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Public sector efficiency evidence for new EU member states and emerging markets

Afonso, António; Schuknecht, Ludger; Tanzi, Vito
Fonte: European Central Bank Publicador: European Central Bank
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /01/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.17%
In this paper we analyse public sector efficiency in the new member states of the European Union compared to that in emerging markets. After a conceptual discussion of expenditure efficiency measurement issues, we compute efficiency scores and rankings by applying a range of measurement techniques. The study finds that expenditure efficiency across new EU member states is rather diverse especially as compared to the group of top performing emerging markets in Asia. Econometric analysis shows that higher income, civil service competence and education levels as well as the security of property rights seem to facilitate the prevention of inefficiencies in the public sector.

Public sector efficiency: evidence for new eu member states and emerging markets

Afonso, António; Schuknecht, Ludger; Tanzi, Vito
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.17%
In this paper we analyse public sector efficiency in the new member states of the European Union compared to that in emerging markets. After a conceptual discussion of expenditure efficiency measurement issues, we compute efficiency scores and rankings by applying a range of measurement techniques. The study finds that expenditure efficiency across new EU member states is rather diverse especially as compared to the group of top performing emerging markets in Asia. Econometric analysis shows that higher income, civil service competence and education levels as well as the security of property rights seem to facilitate the prevention of inefficiencies in the public sector.

Determinants of fiscal budget volatility in old versus new EU member states

Mara, Eugenia-Ramona
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
In this study we perform an analysis of the volatility of the budget deficit for EU countries. We address this issue starting from the new requirements of fiscal discipline imposed by the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance adopted by 25 European Union member states and taking into account the economic crisis impact. The major purpose of this study is to identify the most significant determinants of budget deficit volatility in a comparative study for old EU member states and New Member States (NMS). This study aims to test the impact of macroeconomic variables such as public expenditures, economic growth rate, and unemployment on the budget balance volatility, based on panel data. The final purpose of the article is to reveal the strategies to stop the immense increase in fiscal deficits and to regain fiscal stability to fulfil the new rules of fiscal governance. We anticipate that the implementation of this new fiscal discipline requires a more efficient public sector for both old and NMS and a reconsideration of state intervention in the economy.

Long-Term Care Policies for Older Populations in New EU Member States and Croatia : Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
The objective of this summary report is to highlight the main lessons learned from Organization for Economic Development and Co-operation (OECD) countries with advanced Long Term Care (LTC) policies and the implications for LTC policymaking in new European Union (EU) member states and Croatia. The first section examines the main findings from the framework report on the financing, provision and regulation of LTC services. The next section presents comparative findings from the four case study countries, including the demographic context for LTC services, the main features of the financing, provision and regulation of LTC services and the strengths and weaknesses of current LTC systems there. The last section identifies policy directions for the four case study countries. In terms of LTC benefits, none of the case study countries have a universal entitlement system combining home, community and institutional care. Rather, LTC benefits, both cash and in-kind, are limited and largely associated with the social assistance system. The lack of data on LTC expenditures mainly stems from the undefined position of LTC between the health and social sectors...

Joining the EU - impact on the financial sector of new member states

Racocha, Pavel
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 216235 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
On May 1, 2004, ten countries will join the European Union. Will the transition proceed smoothly? The main concern related to new countries joining the EU, from the point of view of the financial sector, is what impact the enlargement will have on the functioning of financial markets in new member states. Will competition in financial services increase and place a strain on institutions in accession countries or in the EU as well? Will there be visible impact at all? The new member states consist of eight former transition economies and of Malta and Cyprus. I will focus on developments in the transition countries, and especially in the Czech Republic, which I know best. I will also try to make reference to other accession countries to show that the results of developments over the last thirteen years, at least in the financial sector, are not so different. This brief presentation cannot do more than deliver only a basic description of the past development of financial markets in the transition countries and of their current standing. Hopefully the data from this presentation can serve as background information for those interested in further studies.; Delivered at the European Australian Business Council / National Europe Centre Conference “The Single Market for Financial Services in the EU and Its Impact on Globalization”; no

