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Retaliação coletiva e teoria de formação de alianças no sistema de solução de controvérsias da Organização Mundial do Comércio; Collective retaliation and alliance formation theory in the dispute settlement system of the world trade organization

Medrado, Renê Guilherme da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2011 Português
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66.9%
Esta tese teve por objeto analisar a viabilidade de implementação de, no âmbito do sistema de solução de controvérsias (SSC) da OMC, um mecanismo de contramedidas (retaliação) coletiva, à luz da teoria de formação de alianças, tal qual desenvolvida na teoria de relações internacionais. O objetivo foi perquirir se e em que condições poderão se formar coalizões visando à aplicação de retaliação coletiva, caso tal mecanismo seja incorporado ao SSC/OMC. A tese se baseou na premissa de que o enforcement do SSC/OMC ainda se funda em soluções de self-help, ou seja, dependente da força, do poder, do Membro demandante de induzir o Membro demandado a cumprir as recomendações do Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias (OSC), mediante a aplicação de retaliação bilateral, centrada na reciprocidade. Observa-se todavia uma insuficiência e/ou ineficácia de tais contramedidas bilaterais para induzir o Membro demandado a cumprir com as recomendações do OSC em situações envolvendo desequilíbrio de poder (entre Membro demandante e Membro demandado). A teoria de formação de alianças se mostrou adequada para a análise pretendida, primeiramente porque o desequilíbrio de poder é objeto de estudo de tal teoria. Em segundo lugar...

Energy subsidies and WTO dispute settlement: why only renewable energy subsidies are challenged?

Asmelash, Henok Birhanu
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Over the past few years, renewable energy subsidies have become one of the main sources of trade disputes in the WTO. A total of six cases have been initiated against renewable energy subsidy programs since the first of such disputes was brought by Japan against Canada’s Feed in Tariff (FIT) program in 2010. Yet not even a single case has so far been initiated against the much larger and environmentally harmful fossil fuel subsidies. The main objective of this paper is to examine what makes renewable energy subsidies vulnerable to WTO dispute, as compared fossil fuel subsidies.

ICSID 2013 Annual Report

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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International investment law and international investment arbitration are relatively new disciplines: the first bilateral investment treaty was signed by Pakistan and Germany in 1959, the first investment treaty offering investor-state arbitration was concluded in 1968 between the Netherlands and Indonesia, the first International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) case was registered in 1972, and the first treaty-based investment case was registered by the Centre in 1987. The Centre itself was established in 1966, along with the coming into force of the ICSID convention. It was the first dispute resolution facility designed exclusively for international investment dispute settlement, and it continues to be the only international facility dedicated to this area. This specialized mandate has allowed ICSID to develop an unparalleled expertise and focus, which benefits disputing parties, arbitrators and contracting states. Cumulatively, ICSID has administered over 430 cases, involving foreign investors from all regions of the world and more than 95 states and state agencies under the ICSID convention and rules. In addition...

Scope/need for strengthening WTO rules, especially regarding, dispute settlement,institutional issues and functioning of the system in a globalising world

Quick, Reinhard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 41740 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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Introduction: Twenty years ago, while I was writing my doctoral thesis on voluntary export restraints and Article XX GATT, I applied for an internship with the GATT Secretariat. At that time the GATT Secretariat was a body with few lawyers and many economists. Law did not matter that much; indeed it was difficult for a young lawyer to get accepted as a “stagiare”. I insisted and eventually was accepted. Two years later, while studying with John Jackson I learned about the difference between power and rule-oriented diplomacy. GATT’s reliance on diplomacy did function reasonably well, even without a legal mechanism, yet there were spectacular cases of non-compliance and the system was always prone to “blackmail”. Compared to GATT, the WTO has come a long way. Nobody would have imagined at the start of the Uruguay Round that the result of the negotiations would be a World Trade Organisation with a binding dispute settlement mechanism. We went from a power-oriented to a rule-oriented system, which until now dealt reasonably well with more than 270 dispute settlement cases. Still, there are challenges to the system of which I would like to address four: Rulemaking versus Jurisprudence; Dispute Settlement; Avoidance Implementation; Dispute Settlement Reform; Paper presented at a workshop: Australia and the European Union in the Multilateral Trade Round:Defining the Common Ground. Canberra...

