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Gender mainstreaming and enlargement: the EU as negligent actor?

Bretherton, Charlotte
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 93763 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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In its relations with the ‘near abroad’, and in particular with countries eager to attain membership status, the ability of the EU to adopt a proactive role in international politics has been very evident. Indeed, in the case of Central and East European applicants, the EU has used its position to play the role of mentor, shaping transition processes and policy preferences in order to ensure compatibility with the EU acquis. A notable exception in this case has been the EU’s evolving policy on gender relations. While there has been discussion of the formal, legal requirements of equality Directives, the EU’s declared strategy of gender mainstreaming has been disregarded. This absence represents a lost opportunity – for EU and CEEC officials to explore together the potential of, and impediments to, an effective mainstreaming strategy. This paper outlines the principles of gender mainstreaming, explains why gender issues are important in the context of enlargement and suggests reasons for the failure to adopt a mainstreaming strategy during the pre-enlargement period.; no

L’Union fait la force? Potential and Limitations of the European Neighbourhood Policy as an Integrated EU Foreign and Security Policy

CREMONA, Marise; HILLION, Christophe
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 264376 bytes; application/pdf; digital
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The external policies of the European Union may be viewed as the outcome of the interaction between the Member States, the European Community (acting in the context of the ‘first pillar’) and the European Union (acting on the basis of the second and third pillars). This tripartite interaction, which involves a large number of actors operating within different institutional logics, makes it challenging for the Union to conduct coherent policies, or to fulfil its objective of affirming its identity on the world stage (Article 2 TEU). The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a particularly developed expression of a policy designed to meet the challenge of ensuring coherence between the three EU pillars. As an alternative mechanism designed to offer coherent policy-making in the cross-pillar context of relations with the EU’s strategically important neighbours, the ENP does not rely on new instruments but rather offers a way of integrating existing instruments via ‘soft’ frameworks, such as European Council and Council Conclusions and Commission policy papers. This paper aims to analyse the ENP as a contribution to the EU’s efforts to evolve a more coherent external action. Ukraine will serve as an example, as the advanced implementation of the ENP towards this country offers the best illustration of the policy...

The External Dimension of the Acquis Communautaire

PETROV, Roman
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 258436 bytes; application/pdf; digital
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The aim of this article is to study the concept of the acquis communautaire in the domain of EU external relations. It is argued that the acquis communautaire varies according to the specific aims of its internal and external applications. The main objective of the acquis communautaire in its internal dimension is to enable the consistent development of the EU while preserving EC/EU patrimony by Member States. The objective of the acquis communautaire application in its external dimension is to push third countries to the forefront of the acquired level of economic, political and legal cooperation achieved by the EU. It is argued that the acquis communautaire is applied consistently in its external dimension, but mirrors the specific objectives of each new application. In order to comprehend the full scope of the application of the acquis communautaire, one must take into consideration both the general objectives of EU external policy towards third countries.

The European Neighbourhood Policy: A Framework for Modernisation?

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This Working Paper offers a selection of the papers which were presented during the Workshop on “The European Neighbourhood Policy – A Framework for Modernisation?”, which was held on 1-2 December 2006 at the European University Institute of Florence under the auspices of the Academy of European Law. In particular, this Working Paper intends to explore from a trans-disciplinary perspective the objectives and instruments which have been devised in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and to consider in this light the capacity of the policy to promote a fundamental process of modernisation in the target countries. This is done in the conviction that a reconsideration of the coherence between instruments and objectives of the ENP is particularly urgent and it is likely to affect not only the effectiveness of the policy itself, but also the ability of the EU to create a circle of friends around its borders and, ultimately, its position in the international arena. To achieve this task, we have brought together the viewpoints of lawyers, political scientists and economists as they look at the wide range of questions prompted by the ENP. The first part of this volume is devoted to the analysis of the Objectives of the ENP. In this framework...

The Europeanization of Political Parties: Influencing the Regulations on Political Finance

WALECKI, Marcin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Europe does matter for political parties because of the impact of its rules, directives and norms into the domestic sphere. Drawing on new evidence, this paper sheds light on largely hidden aspects of the Europeanization of political parties and argues that the legal framework regulating party funding has been directly affected by this process. Political parties in EU candidate countries and the member states of the Council of Europe have become the target of stricter regulations in order to combat political corruption. The way in which external agencies have influenced the regulations on the funding of political parties is analysed. The article illustrates how political parties gain in importance in the context of the EU accession process and associated anti-corruption reforms. The influence of Europeanization on party funding regulations has been particularly important in the cases of Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania, as well as Turkey and the Balkan countries that have declared their intention of joining the EU.

Legal Basis and Scope of the New EU-Ukraine Enhanced Agreement. Is there any room for further speculation?