The EU in the G8 System: Assessing EU Member States’ Involvement

NASRA, Skander; LESAGE, Dries; ORBIE, Jan; VAN DE GRAAF, Thijs
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Even though the role of the European Union (EU) in international organizations has generated increasing academic and political interest, scant attention has been devoted to the EU’s participation in the Group of Eight (G8). The launch of the renewed Group of Twenty (G20), however, has sparked intense debate among member states about the way in which the EU is represented in the G8 system. The central issue covered in this paper is the participation of the EU in the G8 system. In particular, we focus on the involvement of the 23 non-G8 EU members (EU23) and the role of the European Commission and the Council Presidency. The focus lies on the internal EU level, rather than on the question of the EU’s bargaining power at the international level. The paper draws on insights of Moravcsik’s liberal intergovernmentalism to explain the variation of the EU23’s involvement in the following policy domains: development aid, energy, finance and monetary affairs and trade. The paper finds a pattern of differing involvement that varies along the lines of the three forums within the G8 system: low involvement in the G8, medium involvement in the G20 and high involvement in the Group of Seven (G7). Four factors are suggested that explain the involvement of the EU23 in the internal EU coordination process: internal competences...

Pre-Accession Changes to Residence-based Naturalisation Requirements in Ten New EU Member States

SWIDER, Katja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
This study investigates how access to residence-based naturalisation has changed in ten Central and Eastern European EU member states before their accession. It focuses on the legislative amendments made during the time of EU pre-accession conditionality, specifically between the entry into force of the Europe Agreement and the date of accession, when the supervision of the EU Commission over legal and political developments in those states was strongest. The changes are analysed and evaluated as to their liberal nature, which shows that while the EU pre-accession documents promote the principle of inclusiveness, the legislative amendments in the field of naturalisation that were in fact introduced during the pre-accession time result in higher exclusion.

Explaining and Assessing Independence: National competition authorities in the EU member states

GUIDI, Mattia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This Ph.D dissertation aims at answering two questions, which are closely related to each other: 1. How do politicians decide about the independence they give to regulatory agencies? 2. Is there a link between the amount of independence which an agency enjoys and the way in which it performs its tasks? The first question investigates the factors that lead politicians to delegate in the field of competition policy. The second question concerns, more broadly, the relationship between costs and benefits of delegation. This dissertation focuses on national competition authorities (NCAs) in the EU member states, being antitrust one of the few really “European” policies, enforced in the same way in all the countries by the European Commission and by the NCAs. The main empirical analysis (Chapter 3) tests a theoretical framework, based on both original hypotheses and previous contributions. In order to measure formal independence, an index based on several features of agency autonomy has been developed. The results confirm the two original hypotheses advanced in this work. On the one hand, the degree of independence of NCAs is influenced by political polarisation and by the presence of big firms in the national economy (the higher the polarisation...

Energy Research Capacities in EU Member States

WIESENTHAL TOBIAS; SAVEYN BERT; SORIA RAMIREZ ANTONIO; NILL JAN CHRISTOPH; RUBIO HERRERO Javier; NEMETH Gabriella
Fonte: OPOCE Publicador: OPOCE
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This report gives an overview of the energy research capacities in EU Member States. It is composed of a quantitative analysis of funding for energy research and an assessment of the institutional capacity in energy research policy making. The analysis shows that Member States award relatively little importance to energy research in general. While energy R&D priorities vary among Member States, shared priorities exist for some technologies among various countries. Due to the diverse institutional set-ups the exploitation of synergies remains challenging despite recent efforts for better coordination of national efforts.; JRC.J.2-Competitiveness and Sustainability

