Página 1 dos resultados de 5050 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

CR3 (CD11b/CD18) activation of nasal neutrophils: a measure of upper airway endotoxin exposure

SETH, Romy; ROMASCHIN, Alexander D.; RIBEIRO, Marcos; TARLO, Susan M.
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) initiates an inflammatory response and leads to the expression of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We determined if PMN activation in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) is a possible biomarker of occupational endotoxin exposure. Seven subjects exposed to endotoxin provided NLF samples that were split into three aliquots (negative control - 1 M nicotinamide; sham; positive control - 11 eta g of exogenous LPS) and PMN activation was measured using a chemiluminometer. Differences in mean PMN activation were apparent, negative control: 548 +/- 15.65 RLU 100 mu l(-1); sham: 11469 +/- 2582 RLU 100 mu l(-1); positive control: 42026 +/- 16659 RLU 100 mu l (n = 7; p < 0.05). This technique shows promise as a diagnostic method for measuring upper airway LPS exposure.; Ontario Thoracic Society; Institute of Medical Sciences (University of Toronto), St. Michael`s Hospital

Detecção de microrganismos periodontopatogênicos gram-negativos e quantificação de endotoxina  em bráquetes metálicos, com ou sem utilização de agente antimicrobiano - Estudo in vivo; Detection of Gram-negative periodontopathogenic microorganisms and quantification of endotoxin in orthodontic metallic brackets, with or without use of an antimicrobial agent - An in vivo study

Valdez, Remberto Marcelo Argandoña
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Empregando a técnica de biologia molecular Checkerboard DNA-DNA Hybridization e o teste Limulus Amebocyte Lysate, os objetivos do presente estudo clínico randomizado in vivo foram avaliar, em bráquetes ortodônticos metálicos: 1) A presença de 16 espécies de microrganismos periodontopatogênicos Gram-negativos pertencentes aos complexos laranja e vermelho, por meio de sondas de DNA; 2) A quantidade de endotoxina bacteriana presente; e 3) A eficácia da utilização do gluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%, sob a forma de bochechos, na redução da contaminação pelas 16 espécies de microrganismos periodontopatogênicos Gram-negativos e na redução da quantidade de endotoxina bacteriana. Participaram do estudo 33 pacientes de 11 a 33 anos de idade, em tratamento com aparelho ortodôntico fixo, nos quais foram colocados randomicamente 3 bráquetes metálicos novos nos pré-molares. Os pacientes do Grupo Controle (n=17) fizeram 2 bochechos semanais com solução placebo, durante 30 dias. Os pacientes do Grupo Experimental (n=16) fizeram bochechos com solução à base de gluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% (Periogard®), da mesma forma que o grupo Controle. Decorridos 30 dias, os 3 bráquetes foram removidos de cada paciente e processados para a detecção dos microrganismos...

Tolerância a endotoxina no periodonto de ratos: participação do óxido nítrico; Endotoxin tolerance in the periodontal of rats: participation of the nitric oxide

Tedeschi, Valéria Pontelli Navarro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
A injeção de doses repetidas de lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) resulta em atenuação da resposta febril, que é chamada de tolerância a endotoxina. Esta resposta já foi caracterizada em ratos por meio de injeções sistêmicas. No presente estudo, nós testamos a hipótese que a tolerância a endotoxina ocorre localmente nos tecidos periodontais de proteção de ratos e que o óxido nítrico participa desta tolerância. Ratos machos Wistar foram injetados nos tecidos periodontais de proteção com solução salina ou LPS de Escherichia coli na dose de 100 μg/kg em 3 dias consecutivos com 24 horas de intervalo. A temperatura corporal (Tc) foi medida por meio de datalogger 1 h antes e 6 h após as injeções. Outro grupo experimental recebeu injeção intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) de L-NMMA (500 μg/rato) 30 min antes da injeção de LPS no terceiro dia. Além disto, foi realizada a imunohistoquímica para proteína Fos para verificar a ativação neuronal na Área Pré-óptica do hipotálamo (POA) e no subnúcleo caudal do núcleo trigeminal espinhal no primeiro dia (animais não tolerantes) e terceiro dia (animais tolerantes) do tratamento com LPS, e também em animais que receberam L-NMMA ou salina i.c.v. no terceiro dia, antes do LPS. No dia...

