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Automatic and intelligent integration of manufacture standardized specifications to support product life cycle - an ontology based methodology

Silva, João Pedro Mendonça de Assunção da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 17/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Tese de doutoramento em Tecnologias da Produção; In the last decades, the globalization introduced significant changes in the product’s lifecycle. A worldwide market advantageously offered a vast range of Products, both in terms of variety and quality. In consequence, markets progressively demand highly customized products with short life cycle. Computational resources provided an important contribute to maintain Manufacture competitiveness and a rapid adaptation to paradigm change from mass production to mass customization as well. In this environment, Enterprise and Product modeling were the best response to new requirements like flexibility, agility and intense dynamic behavior. Enterprise Modeling enabled production convergence to an integrated virtual process. Several enterprises clearly assumed new formats like Extended Enterprises or Virtual/Agile Enterprises to guarantee product and resources coordination and management within the organization and with volatile external partners. By the other hand, Product modeling suffered an evolution, with traditional human based resources (like technical drawings) migrating to more skilful computational product models (like CAD or CAE models). Product modeling, together with an advanced information structure...

Enterprise education policy future directions: experiences and suggestions on family business education

Kansikas, Juha; Birdthistle, Naomi; Karjalainen, Kari; Solankallio, Tytti; Niemelä, Margit
Fonte: Access Press UK Publicador: Access Press UK
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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36.21%
peer-reviewed; The aim of this policy paper is to describe the current role of academic family enterprise education in Finland. Family business centers and family business programmes have been started around the world to offer education for family entrepreneurs and next generation members. MBAs, master’s degrees in science, and other degrees are offered for key members of the family businesses. At the same time, we are having a debate on are entrepreneurs born or made? The role of entrepreneurship and enterprise education at university level is unclear, and many might believe that entrepreneurship does not even belong to the academic world. This policy paper presents the academic family enterprise programme offered in Finland, at the University of Jyväskylä. Creating a full family business Master’s degree programme takes a long time to design and implement. Enterprise education policy needs resources to support planning and designing such programmes, because there exists a need to learn more about family entrepreneurship and family business management. Also, interdisciplinary collaboration helps family business education development. National and international visibility and collaboration between family entrepreneurs, family business associations...

The Household Enterprise Sector in Tanzania : Why It Matters and Who Cares

Kweka, Josaphat; Fox, Louise
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.23%
The household enterprise sector has a significant role in the Tanzanian economy. It employs a larger share of the urban labor force than wage employment, and is increasingly seen as an alternative to agriculture as a source of additional income for rural and urban households. The sector is uniquely placed within the informal sector, where it represents both conditions of informal employment and informal enterprise. This paper presents a case study on Tanzania using a mixed approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the important role of household enterprises in the labor force of Tanzania, and to identify key factors that influence their productivity. Household enterprise owners are similar to typical labor force participants although primary education appears to be the minimum qualification for household enterprise operators to be successful. Access to location matters -- good, secure location in a marketplace or industrial cluster raises earnings - and access to transport and electricity is found to have a significant effect on earnings as well. In large urban areas...

Evaluating SME Support Programs in Chile Using Panel Firm Data

Tan, Hong
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.21%
This paper evaluates small and medium enterprise (SME) support programs in Chile using a firm-level panel for the 1992-2006 period on two groups of firms a treatment group that participated in SME programs and a control group that did not. These unique panel data provide an unprecedented opportunity to address several issues that have plagued impact evaluations of SME programs selectivity bias from observed and unobserved firm heterogeneity, identification of an appropriate control group, and inability to track firms over a long enough period of time for performance outcomes to be realized. Using difference-in-differences models combined with propensity score matching methods, the paper finds evidence that participation in SME programs in Chile is associated with improvements in intermediate outcomes (training, adoption of new technology and organizational practices), and causally with positive and statistically significant impacts on sales, production, labor productivity, wages and exports. The mixed results of previous studies may be attributable in part to the confounding effects of unobserved heterogeneity motivating selection into programs of firms with relatively low productivity levels...

Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG evaluation of World Bank Support

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
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36.28%
The World Bank support for public sector reform has grown notably in recent years. To address the questions of what is working and why in this area, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) has examined Bank lending and other support for public sector reform in four areas: public financial management, administrative and civil service, revenue administration, and anticorruption and transparency. A majority of countries that borrowed to support public sector reform improved their performance in some dimensions, but there were shortcomings in important aspects. Middle-income borrowers saw improvements in their public sector quality more frequently than low-income borrowers, even though the low-income group usually had greater needs for public sector improvement. Performance usually improved for public financial management, tax administration, and transparency, but not for civil service. Direct measures to reduce corruption, such as anticorruption laws and commissions, rarely succeeded, as they often lacked the necessary support from political elites and the judicial system.

Small Enterprise Growth and the Rural Investment Climate : Evidence from Tanzania

Kinda, Tidiane; Loening, Josef L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This paper analyzes characteristics of nonfarm enterprises, their employment growth patterns, and constraints in doing business in rural Tanzania. Using unique survey data, the authors describe a low-return sector struggling to compete in a difficult business environment. However, about one-third of rural enterprises are growing fast. Most enterprises engage in agricultural trade. Due to a rapidly growing agricultural sector in recent years, limiting demand-side constraints, rural enterprise constraints in Tanzania mainly operate from the supply side. This suggests that, in particular, access to finance, road infrastructure, and rural cell phone communication is correlated with employment growth. A major finding is that subjective and objective measurements of business constraints are broadly comparable. The authors discuss a number of factors that would help to unleash the full potential of private sector-led growth in rural areas. The findings show that marginal improvements in the rural investment climate matter for growth.

Resource Reallocation and Innovation : Converting Enterprise Risks into Opportunities

Dutz, Mark A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.26%
This paper argues that the increased flow and management of knowledge permitted by knowledge-based capital, supported by appropriate policies, can be an important factor in reducing the decision risk facing enterprises due to uncertainty and imperfect information, helping improve the resilience of development outcomes. Enterprises are conceptualized as information platforms that manage risk through investments in knowledge-based capital and complementary assets, providing them with the knowledge, protection/enabling, insurance, and coping/leveraging abilities to make better decisions in response to shocks. Investments in knowledge-based capital allow enterprises to better convert voluntary but risky reallocation and innovation decisions into productivity and wealth-enhancing opportunities. They can help the enterprise sector as a whole and most people to self-protect and realize better jobs, earnings, and consumption outcomes by adapting to shocks. However, absent appropriate policies, knowledge-based capital can have adverse distributional effects -- including a skewed industrial concentration of productivity gains and more unequal consumption and income-earning outcomes between rich and poor people. The paper discusses the role of policy in facilitating risk management by enterprises...

The Satellite Agribusiness Innovation Center in Saint Louis, Senegal

Brethenoux, Julia; Dioh, Simon; Drago, Nicola; Giddings, Steven; Olafsen, Ellen; Thaller, Jim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The establishment of an Agribusiness Innovation Center (AIC) in Senegal takes advantage of already existing agriculture and agro-processing sectors and uses this to both identify and support a pipeline of growth enterprises that can be accelerated. The AIC initiative seeks to identify growth entrepreneurs and these are defined as entrepreneurs that can create a significant number of job opportunities while expanding markets through regional, national and export sales. Their impact is therefore much deeper than survivalist entrepreneurs who are in business to support their immediate family livelihood. Once identified, the AIC supports them to make best use of resources and market opportunities. In a phased approach, starting with the Saint Louis region, the AIC is introducing pre-incubation support that can, depending on the initial outcomes, develop into a future AIC hub being developed in each of the regions. The Saint Louis Satellite AIC (sAIC) includes the following activities: 1) establishment and awareness creation; 2) introductory entrepreneurship workshops; 3) pre-incubation enterprise development programme; 4) assessment of regional business opportunities in the region and market opportunity matching with local enterprises; and 5) initiation of incubation for selected enterprises.