The WTO dispute settlement system at 18 : effective at controlling the major players?

DAVEY, William J.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper examines the major developments in WTO dispute settlement during three time periods (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2012) and considers the effectiveness of the system in restraining the use of trade measures by the United States and the European Union. It finds that the first period was characterized by the large number of cases brought by the United States and the European Union and that the second and third periods were noteworthy for the increased number of cases brought by developing countries and by the numerous cases brought against the United States. On the question of effectiveness, the paper finds that the system has succeeded in restraining the use of WTO-inconsistent trade measures by the United States and the European Union, but often only after considerable delays in implementation of DSB rulings.

A interpretação de espécies normativas do direito internacional do meio ambiente pelo Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias da OMC; The interpretation of international law of the environment by the dispute settlement body of the WTO.

Oliveira, Adriano Junior Jacintho de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 Português
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Os órgãos que compõem o Sistema de Solução de Controvérsias da OMC possuem competência para analisar reclamações fundadas nos denominados acordos abrangidos e formular conclusões e recomendações sobre a conformidade das medidas impugnadas com os referidos acordos. Para interpretar as disposições destes acordos, estes órgãos podem recorrer às regras costumeiras de interpretação previstas na Convenção de Viena sobre o Direito dos Tratados de 1969. Estas regras de interpretação, por sua vez, permitem àqueles órgãos recorrer a espécies normativas produzidas fora do contexto da OMC como subsídios para esclarecer o sentido dos termos das disposições dos acordos abrangidos. Ao se valer destas espécies normativas, os referidos órgãos estarão também, inevitavelmente, interpretando as disposições destes. Nesse contexto, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo analisar de que forma as espécies normativas tradicionais de Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente (convenções, costumes e princípios gerais de direito) foram interpretadas pelos órgãos do OSC em três casos escolhidos para representar o problema. Os resultados da análise dos casos demonstraram que espécies normativas do Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente são efetivamente admitidas no processo interpretativo dos acordos abrangidos...

Die Aussetzung von Zugeständnissen im WTO-Streitbeilegungsverfahren; WTO dispute settlemente and suspension of concessions

Tijmes-Ihl, Jaime A.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
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Diese Dissertation widmet sich der Aussetzung von Zugeständnissen oder sonstigen Pflichten im Rahmen der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO). Dabei soll sie einen Beitrag zu der Frage leisten, wie die Schiedsrichter diese Aussetzungen begreifen. Konkret befasst sich diese Arbeit mit der Frage, wie die Schiedsrichter die einschlägigen Normen auslegen und wie sie juristisch argumentieren, um den Aussetzungsumfang zu bestimmen. Nach dem einführenden Kapitel werden im zweiten Abschnitt die wichtigsten Ziele der Aussetzung von Zugeständnissen oder sonstigen Pflichten in der WTO erörtert, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf "to induce compliance" und "to rebalance concessions" liegt. Das erste Ziel deutet auf größtmögliche Anreize, damit der Beschwerdegegner die Rechtsverletzung beseitigt. Sinn des zweiten Zwecks ist, das Gleichgewicht der Vorteile zwischen den Parteien, das durch die Rechtsverletzung verletzt wurde, wieder herzustellen. Die Entscheidungspraxis erkannte oft ein Spannungsverhältnis zwischen beiden Zwecken. In dieser Arbeit werden drei Ebenen vorgestellt, anhand deren die herrschende Interpretation systematisiert und ein Beitrag zum Verständnis und zur Lösung dieses Spannungsverhältnisses geleistet wird. Der Umfang der Aussetzungen hängt vom Umfang der zunichte gemachten oder geschmälerten Vorteile ab...

The dispute settlement: a legal fact of international trade. United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement

Rose, Zoe
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Countries have become keener in opening up their markets to the international community during an era of competitiveness. Trade liberalization, the lowering of tariffs and barriers, has triggered the establishment of Free Trade Agreements. Trade can cause conflict, and parties need to be able to settle disputes judicially and not resort to arms in order to carry out international peace and cooperation. To settle disputes between parties, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established followed by its predecessor the World Trade Organization (WTO) to, 'facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation of agreements.' Free Trade Agreements are created bilaterally, and concern has grown over whether this implements or harms the multilaterally goal of trade liberalization. Ongoing global interdependence has required the need for collective decisions deal with unforeseen new situations worldwide with a way of settling them peacefully is vital under international law. Effective functioning of a dispute settlement mechanism is needed to provide security and stability in the multilateral trading system while maintaining the balance of power between members. The role of the GATT was seen as a forum for discussing how to settle disputes between parties and to find mutually accepted solutions...