Mini-implantes ortodônticos: avaliação microbiológica e quantificação de endotoxina bacteriana, citocinas pró-inflamatórias e marcadores da osteoclastogênese; Orthodontic mini-implants: microbiological evaluation and quantification of bacterial endotoxin, proinflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenesis markers

Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Os mini-implantes ortodônticos vem sendo amplamente utilizados na prática clínica como dispositivos de ancoragem. No entanto, há casos em que ocorre sua perda durante o tratamento. Inúmeros aspectos tem sido analisados com o intuito de detectar as causas do insucesso, porém estas ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidas. Portanto, utilizando-se dois grupos de mini-implantes - com estabilidade (sucesso) e sem estabilidade (falha) -, os objetivos do presente estudo in vivo foram: 1) avaliar a contaminação microbiana, empregando sondas de DNA para 40 espécies de bactérias, por meio da técnica de biologia molecular checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization; 2) quantificar a endotoxina bacteriana presente nos mini-implantes dos dois grupos por meio do teste Limulus Amebocyte Lysate ; e 3) quantificar as citocinas pró-inflamatórias IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17 e TNF-α e proteínas marcadoras da osteoclastogênese (RANK, RANKL e OPG) por meio da técnica real-time polymerase chain reaction. Dezesseis pacientes de ambos os sexos (11-49 anos) em tratamento ortodôntico com aparelho corretivo e mini-implantes foram selecionados, sendo obtidos 19 miniimplantes com estabilidade e 10 mini-implantes sem estabilidade. O tempo médio de permanência na boca foi de 23...

Exposição à endotoxina no ambiente de trabalho e pesquisa de associação com asma, alergia e sibilo; Endotoxin exposition in workplaces and research association with asthma, allergy and wheezing

Freitas, Amanda de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Em países industrializados, as doenças pulmonares são as que mais se destacam quando o assunto é doença ocupacional. Entre os técnicos, cuidadores de animais, médicos e cientistas, as doenças respiratórias e alérgicas a animais de laboratório representam a principal doença ocupacional. Entre os agentes presentes na sujeira orgânica, as endotoxinas são as mais relacionadas às respostas inflamatórias e causadoras de uma série de doenças respiratórias. As endotoxinas, componentes externos das bactérias gram-negativas, são encontradas em várias concentrações em suspensão no ar ou depositadas na poeira do chão, em materiais e equipamentos, no ambiente domiciliar, urbano, rural e em alguns estabelecimentos. É inevitável a exposição à endotoxina, no entanto, o nível de exposição das vias aéreas pode ser muito variado. Alguns estudos mostraram a correlação dos sintomas apresentados pelos trabalhadores de laboratórios ou biotérios com o nível de exposição às endotoxinas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a exposição às endotoxinas, presentes na poeira de laboratórios e biotérios e a sua relação com asma, rinite e atopia apresentadas pelos trabalhadores. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado na Universidade de São Paulo...

Efeito do preparo químico-mecânico nos níveis de endotoxinas em infecções endodônticas primárias e avaliação do potencial inflamatório do conteúdo infeccioso quanto à produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias; Effect of chemo-mechanical preparation in the levels of endotoxin in primary endodontic infections and inflammatory potential of the infectious content regarding the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines

Ariane Cassia Salustiano Marinho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Lipopolisacarídeos (LPS) – endotoxinas são capazes de estimular células a produzirem citocinas pró-inflamatórias envolvidas na destruição tecidual periapical. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: 1) Verificar e quantificar endotoxinas em canais radiculares infectados de dentes com periodontite apical crônica e sua relação com sinais e sintomas clínicos de origem endodôntica; 2) Avaliar a efetividade do preparo químico-mecânico (PQM) com hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) 2,5%; clorexidina gel (CLX) 2% e soro fisiológico (SS-controle) na eliminação de endotoxinas; 3) Avaliar o potencial inflamatório do conteúdo endodôntico, antes (C1) e após a instrumentação do canal radicular (C2) com NaOCl 2,5%, CLX 2% ou soro fisiológico e após uso de EDTA 17% (C3) em cultura de células de macrófagos quanto à produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias - IL-1β, TNF-α. Amostras foram coletadas de 30 canais radiculares com necrose pulpar e presença de lesão periapical em C1, C2 e C3 utilizando cones de papel estéreis/apirogênicos. Endotoxina foi detectada em 100% dos canais radiculares estudados, representada pela mediana de 18,70 EU/mL. Dentes com presença de dor à percussão e exsudação intracanal foram relacionados com níveis elevados de endotoxina (p<0...

Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows

Ametaj,Burim N.; Zebeli,Qendrim; Iqbal,Summera
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition...

Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation

Chew, Ginger L.; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A.; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Thorne, Peter S.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Morley, Rebecca L.; Muilenberg, Michael L.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Background: After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. Objectives: A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005–January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Methods: Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, real-time particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). Results: At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention...

Within-home versus between-home variability of house dust endotoxin in a birth cohort

Abraham, Joseph H.; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Gold, Diane R.; Ryan, Louise Marie; Milton, Donald Kirby; Dockery, Douglas W.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Endotoxin exposure has been proposed as an environmental determinant of allergen responses in children. To better understand the implications of using a single measurement of house dust endotoxin to characterize exposure in the first year of life, we evaluated room-specific within-home and between-home variability in dust endotoxin obtained from 470 households in Boston, Massachusetts. Homes were sampled up to two times over 5–11 months. We analyzed 1,287 dust samples from the kitchen, family room, and baby’s bedroom for endotoxin. We fit a mixed-effects model to estimate mean levels and the variation of endotoxin between homes, between rooms, and between sampling times. Endotoxin ranged from 2 to 1,945 units per milligram of dust. Levels were highest during summer and lowest in the winter. Mean endotoxin levels varied significantly from room to room. Cross-sectionally, endotoxin was moderately correlated between family room and bedroom floor (r = 0.30), between family room and kitchen (r = 0.32), and between kitchen and bedroom (r = 0.42). Adjusting for season, the correlation of endotoxin levels within homes over time was 0.65 for both the bedroom and kitchen and 0.54 for the family room. The temporal within-home variance of endotoxin was lowest for bedroom floor samples and highest for kitchen samples. Between-home variance was lowest in the family room and highest for kitchen samples. Adjusting for season...

Integrating Murine Gene Expression Studies to Understand Obstructive Lung Disease due to Chronic Inhaled Endotoxin

Lai, Peggy Sue; Hofmann, Oliver Marc; Baron, Rebecca Marlene; Cernadas, Manuela; Meng, Quanxin Ryan; Bresler, Herbert S.; Brass, David M.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Christiani, David C.; Hide, Winston
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Rationale: Endotoxin is a near ubiquitous environmental exposure that that has been associated with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These obstructive lung diseases have a complex pathophysiology, making them difficult to study comprehensively in the context of endotoxin. Genome-wide gene expression studies have been used to identify a molecular snapshot of the response to environmental exposures. Identification of differentially expressed genes shared across all published murine models of chronic inhaled endotoxin will provide insight into the biology underlying endotoxin-associated lung disease. Methods: We identified three published murine models with gene expression profiling after repeated low-dose inhaled endotoxin. All array data from these experiments were re-analyzed, annotated consistently, and tested for shared genes found to be differentially expressed. Additional functional comparison was conducted by testing for significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in known pathways. The importance of this gene signature in smoking-related lung disease was assessed using hierarchical clustering in an independent experiment where mice were exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and endotoxin plus smoke. Results: A 101-gene signature was detected in three murine models...