Cost of Capital Indicator for EU Member States

LOSCHKY Alexander; GUILLEME MORENO David
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The actions taken in the framework of the Lisbon Strategy and in the forthcoming EU2020 strategy are intended to improve the competitiveness of the EU¿s economy. To properly monitor the progress resulting from those actions, some indicators have been identified. One of those indicators is on the ¿cost of capital¿. The cost of capital is a key concept as it reflects the corporation¿s cost of investment funding. Thus, there is a need to develop an indicator to monitor how that cost changes over time. This report presents an overall cost of capital composite indicator that can be updated on a quarterly basis and is covering the EU-27, the euro area, and each of the 27 EU Member States. This composite indicator is based on the first three out of the four major sources of capital: loans, corporate bonds, listed equity, and unlisted equity.; JRC.DG.G.9-Econometrics and applied statistics

Current status and Best Practices for Disaster Loss Data recording in EU Member States: A comprehensive overview of current practice in the EU Member States

DE GROEVE Tom; POLJANSEK Karmen; EHRLICH Daniele; CORBANE Christina
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
This report presents a state of the art for recording disaster loss data in European Union member states. It summarizes the contribution of experts from 15 EU Member States. A comparative analysis shows that methodologies for disaster loss data collection and recording in Europe are heterogeneous and that the available loss databases vary in their level of completeness and detail. Also IT systems vary in purpose, complexity and openness. This precludes a reliable and representative aggregation of loss data at the EU level. This report provides recommendations to European Union Member States that would help increase the quality of (shared) loss data within the current policy framework. It is recommended to continue the consultative process in a third phase with the aim of expanding the network of Member States ready to participate, tackling remaining technical issues in the EU framework for disaster loss recording and assisting Member States in implementing better loss data recording processes.; JRC.G.2-Global security and crisis management

Competency and Training of Seveso Inspectors Recommendations and Summary of Current Practice in EU Member States and Affiliated Countries

WOOD Maureen
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This document contains a summary of perceived needs and practices in relation to competency requirements and training programmes for Seveso inspectors of EU Member States and other Seveso countries to support effectiveness of oversight and enforcement of the Seveso Directive on major hazard sites. The information was gathered mainly through a survey of a cross-section of individual Seveso inspectors from various countries and a workshop of representatives of Seveso inspection authorities across Europe. The study found that there are no standard universally applicable requirements for competency and training of Seveso inspectors. Nonetheless, Seveso inspection programmes generally consider that Seveso inspectors must have some form of basic training and training on the job as a foundation for their work with periodic training to update and diversify their skill sets. This report describes the range of competency requirements, training content and delivery mechanisms offered over the period of study, as experienced by a number of individual Seveso inspectors, and described by inspection authorities of various EU Member States and affiliates.; JRC.G.5-Security technology assessment

Study on judicial cooperation, mutual legal assistance and extradition of drug traffickers and other drug-related crime offenders, between the EU and its Member States and Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries; Estudo sobre cooperação judicial, assistência jurídica mútua e extradição no tráfico de drogas e crimes relacionados, entre a UE, os seus países membros e da América Latina e do Caribe; Estudio sobre cooperación jurídica, auxilio judicial internacional y extradición en material de tráfico de drogas y otros delitos relacionados, entre la UE y sus Estados miembro y los países de América Latina y el Caribe

Morán, Rosa Ana; Moreno Catena, Víctor; Parra, Javier Luis; Arnáiz Serrano, Amaya; Bodoque, Ángel; Robinson, Marc
Fonte: Publications Office Of The European Union Publicador: Publications Office Of The European Union
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
El principal objetivo de este estudio es aportar datos, cifras y un análisis detallado al debate sobre la función, el uso, los obstáculos de aplicación y las posibles lagunas en los mecanismos existentes de Auxilio Judicial Internacional (AJI), y los acuerdos de extradición. El estudio también aborda otros temas relacionados, que permiten una evaluación inicial del estado de situación, sobre la base de la información aportada. Todo ello para poder establecer un criterio claro sobre si, y si es así cómo, la cooperación jurídica debería / podría mejorarse y con qué instrumentos. Esto incluye una evaluación de la necesidad y el potencial valor añadido de establecer cauces de cooperación en AJM y extradición a nivel la UE, sin dejar de tener en cuenta determinadas situaciones de hecho, como el funcionamiento del sistema judicial de los Estados y la aplicación de los principios fundamentales que rigen la cooperación jurídica internacional. Dentro de este marco de referencia, este informe ofrece los resultados de una investigación que combina el estudio general de la cooperación existente entre los Estados miembros de la UE y los países de América Latina y Caribe (ALC) con un estudio detallado de la cooperación jurídica en ALC...