Direct Support to Private Firms : Evidence on Effectiveness

Batra, Geeta; Mahmood, Syed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.32%
Governments use a variety of instruments to provide direct support to private enterprises. These include the provision of finance (subsidized and/or directed credit) and business development services (management and marketing advice to small businesses, agricultural extension services, support for enterprise level training and support to technology development). These interventions are distinct from those that support enterprises indirectly by establishing a policy and legal environment conducive to enterprise development. How effective have these direct support schemes been? This paper attempts to provide some answers to this question by surveying the available literature on the effectiveness of direct support interventions. Where available, impact evaluations suggest that the performance has been mixed at best. The evidence indicates that active intervention does not work unless the basic environment for private sector development is sound. Public policy thus needs to focus on creating an enabling environment...

The Big Business of Small Enterprises : Evaluation of the World Bank Group Experience with Targeted Support to Small, and Medium-Size Enterprises, 2006-2012

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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36.29%
The World Bank Group promotes small and medium-size enterprise (SME) growth through both systemic and targeted interventions. A critical challenge is to root the many activities now undertaken in this broad space in a clear understanding of the characteristics and dynamics of SMEs role in the broader economy; and their actual and potential contribution to jobs, growth, and shared prosperity. A closely related challenge is to formulate clear strategies that connect interventions to intended outcomes and are accompanied by solid measurement systems that provide evidence of results and allow learning. Targeting means focusing benefits on one size-class of firms to the exclusion of others. Targeted support for SMEs is a big business for the World Bank Group, averaging around $3 billion a year in commitments, expenditures, and gross exposure over the 2006-12 periods. In the context of broader reforms, targeted small and medium-size enterprise (TSME) support can be a powerful tool and, given the size of the recent program...

Analyzing the feasibility of using secure application integration methodology (SAIM) for integrating don enterprise resource planning (ERP) application

Marin, Ramon O.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 101 p.
Português
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36.31%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; A thorough examination of the Secure Application Integration Methodology (SAIM) for applicability in the Department of the Navy (DON) would provide useful information about a beneficial methodology. SAIM is analyzed, by accessing its step by step directions, for suitability in the integration of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects implemented by the SYSTEMS COMMANDS (SYSCOMS). The Navy Enterprise Convergence Team (NECT) that leads the ERP integration effort could benefit from a sound Enterprise Application Integration methodology. Results do not support SAIM as the sole guiding EAI methodology however it could have some value to the NECT. SAIM has three primary benefits which NECT could employ: 1) It provides a complete walkthrough of the EAI process, 2) It emphasizes the importance of an Enterprise Architecture, and 3) It provides useful management checklists along with other important considerations. SAIM also has some significant shortcomings: 1) It does not support all the DON Chief Information Officer requirements, 2) It does not provide Change Management Guidance, 3) It does not take into account the uniqueness of the Navy's environment, and finally 4) SAIM relies on an Enterprise Architecture as its foundation which the Navy does not currently have.; Lieutenant Commander...

System support/sustainment plan platform for the Defense Enterprise Accounting Management System (DEAMS)

Baker, Jarvis R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 75 p. : ill. (some col.); 28 cm.
Português
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36.27%
MBA Professional Report; Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, in a memo dated 19 July 2001, indicated that one of his highest priorities in transforming the Department of Defense (DoD) is to have reliable, accurate and timely financial management information. To facilitate this, Secretary Rumsfeld established the Business Management Modernization Program (BMMP). The BMMP is an implementation program charged with transforming the DoD's framework. One of the initiatives of the BMMP is to provide a modern financial management system that transforms business operations to achieve improved warfighter support while enabling financial accountability. The tool, the Defense Enterprise Accounting Management System (DEAMS) is a modified Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) financial management system. DEAMS is expected to transform DoD financial management so that timely and accurate information supports effective decision-making. According to DoD guidance, to effectively develop, acquire, test, and support DEAMS it is critical that system resources are identified, tracked and evaluated. Through out this document, this process will be referred to as a support/sustainment plan. To date, a viable system support/sustainment plan has not been developed for DEAMS. The focus of this MBA project is to create a platform for a support/sustainment plan. The support plan is a living management tool. Its purpose is to ensure the system performs to warfighters requirements and identifies system performance short-comings over its life cycle.; US Air Force (USAF) author.