Trade Remedies and World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement : Why Are So Few Challenged?

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Antidumping and related trade remedies are the most popular policy instruments that many of the largest importing countries in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system use to restrict international trade. While such trade remedies are also frequent targets of dispute settlement activity under the WTO, given that Panel and Appellate Body rulings have almost invariably found that some aspect of each reviewed remedy was inconsistent with WTO obligations, an open research question is why aren't more remedies targeted by dispute settlement? The author provides a first empirical investigation of the trade remedy and WTO dispute settlement interaction by focusing on determinants of WTO members' decisions of whether to formally challenge U.S. trade remedies imposed between 1992 and 2003. He provides evidence that it is not only the size of the economic market at stake and the capacity to retaliate under potential DSU (dispute settlement understanding)-authorized sanctions that influence the litigation decision of whether to formally challenge a measure at the WTO. The author also finds that if the negatively affected foreign industry has the capacity to directly retaliate through a reciprocal antidumping investigation and measure of its own...

A Negotiator's Guide to Regional Trade Agreements : Considerations from an East Asian Perspective

Baller, Silja; Sergi, Gregory
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.14%
This report maps out the evolving architecture of regional trade agreements concluded by the major trading countries and the countries of East Asia. The report first looks at a group of systemic issues - preferential rules of origin, dispute settlement and trade remedies - and subsequently turns to substantial provisions on market access, intellectual property rights, and competition policy. It also briefly examines the nascent stage of environment and labor clauses. As most favored nations (MFN) tariffs continue to fall, tariff reductions are starting to play a less important role in negotiations with the focus increasingly shifting to regulatory issues. Another notable feature of regional trade agreements (RTAs) negotiated today is that their geographical reach has begun to extend far beyond the traditional close proximity of AFTA, EU, or NAFTA - often making the term "RTA" a misnomer. The goal of this report is to establish patterns and directions across a range of issues covered in RTAs today which are relevant for East Asian policy makers. The report hence looks at pertinent systemic and substantial provisions currently included in RTAs: the first half includes chapters on rules of origin...

Participation in WTO Dispute Settlement : Complainants, Interested Parties, and Free Riders

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.17%
What affects a country's decision of whether to formally engage in a trade dispute directly related to its exporting interests? This article empirically examines determinants of affected country participation decisions in formal trade litigation arising under the World Trade Organization (WTO) between 1995 and 2000. It investigates determinants of nonparticipation and examines whether the incentives generated by the system's rules and procedures discourage active engagement in dispute settlement by developing country members in particular. Though the size of exports at stake is found to be an important economic determinant affecting the decision to participate in challenges to a WTO-inconsistent policy, the evidence also shows that measures of a country's retaliatory and legal capacity as well as its international political economy relationships matter. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an implicit 'institutional bias' generated by the system's rules and incentives that particularly affects developing economy participation in dispute settlement.

ICSID 2012 Annual Report; CIRDI rapport annuel 2012 CIADI 2012 informe anual

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Annual Report
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The recent growth in investor-state arbitration has continued apace. International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) registered a record 38 cases in 2011, and had registered 19 further cases by June 30, 2012. Included in these numbers are 3 new conciliation cases, showing an increased resort not simply to arbitration but also to alternative methods of dispute resolution available under the ICSID convention and additional facility. Such statistics should not be considered in isolation from their broader economic context. There have been unprecedented increases in global flows of foreign direct investment in the last two decades. These statistics must also be read in light of the fact that international investment law and investor-state dispute settlement are a new discipline. ICSID continues to play a vital role in the evolving international investment legal system. Its primary job is very specific: to offer foreign investors and host States an impartial, effective and accessible facility for arbitration and conciliation of international investment disputes. ICSID has taken numerous steps in the past year to enhance its capacity to fulfill this role. In September of 2011...