Structural Patterns of the Bioeconomy in the EU Member States – a SAM approach

PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE; SANJUAN LOPEZ ANA; FERRARI EMANUELE; M'BAREK Robert
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The concept of 'bioeconomy' is gathering momentum in European Union (EU) policy circles as a sustainable model of growth to reconcile the goals of continued wealth generation and employment with bio-based sustainable resource usage. Unfortunately, an economy-wide quantitative assessment covering the full diversity of this sector is, hitherto, constrained by relatively poor data availability for disaggregated bio-based activities. This research takes a first step in addressing this issue by employing social accounting matrices (SAMs) for each EU27 member encompassing a highly disaggregated treatment of traditional bio-based agricultural and food sectors, in addition to identifiable bioeconomic activities from the national accounts data. Employing backward-linkage (BL), forward-linkage (FL) and employment multipliers, the aim is to profile and assess comparative structural patterns both across bioeconomic sectors and EU Member States. The results indicate six clusters of EU member countries with homogeneous bioeconomy structures. Within cluster statistical tests reveal a high tendency toward 'backward orientation' or demand driven wealth generation, whilst inter-cluster statistical comparisons across each bio-based sector show only a moderate degree of heterogeneous BL wealth generation and...

Key Issues and Developments in Farmland Rental Markets in EU Member States and Candidate Countries

CIAIAN PAVEL; KANCS D'ARTIS; SWINNEN Johan; VAN HERCK Kristine; VRANKEN Liesbet
Fonte: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) Publicador: Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS)
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Online
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
In this paper, we describe recent developments in the rental market for agricultural land in selected EU member states and candidate countries. The analysis focuses on the importance of the rental market as well as on the evolution of rental prices. It appears that the share of rented land in the total utilised agricultural area varies considerably among member states. In the old member states, the share of rented land ranges between 18% in Ireland and 74% in France, while in the new member states (NMS) it ranges from 17% in Romania to 89% in Slovakia. For the former, different strategies to provide tenure security to tenants can explain differences in the importance of rental markets. Changes in the significance of land rental have also reflected changes in institutions and in economic and political conditions. In the NMS, diverse approaches to land reform have resulted in assorted ownership structures and hence in differences in the share of rented land. Regarding rental prices, governments impose price restrictions on agricultural land rents in some countries, such that large divergences are observed in rental prices between and within member states.; JRC.J.4-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

Employing social accounting matrix multipliers to profile the Bioeconomy in the EU Member States: Is there a structural pattern?

PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE; SANJUAN LOPEZ ANA; FERRARI EMANUELE; M'BAREK Robert
Fonte: SPANISH NATL INST AGRICULTURAL \& FOOD RESEARCH \& TECHNOLO Publicador: SPANISH NATL INST AGRICULTURAL \& FOOD RESEARCH \& TECHNOLO
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
In the 21st century, the issues of climate change, natural resource depletion, population growth and environmental degradation are posing challenging questions for policy makers. The European Union (EU) has taken a pro-active role in areas relating to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, renewable energy usage and the greening of its agricultural policy. To this end, the term 'bioeconomy' was coined which, "encompasses the production of renewable biological resources and the conversion of these resources and waste streams into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy". The current study employs a consistent set of social accounting matrices (SAMs) for each of the EU27 Member States to profile comparative structural patterns within the identifiable bioeconomy across EU Member States. Tthis paper follows SAM based multiplier and structural analysis. Employing statistical techniques, a typical profile of bioeconomic activity is created, across sectors and regions, whilst certain bioeconomic activities with greater than average wealth generating properties are identified as 'key sectors'. A further ex-post assessment is carried out for those 'key sectors' to evaluate the extent to which they have thrived in the ensuing period.; JRC.J.4-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