An analytical history of provider organization support within navy enterprise: Naval Supply Systems Command

Higgins, Stephen G.; Wahlgren, Kristian L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xviii, 123 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
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36.25%
MBA Professional Report; In an increasingly constrained resource environment, the enterprise approach was introduced in the U.S. Navy to empower stakeholders across multiple commands to take a holistic view of objectives and processes and become unified to achieve required output with greater efficiency. As a member of the Navy Provider Enterprise, Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) is responsible for providing services, equipment and other resources to the Warfare Enterprises with focus of future readiness at minimal cost. This project focuses on enterprise practices within NAVSUP. It analyzes how NAVSUP Enterprise was implemented and designed to function within the Navy Provider Enterprise construct. This project also describes NAVSUP's execution of the organizational change process and analyzes to what extent change is occurring. The results of this thesis reveal that the NAVSUP Provider Enterprise is achieving positive organizational change through the implementation of collaborative enterprise management practices. The thesis reveals some identifiable organizational challenges and change issues that inhibit the achievement of NAVSUP Provider Enterprise goals. These findings are used to develop and present a series of recommendations to assist the leadership to further align NAVSUP Provider Enterprise actions with the change objectives.; US Navy (USN) authors

Examining tourism SME owners' place attachment, support for community and business performance: the role of the enlightened self-interest model

Hallak, R.; Brown, G.; Lindsay, N.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
This research examines how support for the local community by small tourism businesses influences their enterprise performance, and the extent to which the owners’ place attachment influences the level of support that they provide to the community. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were used to analyse the responses from the owners of 298 small and medium tourism enterprises (SMTEs) operating in regional South Australia. Results of the analysis provide support for the validity of a structural model. The place attachment of tourism business owners has a significant positive effect on their support for the community which in turn has a significant positive effect on enterprise performance. The robustness of the structural model was tested through a series of invariance (equality) tests. Results demonstrate that the causal relationships among place attachment, support for community and enterprise performance hold true (are invariant) irrespective of the gender of the business owner, the size of the business, and/or the length of time the business has been operating. These findings have implications for research scholars in developing more robust tests of model relationships between and across groups, and for tourism policymakers aiming to support the sustainable development of regional tourism destinations.; Rob Hallak...

Azerbaijan : Enterprise Restructuring and Labor Redeployment, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.35%
The main objective of this report is, first, to examine changes in the welfare and labor market status of workers in Azerbaijan, with concentration on large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) already displaced or which may be displaced because of enterprise restructuring and privatization. This includes identifying: a) dominant patterns in labor market behavior, b) changes in worker socioeconomic status in the wake of redundancy; and c) assistance received under enterprise social programs and other government social safety nets. Second, the study also explores patterns of job creation and job destruction, and the dynamics of labor demand, including any barriers to firm entry and growth. The study focuses largely on identifying informational and institutional gaps in elaborating a general labor redeployment program suitable for conditions in Azerbaijan. Suggestions for the introduction of labor redeployment activities and enterprise social plans are provided that would enable authorities to design relevant mitigating measures. The report concludes that findings indicate labor market interventions have great potential to improve labor market performance; however, whether or not this potential is realized depends on a number of factors, and numerous variables can intervene to affect the final outcome of their implementation. These include external factors such as stable macroeconomic conditions...