A Negotiator's Guide to Regional Trade Agreements : Considerations from an East Asian Perspective

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.14%
This report maps out the evolving architecture of regional trade agreements concluded by the major trading countries and the countries of East Asia. The report first looks at a group of systemic issues - preferential rules of origin, dispute settlement and trade remedies - and subsequently turns to substantial provisions on market access, intellectual property rights, and competition policy. It also briefly examines the nascent stage of environment and labor clauses. As most favored nations (MFN) tariffs continue to fall, tariff reductions are starting to play a less important role in negotiations with the focus increasingly shifting to regulatory issues. Another notable feature of regional trade agreements (RTAs) negotiated today is that their geographical reach has begun to extend far beyond the traditional close proximity of AFTA, EU, or NAFTA - often making the term "RTA" a misnomer. The goal of this report is to establish patterns and directions across a range of issues covered in RTAs today which are relevant for East Asian policy makers. The report hence looks at pertinent systemic and substantial provisions currently included in RTAs: the first half includes chapters on rules of origin...

Developing Countries, Dispute Settlement, and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.08%
Critical appraisals of the current and potential benefits from developing country engagement in the World Trade Organization (WTO) focus mainly on the Doha Round of negotiations. This paper examines developing country participation in the WTO dispute settlement system to enforce foreign market access rights already negotiated in earlier multilateral rounds. The dispute data from 1995 through 2008 reveal three notable trends: developing countries sustained rate of self-enforcement actions despite declining use of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) by developed countries, developing countries increased use of the DSU to self-enforce their access to the markets of developing as well as developed country markets, and the prevalence of disputes targeting highly observable causes of lost foreign market access, such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The paper also examines potential impacts of the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL) into the WTO system in 2001. A close look at the data reveals evidence on at least three channels through which the ACWL may be enhancing developing countries' ability to self-enforce foreign market access: increased initiation of sole-complainant cases...

Emerging Trends in WTO Dispute Settlement : Back to the GATT?

Holmes, Peter; Rollo, Jim; Young, Alasdair R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.94%
As the number of cases in the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system has increased, there has been a greater effort by the academic community to analyze the data for emerging trends. Holmes Rollo, and Young seek to develop this literature using data up to the end of 2002 to ask whether recent trends confirm previously identified patterns and to examine whether there are divergences from the overall pattern according to the type of dispute. They focus on three questions in particular: What explains which countries are most involved in complaints under the dispute settlement understanding? Is there a discernible pattern to which countries win? Is there a difference to these patterns depending on the type of measure at the heart of the complaint? The authors find that: A country's trade share is a pretty robust indicator of its likelihood to be either a complainant or a respondent. The frequently remarked absence of the least developed countries from the dispute settlement system can be explained by their low volume of trade. There is not much...

The Case for Tradable Remedies in WTO Dispute Settlement

Bagwell, Kyle; Mavroidis, Petros C.; Staiger, Robert W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.97%
In response to concerns over the efficacy of the WTO dispute settlement system, especially in regard to its use by developing countries, Mexico has tabled a proposal to introduce tradable remedies within the Dispute Settlement Understanding. The idea is that a country that has won cause before the WTO, and who is facing non-implementation by the author of the illegal act but feels that its own capacity to exercise its right to impose countermeasures is unlikely to lead to compliance, can auction off that right. The attractiveness of this idea is that it offers an additional possibility to injured WTO members to get something from the dispute settlement mechanism without putting into question the legal nature of the existing contract, that is, the predominantly decentralized system of enforcement in the WTO. Examining all disputes brought to the WTO since its inception, the authors find some support for Mexico's perception that developing countries face a practical problem when they attempt to carry through with effective retaliation within the WTO system. And based on the formal results of Bagwell...