PETROV, Roman
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The paper conducts a critical analysis of the potential legal basis and scope of the future European Union (EU)-Ukraine enhanced agreement. Accepting that the most probable and most beneficial possibility for Ukraine is to conclude an association agreement with the EU on the basis of Article 310 EC Treaty (EC), it is argued that the objectives of the enhanced co-operation between the EU and Ukraine - as expected and desired by the Ukrainian political élite - could be achieved by a partnership agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC. Furthermore, if the new enhanced EU-Ukraine agreement were concluded as a partnership agreement, it might be better suited for the solving of certain political and legal challenges in contemporary EU-Ukraine relations. First, a new enhanced agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC would not entail unjustified political expectations - on the part of Ukraine - of obtaining the perspective of full EU-membership in the near future. Second, a future EU-Ukraine partnership agreement would be the best option for a “transitional” enhanced agreement before the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force. Third, a future partnership agreement between the EU and Ukraine will not undermine the fundamentals of the evolving strategic partnership between the EU and Russia.

The Promise of European Integration. Improving the Quality of Democracy in the European Neighborhood

MAZMANYAN, Armen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The recent research on EU’s role in democratization in the post-communist world has been primarily concerned with its new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the prospective member states. A great deal of knowledge is now available on EU’s impact on members or prospective members, but little stays known about EU’s influence on democratic development in the neighborhood beyond the accession orbits. This paper makes an inquiry into the effect of European policies on democratic processes in a country which is not impacted by conditionality for EU accession but where the promise of “European integration” is nevertheless seen as an important factor affecting political developments. The particular focus of this paper is on the state of inter-institutional accountability within the frameworks of the democratic constitution in Armenia. This rather narrow concentration on constitutional structures is stipulated by the nature of the major European policies and instruments put into effect in the “remote neighborhood”. As it will be explicated further in the text, these policies and instruments predominantly rely on the reforms of macro-political democratic institutions at the same time as the democratic achievements are largely “measured” by reference to the formal institutional reform.

Europe as an Issue Dimension in the Party Politics of the Central East European Candidate States

STRATULAT, Corina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis focuses on political party discourses and developments vis-à-vis European integration in the former CEE candidate states for EU membership, with particular attention to the case of Romania. Exploring the domestic dimension of these countries’ accession provides insights into policy-making, party strategies, and party interaction in the post-communist context. The key objective of the project is to examine a number of factors inspired by the Western experience that drive the responses of political parties in regard to European integration. More specifically, the relevance of parties’ (1) ideology, (2) relations to electorates, and (3) interactions within the party system make the purpose of investigation here. First, the role of ideology is scrutinised across the CEE region using statistical methods as well as a combination of party manifestos and expert survey data. The main conclusion to be drawn from the CEE analysis is that parties’ ideological makeup represents a necessary yet insufficient consideration for how parties react to Europe. Therefore, the thesis suggests that in order to arrive at a more compelling explanation of parties’ EU attitudes, the importance of electoral links and competition for office needs to be factored into the discussion...

Economic Miracle and National Debt on the Political Economy of East Central Europe

BOHLE, Dorothee; GRESKOVITS, Bela
Fonte: Bwv-Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag Gmbh Publicador: Bwv-Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag Gmbh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The 20 years of democracy and market economics in East Central Europe have been a great success. This distinguishes Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from almost all of the other post-Socialist states. This model of success has two components. First, these four states succeeded in becoming the manufacturing site for trans-national companies. That creates jobs and brings capital into the region. Second, the governments softened the social hardships of the transformation by means of welfare state policies. The price is an enormous national debt. Since EU accession, it has been necessary to take action against this. Dissatisfaction is growing, and populist forces are finding growing support.

Sub-regional cooperation in East Central Europe

Terek, Kalman.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyses the sub-regional cooperation in East Central Europe. It argues that the changed security environment after the fall of the Iron Curtain made the states of the region realize the need for close cooperation in order to meet the requirements of membership of the larger security institutions. It draws upon the example of the Hungarian-Romanian joint Peacekeeping Battalion as an example of military cooperation at the sub-regional level. Sub-regional cooperation and organizations are perfect tools for EU candidate countries in preparing for the enlargement. The mutual interest of the involved states and the criteria of the expansion itself in this phase already brought stability to the region. Sub regionalism develops and prepares the economies, the infrastructure of the aspirant countries and helps consolidates their democracies. Since good-neighboring relations is one of the requirements for membership, sub-regional cooperation with the cross-border contracts that include every level of society promote tolerance between ethnic groups and helps overcome the historical real or fictitious injustices and promotes good relations between nations.

East European Transformations and the Paradoxes of Transnationalization

BOHLE, Dorothee
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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With the outbreak of the global financial crisis, the vulnerability of democratic capitalism in East- Central Europe has come once again to the fore. Almost all new EU member states have accumulated major economic imbalances, and have been experiencing steep recessions. The crisis in the region is not only economic. Surging protests and the increasing appeal of political illiberalism attest to the end of the 'political economy of patience' (Claus Offe) which characterized the first decade of postsocialism. The paper seeks to understand what has made the region’s democratic capitalist project so vulnerable. It takes its cue from an early body of literature which has pointed to the problems involved in simultaneously introducing capitalism and democracy. Contrary to the 'breakdown thesis' which was a part and parcel of this literature, the paper argues that repeatedly, temporary solutions to the dilemma of simultaneity were found. Based on the Hungarian and Latvian examples, the paper shows how at first domestic resources - generous welfare policies in Hungary and appeals to sentiments of national solidarity in Latvia - allowed to reconcile democracy with market reforms. From the second half of the 1990s onwards, EU-accession and deeper transnational integration helped to secure the democratic capitalist project. By the late 2000s the full exposure to the risks of an increasingly instable global order has however become a major source of trouble for the two countries.