Effects of an Antisense Oligonucleotide Inhibitor of C‐Reactive Protein Synthesis on the Endotoxin Challenge Response in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

Noveck, Robert; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Flaim, JoAnn D.; Baker, Brenda F.; Hughes, Steve; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Ridker, Paul M
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Background: C‐reactive protein (CRP) binds to damaged cells, activates the classical complement pathway, is elevated in multiple inflammatory conditions, and provides prognostic information on risk of future atherosclerotic events. It is controversial, however, as to whether inhibiting CRP synthesis would have any direct anti‐inflammatory effects in humans. Methods and Results: A placebo‐controlled study was used to evaluate the effects of ISIS 329993 (ISIS‐CRPRx) on the acute‐phase response after endotoxin challenge in 30 evaluable subjects. Healthy adult males were randomly allocated to receive 6 injections over a 22‐day period of placebo or active therapy with ISIS 329993 at 400‐ or 600‐mg doses. Eligible subjects were subsequently challenged with a bolus of endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers were measured before and serially after the challenge. ISIS‐CRPRx was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Median CRP levels increased more than 50‐fold from baseline 24 hours after endotoxin challenge in the placebo group. In contrast, the median increase in CRP levels was attenuated by 37% (400 mg) and 69% (600 mg) in subjects pretreated with ISIS‐CRPRx (P<0.05 vs. placebo). All other aspects of the acute inflammatory response were similar between treatment groups. Conclusion: Pretreatment of subjects with ISIS‐CRPRx selectively reduced the endotoxin‐induced increase in CRP levels in a dose‐dependent manner...

Innate immune dysfunction in the neonatal rat following prenatal endotoxin exposure

Hodyl, N.; Krivanek, K.; Clifton, V.; Hodgson, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
The efficacy of the neonatal innate immune system to respond to bacterial exposure following maternal infection is of great interest, as the neonatal period is one of relative immune immaturity, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the response to an in-vivo endotoxin challenge in the neonatal period following prenatal exposure to bacterial endotoxin. Pregnant Fischer 344 dams received either endotoxin or the vehicle on gestational days 16, 18 and 20 (term=23 days). The neonatal (5 day) offspring were then exposed to an endotoxin challenge; blood was collected at baseline or at 4 h for analysis of blood cell counts, corticosterone, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta, levels. The neonatal rat pups responded to the challenge with significantly reduced corticosterone, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta levels compared to controls (p<0.003). Monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts were also significantly reduced in the prenatal endotoxin offspring compared to controls (p<0.02). While the immune system is functionally immature in the neonatal period, these results suggest that prenatal infection may further reduce the capacity of the innate neonatal immune system to respond to endotoxin, leaving offspring more vulnerable to pathogenic invasion in neonatal life.; Nicolette A. Hodyl...

Prenatal endotoxin exposure alters behavioural pain responses to lipopolysaccharide in adult offspring

Hodyl, N.; Walker, F.; Krivanek, K.; Clifton, V.; Hodgson, D.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Evidence suggests that exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early life can alter the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in later life. This phenomenon may have significant consequences for pain and pain related behaviours as pro-inflammatory cytokines heighten pain sensitivity. This association has yet to be examined. As such, the aim of the present study was to characterize pain behaviours in adult rat offspring following prenatal endotoxin (PE) exposure. Pregnant F344 rats received endotoxin (200 µg/kg, s.c.) or saline on gestational days 16, 18 and 20. Pain thresholds were assessed in the adult PE offspring (n = 23) and control offspring (n = 24) prior to and 4 h following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg, s.c.). Three assays of pain were employed — the hot plate, tail immersion and von Frey tests. Results demonstrated sex-specific effects of prenatal endotoxin on the offspring, with PE males displaying unaltered pain thresholds on the von Frey test post-LPS administration (p < 0.01), while male control offspring (n = 24) displayed the expected hyperalgesia. Male PE offspring also displayed increased pain thresholds on the tail immersion test (p < 0.01), while no change in pain sensitivity was observed in control males following LPS exposure. No difference in response was observed between the female PE and control offspring on the von Frey test...

