Convention No.155 concerning occupational safety and health

Liu, Larui
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.4%
Les relations de travail et d'emploi sont devenues des enjeux importants en Chine. La Chine a ratifié 25 conventions internationales du travail et a travaillé en étroite collaboration avec l'OIT pour améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail. Malgré ces efforts, la Chine est souvent critiquée pour des violations du travail. Face à ces problèmes, un système législatif d'administration de travail a été développé au niveau national. Mais l’application de ces règlements demeure problématique.. En particulier, les difficultés rencontrées par les inspecteurs du travail dans l'application de ces lois constituent un élément clé du problème. Notre mémoire s'intéresse essentiellement au rôle de l'inspecteur du travail dans l'administration publique de la sécurité du travail en Chine. Ces fonctionnaires jouent un rôle important et peuvent parfois exercer leur discrétion en tant qu'acteurs de première ligne, faisant d'eux de vrais décideurs politiques. Par conséquent, la compréhension de leur rôle et de leur discrétion dans l'application des normes du travail en Chine est cruciale. Notre mémoire est centré sur une étude de cas qualitative d'un bureau d'inspection du travail dans la région de Beijing. Dans le cadre de notre recherche nous avons examiné le rôle des inspecteurs du travail au moyen d’entretiens semi-structurés...

International Bureaucrats and the Formation of Intergovernmental Organizations: Institutional Design Discretion Sweetens the Pot

Johnson, T; Urpelainen, J
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.34%
Bureaucrats working in international intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) regularly help states design new IGOs. Sometimes international bureaucrats possess limited discretion in institutional design; sometimes, they enjoy broad discretion. In fact, they gain discretion even when they openly oppose state preferences. This contravenes conventional thinking about delegation: discretion should decrease as preference divergence between states and international bureaucrats increases. We develop a principal-agent theory of how much discretion states grant to international bureaucrats in the design of new IGOs. This is novel: while principal-agent theories of international delegation are common, scholars have not analyzed principal-agent relationships in the creation of new IGOs. We argue that even an international bureaucracy that disagrees with states' design preferences may enjoy substantial design leeway, due to states' need for bureaucratic expertise. In developing this argument, we employ a formal principal-agent model, case studies, and an original dataset.

THE JUDICIAL DISCRETION IN CIVIL-CONSTITUTIONAL METHODOLOGY; A DISCRICIONARIEDADE JUDICIAL NA METODOLOGIA CIVIL-CONSTITUCIONAL

Terra, Aline de Miranda Valverde; UERJ
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar, de forma pontual e crítica, a discricionariedade judicial à luz da metodologia civil-constitucional. Para tanto, demonstrar-se-á que a discricionariedade judicial é inerente a todo e qualquer processo de interpretação e aplicação do direito, com campo de atuação mais ou menos amplo, a depender da maior ou menor vagueza semântica decorrente da técnica legislativa utilizada. Ver-se-á que discricionariedade, contudo, não se confunde com arbitrariedade, cujo resultado consiste em decisões imotivadas ou teratológicas. O exercício legítimo da discricionariedade requer (i) a apreciação racional dos fatos pelo magistrado e (ii) o respeito ao princípio da legalidade. Quanto ao instrumento de controle, destaca-se a exigência constitucional da fundamentação das decisões judiciais, de importância ímpar tanto para o exercício do controle endoprocessual quanto para o extraprocessual.; This article aims to sharply and critically analyze the judicial discretion based on the civil-constitutional methodology. To this end, it will be demonstrated that the judicial discretion is inherent to any application and interpretation process of law, and more or less extensive, depending on the greater or lesser vagueness of the legislative technique applicable to the hypothesis to be examined. It will be seen that the judicial discretion...

Governance by discretion: Civil service reform in post-communist Hungary.

Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis analyses civil service reform and policy developments in Hungary since 1990 as an extreme case of the discrepancy between attempts to establish professional, de-politicised civil services and the persisting politicisation of personnel policy in post-communist central executives. At the theoretical level, it applies the insights of new institutionalist approaches to executive politics, in particular the body of so-called 'delegation studies' rooted in the new economics of organisations. The thesis develops four ideal types of personnel policy regimes that are distinguished on the basis of the concept of formal political discretion, which is defined as the extent to which the government of the day, or its ministers, has the possibility to exercise personnel policy authority and the extent to which the exercise of this authority is subject to specific procedural constraints. The thesis argues that a low degree of formal political discretion built into civil service legislation can enhance the informational role of ministerial bureaucracies in policy-making. However, governments do only have an incentive to establish or maintain a low degree of formal political discretion built into civil service legislation, if they have no problems of political trust towards the bureaucracy. The empirical analysis of civil service reform outcomes in Hungary reveals that three reforms since 1990 have led to the emergence of a personnel policy regime that allows governments to exercise a considerable degree of political discretion over personnel policy...