Impact Evaluation of Small and Medium Enterprise Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean

Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Tan, Hong W.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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46.34%
This report was co-funded by research grant from the World Bank's research committee for a regional study evaluating Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Support Programs in Latin America and support from the poverty reduction and economic management division of the Latin America and Caribbean Region of the World Bank. The objective of the study was to rigorously evaluate SME programs in four Latin American countries Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru to gain insights into whether SME programs work, which programs perform better than others, and why. This report should be of interest to country governments, policymakers with responsibilities for SMEs, local researchers and the private sector in the region, as well as World Bank staff and bilateral donors. However, the findings and conclusions expressed in this report are entirely those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the World Bank, its Board of Directors or the countries it represents.

Mexico : Impact Evaluation of SME Programs Using Panel Firm Data

Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Tinajero, Monica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Unlike social programs targeting individuals, few enterprise support programs have been rigorously evaluated, and existing evaluations have mostly been done in high-income countries such as the United States and Europe. Mexico spends a large share of government resources on small and medium enterprise programs each year. How effective these programs have been in achieving their objectives is unclear. In Mexico, impact evaluations of small and medium enterprise programs are rare, and most are qualitative in nature. This is the first paper evaluating these programs in Mexico using firm-level panel data. The continuous and ten-year panel data -- from the 1994-2005 period -- allow the authors to address selectivity bias and unobserved firm heterogeneity by applying a generalization of differences-in-differences models combined with propensity score matching methods. This study finds evidence that participation in small and medium enterprise programs is associated with improvements in key variables such as value added...

Belarus - Industrial Performance before and During the Global Crisis : Belarus Economic Policy Notes - Note No. 1

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
Português
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36.28%
This note attempts to analyze and tentatively answer these questions by focusing on the drivers of growth and productivity, labor markets and enterprise restructuring, as well as the state system of enterprise support, which is key to understanding the interplay between the state and the economy in Belarus. The period of analysis covers 2004-08 with appropriate references to the previous periods and comparisons with Russia and/or other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. The final section explores the Belarus's industrial performance in the period of the global crisis (late 2008-09) and reviews the government's policies that have been largely responsible for a relatively mild effect of the crisis on economic dynamics in the country. The analysis is based on the official statistics provided to the team by the National Statistics Committee (Belstat), National Bank, and various ministries, as well as statistics from other national and international statistical sources. In addition, the analysis benefited from the data provided by various enterprise surveys undertaken by the Research Institute by the Ministry of Economy (RIME) and from two sector case studies (in machinery and dairy sub-sectors). Belarus has weathered the crisis so far better than most of its neighbors...

Evaluation of the World Contribution to Chinese Enterprise Reform

Nolan, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
It is widely recognized in Chinese policy-making circles that the World Bank made a significant contribution to the country s enterprise reform in the 1980s. A major contribution consisted of bringing eminent international scholars and policy-makers to China, and in sending leading Chinese scholars and policy-makers abroad. The World Bank's financial support for these activities had a significant impact on the development of ideas on enterprise reform, especially at the highly influential Chinese Economic System Reform Research Institute (CESRRI), under the state council. The contribution of the World Bank was given more concrete form in the shape of joint research (from 1983 to 1985) on state enterprise reform, between the World Bank and leading Chinese institutions, under the umbrella of the Economics Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The World Bank has been involved in several industrial projects through its loan program. The main point of focus has been the fertilizer sector, but it has also been involved in projects in the machine tool...

Implementing the Market Approach to Enterprise Support : An Evaluation of Ten Matching Grant Schemes

Phillips, David A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Developing viable new business is critical to recovery, and long-term growth, especially in transition economies. There has been a long history of public support of enterprise development, starting with centralized state agency initiatives, but moving more recently to decentralized instruments for development of the business services market. The window of time during which the benefits of intervention are likely to be greatest: when a market is in its infancy, and its development is constrained by uncertainty, and lack of information. Interventions for enterprise support should be demand-responsive, and flexibly organized. In some circumstances, centralized assistance may still be effective, but it is generally better to use competitive private service providers responding to enterprises' changing needs. The main task is to stimulate the private services sector, improving its capacity to respond to the demands of new, and expanding private enterprises. Support for enterprises has tended to be either free...