Low-dose endotoxin potentiates capsaicin-induced pain in man: evidence for a pain neuroimmune connection

Hutchinson, M.; Bujis, M.; Tuke, S.; Kwok, Y.; Gentgall, M.; Williams, D.; Rolan, P.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc Publicador: Academic Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Despite the wealth of evidence in animals that immune activation has a key role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, evidence to support this in humans is scant. We have sought such evidence by examining the effect of a subtle immunological stimulus, low dose intravenous endotoxin, on the allodynia, hyperalgesia, flare and pain produced by intradermal capsaicin in healthy volunteers. Here we provide evidence of immune priming of this neuropathic-like pain response in humans. Specifically, in 12 healthy volunteers, activation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 by endotoxin (0.4ng/kg IV) caused significant 5.1-fold increase in the 90-min integral of areas of capsaicin-induced allodynia (95% CI 1.3-9.1), 2.2-fold increase in flare (95% CI 1.9-2.6) and 1.8-fold increase in hyperalgesia (95% CI 1.1-2.5) following 50μg intradermal capsaicin injected into the forearm 3.5h after endotoxin. These data demonstrate clinically a significant role for the neuroimmune pain connection in modifying pain, thus providing evidence that immune priming may produce pain enhancement in humans and hence offer a novel range of pharmacological targets for anti-allodynics and/or analgesics. Additionally, the simplicity of the model makes it suitable as a test-bed for novel immune-targeted pain therapeutics.; Mark R. Hutchinson...

Electron microscopic study of the effects of endotoxin on the cells of the hepatic sinusoid in normal and BCG sensitized mice

McCuskey, Patricia A.; McCuskey, Robert S.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Electron microscopic studies were conducted to access ultrastructural alterations in Kupffer cells and other cells lining the hepatic sinusoids at the peak of mediator release two hours after challenge with low doses of endotoxin under various conditions including reticuloendothelial system (RES) expansion and activation with BCG. BCG is known to sensitize animals to endotoxin rendering normally innocuous, low doses of endotoxin lethal. Low non-lethal doses (5 pg) of endotoxin activated Kupffer cells as well as caused isolated foci of cellular injury. However, animals which were treated with BCG had a highly activated and expanded RES system as evidenced by enlarged Kupffer cells with many extended cellular processes. Granulomas were prevalent and many reactive cells were present. After two hours marked cellular injury occurred to sinusoid lining and parenchymal cells when BCG treated animals were challenged with these same low doses of endotoxin. Cellular debris, fibrin, and platelets were observed in sinusoids often associated with Kupffer cells. These results suggest that the functional state of Kupffer cells is an important determinant in the host response to endotoxin. While there appears to be an effective clearance of endotoxin; the release of mediators by the highly activated Kupffer cells can be toxic causing hepatocellular injury.

Home endotoxin exposure and wheeze in infants: correction for bias due to exposure measurement error

Horick, Nora; Weller, Edie A.; Milton, Donald Kirby; Gold, Diane R.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna Lynn
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Exposure to elevated levels of endotoxin in family-room dust was previously observed to be significantly associated with increased wheeze in the first year of life among a cohort of 404 children in the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area. However, it is likely that family-room dust endotoxin was a surrogate for airborne endotoxin exposure. Therefore, a related substudy characterized the relationship between levels of airborne household endotoxin and the level of endotoxin present in house dust, in addition to identifying other significant predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home. We now reexamine the relationship between endotoxin exposure and wheeze under the assumption that the level of airborne endotoxin in the home is the exposure of interest and that the amount of endotoxin in household dust is a surrogate for this exposure. We applied a measurement error correction technique, using all available data to estimate the effect of endotoxin exposure in terms of airborne concentration and accounting for the measurement error induced by using house-dust endotoxin as a surrogate measure in the portion of the data in which airborne endotoxin could not be directly measured. After adjusting for confounding by lower respiratory infection status and race/ethnicity...

Importance of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) in endodontics

Leonardo,Mario Roberto; Silva,Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Assed,Sada; Nelson-Filho,Paulo
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
New knowledge of the structure and biological activity of endotoxins (LPS) has revolutionized concepts concerning their mechanisms of action and forms of inactivation. Since the 1980's, technological advances in microbiological culture and identification have shown that anaerobic microorganisms, especially Gram-negative, predominate in root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographically visible chronic periapical lesions. Gram-negative bacteria not only have different factors of virulence and generate sub-products that are toxic to apical and periapical tissues, as also contain endotoxin (LPS) on their cell wall. This is especially important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. Thus, due to the role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, we reviewed the literature concerning the biological activity of endotoxin and the relevance of its inactivation during treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion.