Energy security and the division of competences between the European community and its member states

HAGHIGHI, Sanam Salem
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Securing energy supply for Europe has been for decades at the forefront of the energy policies of individual European Community member countries. However, dealing with energy issues in general and securing energy supply in particular is a new phenomenon within the EU's regulatory framework. One important issue which has not yet been discussed by legal scholars and which has been questioned repeatedly by energy experts, is the question who is actually responsible to guarantee security of energy supply in Europe? Is it the European Community alone? Is it the Member States alone? Or is it both? This question cannot be answered without a detailed legal analysis of the EU law in general, and EU law on division of competences between the Community and the Member States in particular. This article seeks to highlight the complications of this area of law within the EU and expand it to cover the energy sector in order to determine who and under what circumstances is responsible for guaranteeing security of energy supply for the consumers within the EU borders.

Public Investment Management in the New EU Member States : Strengthening Planning and Implementation of Transport Infrastructure Investments

Laursen, Thomas; Myers, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The primary purposes of this study were two-fold: i) to identify some of the key issues and challenges being faced by New Member States (NMS) in the management of their public investment programs; and ii) to identify good practice examples and persistent challenges faced by European Union (EU) member states that have had a longer history of development under democratic institutions of public management. By necessity this study is limited in the number of country cases and the depth at which various issues are addressed. Four NMS were selected - Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, and Slovakia based on agreed willingness to participate. The three 'old member states' were the UK, Ireland, and Spain (selected based on Bank interest and availability of expert consultants). In all of the countries, the focus was on central government policies and practices even though some execute projects through regional governments as well. The scope of the study was limited strictly to transport infrastructure (roads, bridges, and railways)...

Reshaping Economic Geography : Implications for New EU Member States

Gill, Indermit; Goh, Chor-ching; Roberts, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.14%
The ongoing crisis should spur deeper European integration, rather than a return to the nationalism of the past. The World Development Report 2009, reshaping economic geography, spotlights several issues for new European Union (EU) member states. From 1950 to 1990, Eastern Europe was impermeable to the flow of goods, services and ideas from the West, and grew slowly. During the same period, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in fourteen Western European economies grew at three times the pace of Eastern Europe. The drivers of West European growth were market economies, regional cooperation, and global economic integration. The European Economic Community, started by six Western European nations in 1957, continued to increase its membership with the ultimate aim of full economic and monetary integration. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991, the EU10 countries, along with Malta and Cyprus, joined the expanded European Union, an economic zone based on the principles of democracy, markets and the free mobility of goods...

The impact of the Central and Eastern European EU member states on the EU’s foreign policy, 2004 to 2013

Hellmeyer, Monika
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Prior to the EU’s Eastern enlargement in 2004 there was much academic speculation about its repercussions for EU foreign policy. Although scholars agreed that the eight newcomers from Central and Eastern Europe would have an impact on the EU’s foreign policy, it remained unclear how and to what extent they would do so. This thesis identifies and evaluates the impact of the CEECs on the substance of EU foreign policy in three areas including development cooperation, neighbourhood policy and energy security. It analyses why the CEECs have sometimes succeeded in having an impact and at other times not. It differentiates between three categories of the CEECs' impact (defensive, divisive and innovative) as well as three aspects of policy substance (regional coverage, policy objectives and principles and policy instruments). The CEECs' impact varies along the three areas and the different stages of the policymaking process. In long-standing traditional areas such as development cooperation, it has been largely defensive and limited to soft law instruments while in regional or emerging areas such as neighbourhood policy and energy security the CEECs’ impact has been higher as well as innovative and/or divisive. To analyse why the CEECs' impact varies from case to case...