Access to Dispute Settlement in the WTO: Obstacles for Developing Countries; El acceso a la solución de controversias en la OMC: obstáculos para los países en desarrollo

Burgos, Germán
Fonte: Universidad de Medellín Publicador: Universidad de Medellín
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Article; Article Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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This article describes the main contributions of specialized literature about the most important obstacles and how they emerge to prevent developing countries from having access to the WTO Dispute Settlement System. The article establisheshow such obstacles emerge for the Colombian case, bearing in mind that this country has not successfully filed any case before this international organization up to date.; Este artículo identifica los aportes centrales de la literatura especializada sobre cuáles son y cómo se presentan los obstáculos más importantes para el acceso de los Estados en desarrollo al Sistema de Solución de Controversias de la OMC.Establece, para el caso colombiano, cómo se dan tales barreras teniendo en cuenta que hasta la fecha este país no ha tramitado exitosamente ningún caso ante esta instancia internacional.

Cross-Retaliation in Intellectual Property: towards a more effective performance of developing Countries in the WTO dispute settlement system; Retaliação cruzada em propriedade intelectual: alternativa para uma atuação mais eficaz dos países em desenvolvimento no sistema de solução de controvérsias da OMC

Arbix, Daniel do Amaral; Árabe Neto, Abrão
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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This article analyses cross-retaliation, especially that which targets intellectual property rights as an alternative to the more usual instruments available in the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) dispute settlement provisions. Cross-retaliation is examined from the perspective of developing countries, and recommended due to its potential to enhance their participation in the Dispute Settlement Body. First, the procedures of the WTO’s dispute settlement system and the possibilities to retaliate are described in order to allow the study of the requirements for cross-retaliations to be authorized and of the practical experience accumulated during the WTO disputes. Then, the peculiarities of cross-retaliation in intellectual property are exposed with the objective of identifying the positive and negative reflexes of its use, proposals for its improvement, and the parliamentary bills which aim to provide for cross-retaliation in Brazil. The article concludes with a summary of the requests by developing countries to cross-retaliate on intellectual property rights, in light of the ‘US – Upland Cotton’ dispute between Brazil and the US.; O presente artigo trata da retaliação cruzada, com enfoque na área de propriedade intelectual...

The Twenty Four Years of Mercosur’s Dispute Settlement System and the Suspension of Paraguay; Os Vinte e Quatro Anos do Sistema de Solução de Controvérsias do Mercosul e o Caso de Suspensão do Paraguai

Stersi dos Santos, Ricardo Soares; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Santos, Rafael de Miranda; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
This article presents the transformations that occurred within Mercosur’s disputesettlement system. It indicates that the settlementof disputes within Mercosur follows a tradition-al pattern in International Relations, combin-ing steps in which the States themselves decidehow to resolve their conflicts with proceduresinwhich decisions to put an end to the dispute areassigned to certain courts: “ad hoc” courts ofarbitration and/or the Permanent Review Tribu-nal.It presents general and relevant aspects ofthe case which led to the suspension of Para-guay from the deliberative bodies of Mercosur,and also analyzes and interprets the proceduralaspects of the case and its consequences to theMercosur’s dispute settlement system.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n70p253Este artigo apresenta as transformações ocorridas no sistema de solução de controvérsias do Mercosul. Há indicações de que a resolução de controvérsias no Mercosul segue um modelo tradicional nas relações internacionais, combinando etapas em que os membros decidem como solucionar seus conflitos com etapas  atribuídas a órgãos jurisdicionais: tribunais arbitrais “ad hoc” e/ou o Tribunal Permanente de Revisão. Apresenta, ainda, os aspectos gerais e relevantes do caso que gerou o afastamento do Paraguai dos órgãos deliberativos do Mercosul e analisa os aspectos processuais do litígio e o seu reflexo no sistema de solução de controvérsias.

The Power of Law or the Law of Power? A Critique of the Liberal Approach to the Dispute Settlement Understanding

Medina de Souza, Igor Abdalla; Ministério das Relações Exteriores, Brasília
Fonte: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47 Publicador: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/10/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article criticizes the approach liberal scholars in International Relations and Law have provided to the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the World Trade Organization. Liberal theorists erroneously believe the enhanced legalization of the system, as compared to dispute resolution under the GATT 1947, will reduce the bias towards powerful countries.   Este artigo prove crítica da abordagem liberal em Relações Internacionais e Direito Internacional para o Entendimento para Solução de Controvérsias da Organização Mundial do Comércio. Os teóricos liberais erroneamente sustentam que a maior legalização do DSU, quando comparado ao GATT 1947, reduzirá a tendência de beneficiar países poderosos.