Histological analysis of the association between formocresol and endotoxin in the subcutaneous tissue of mice

Sant'anna,Ana Teresa; Spolidório,Luis Carlos; Ramalho,Lizeti Toledo Oliveira
Fonte: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
This study performed a histological analysis of the effect of formocresol associated to endotoxin (LPS) in the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. Ninety mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=30). Each animal received one plastic tube implant containing endotoxin solution (10 mg/mL), formocresol (original formula) or a mixture of endotoxin and formocresol. The endotoxin and formocresol groups served as controls. The periods of analysis were 7, 15 and 30 days. At each experimental period, tissue samples were collected and submitted to routine processing for histological analysis. Endotoxin and formocresol produced necrosis and chronic inflammation at 7 and 15 days. At 30 days, the endotoxin group showed no necrosis, while in the formocresol group necrosis persisted. The formocresol-endotoxin association produced necrosis and chronic inflammation in the same way as observed with formocresol at all experimental periods. In conclusion, formocresol seems not to be able to inactive the toxic effects of endotoxin in connective tissues.

Estrategias para revertir la inmunosupresión en el fenómeno de tolerancia a endotoxinas; Strategies to reverse the immunosuppression in the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance

Rearte, María Bárbara
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Los fenómenos de sepsis y shock séptico pueden ser causados por bacterias Gram- positivas y negativas como también por otros microorganismos. En el caso de las bacterias Gram-negativas, las endotoxinas, componentes normales de la pared bacteriana, también conocidas como lipopolisacáridos (LPS), han sido consideradas como uno de los principales agentes causales de los efectos indeseables de estas enfermedades. La respuesta a LPS implica, en principio, la generación de un estado inflamatorio, caracterizado por la rápida secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF)-α, interleuquina (IL) -1, IL-6, e interferón (IFN)-γ, seguido por un estado anti-inflamatorio en donde predominan mediadores como la IL-10, el factor de transformación del crecimiento-β (TGF)-β o glucocorticoides (GC), los cuales conducen al huésped a un estado de refractariedad temporal frente a una nueva exposición al LPS, un proceso conocido como tolerancia a LPS o tolerancia a endotoxina. Si bien se ha considerado como un mecanismo de protección frente al desarrollo de una sepsis o una inflamación sistémica, la tolerancia a endotoxina ha sido también señalada como una de las causas principales de la inmunosupresión inespecífica tanto humoral como celular descrita en dichos pacientes. En este trabajo demostramos...

A importância da endotoxina bacteriana (LPS) na endodontia atual; Importance of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) in endodontics

Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Assed, Sada; Nelson-Filho, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
O conhecimento mais aprofundado sobre a estrutura e atividade biológica das endotoxinas (LPS) revolucionou os conceitos sobre seu mecanismo de ação e formas de inativação. A partir da década de 80, os avanços tecnológicos na cultura e identificação microbiológica demonstraram que, em canais radiculares de dentes portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical crônica, visível radiograficamente, predominam microrganismos anaeróbios, particularmente os gram-negativos. Como se sabe, os microrganismos gram-negativos, além de possuírem diferentes fatores de virulência e gerarem produtos e sub-produtos tóxicos aos tecidos apicais e periapicais, contêm endotoxina em sua parede celular. Esse conhecimento é particularmente importante, uma vez que a endotoxina é liberada durante a multiplicação ou morte bacteriana, exercendo uma série de efeitos biológicos relevantes, que conduzem a uma reação inflamatória e à reabsorção dos tecidos mineralizados. Tendo em vista o papel da endotoxina na patogênese das lesões periapicais, os autores realizaram uma revisão da literatura específica, abordando suas atividades biológicas e a importância de sua inativação durante o tratamento de dentes portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical.; New knowledge of the structure and biological activity of endotoxins (LPS) has revolutionized concepts concerning their mechanisms of action and forms of inactivation. Since the 1980's...