'Solange, chapter 3': Constitutional Courts in Central Europe – Democracy – European Union

SADURSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 316617 bytes; application/pdf
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Soon after the accession of eight post-communist States from Central and Eastern Europe to the EU, the constitutional courts of some of these countries questioned the principle of supremacy of EU law over national constitutional systems, on the basis of their being the guardians of national standards of protection of human rights and of democratic principles. In doing so, they entered into the well-known pattern of behaviour favoured by a number of constitutional courts of the “older Europe”, which is called a “Solange story” for the purposes of this article. But this resistance is ridden with paradoxes, the most important of which is a democracy paradox: while accession to the EU was supposed to be the most stable guarantee for human rights and democracy in postcommunist States, how can the supremacy of EU law be now resisted on these very grounds? It is argued that the sources of these constitutional courts’ adherence to the “Solange” pattern are primarily domestic, and that it is a way of strengthening their position vis-à-vis other national political actors, especially at a time when the role and independence of those courts face serious domestic challenges.

Restructuring in the New EU Member States. Social Dialogue, Firms Relocation and Social Treatment of Restructuring

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
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This book presents a series of extremely stimulating analyses of the process of corporate restructuring in the new Member States of the EU. Particularly noteworthy is the book's focus on the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) that have joined the EU since 2004, an area which has not been prominent in the research on corporate restructuring conducted in Western Europe in the last twenty years. As with their Asian counterparts, these States have generally been perceived as a threat to employment in Western Europe due to the former's benefiting from outsourcing away from the latter. By moving east, the book allows for a different perspective on the restructuring process, by placing it in the context of both Europe and the numerous changes affecting the CEECs. The book seeks to understand the impact of European- and national-level policies on the concept of restructuring, the role of the «acquis communautaire», and the place of social and political actors in the process of change in the context of new Member States, where multinational firms have developed mobility and establishment strategies within the context of broader European and global ones. The density of this collection, its wealth in terms of substantive teachings...

Trade opportunities between the East Asian-Six and the European Union

Nandan, Gitanjali J.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
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Six East Asian countries (EA6) --Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand-- together with Hong Kong (which is not included in this study because of its "China connection") have led the economic growth of the developing countries since the 1'960s. Their domestic economic policies supported macroeconomic stability and rapidly growing trade which led to their integration in the world economy. Political objectives were paramount in the formation of the European Economic Community (1958) which consisted initially of Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. It was also hoped that European integration would result in economic benefits from specialisation according to comparative advantage, from the exploitation of economies of scale and increased competition. West European countries enjoyed buoyant economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s but their economies slowed in the 1970s. Meanwhile, membership of the European Community expanded in the 1970s and 1980s to twelve countries. Integration efforts intensified with the Single European Market and plans for an Economic and Monetary Union. These steps were still primarily politically motivated but supported by arguments that they would promote faster economic growth. Trade links between the European Community/European Union (EU) and the EA6 countries are weak compared to trade links between the EA6 and the United States or the EA6 and Japan. This thesis argues that a major reason for the low intensity ofEU-EA6 trade in manufactures lies in the trade regime of the EU. While the EA6 have non-discriminatory trade policies...

South East Europe : Regular Economic Report; Jugoistocna Evropa - Redovni ekonomski izvestaj

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
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After they achieved 2.2 percent growth in 2011, early indications are that the economies of the six countries in South East Europe (the SEE6: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia) are slowing drastically and can expect just 1.1 percent growth in 2012. Economic conditions in the Euro zone are holding back economic activity and depressing government revenues in SEE6 countries. With both public debt and financing pressures high, most countries in the region need to embark on major fiscal consolidation programs if they are to reverse their adverse debt dynamics and avoid financing problems down the road. The good news is that in general the SEE6 financial sectors are still relatively well placed, despite elevated risks and vulnerability to adverse shocks, especially the possibility of contagion if the Greek crisis should intensify. The bad news is social: SEE6 countries have the highest unemployment and poverty rates in Europe. Yet even with the difficult short-term situation...

Turkey’s Evolving Trade Integration into Pan-European Markets

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Ng, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This is an empirical paper seeking to identify the mode of Turkey's integration into global markets in general, and pan-European markets in particular, as revealed in its trade performance. The analysis provides empirical support to the following observations. First, thanks to steady expansion of trade in goods and services since the mid-1980s, Turkey has become highly integrated into the world economy. Second, Turkey's export performance in 1996-2004 in EU markets bears strong similarities to the aggregate performance of new EU members from Central Europe (EU-8). Similarities include dynamics, similar factors responsible for the increased presence in EU markets, factor content, and the role of "producer-driven" network trade. Turkey, together with Hungary, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Estonia, and Poland, stands as one of the top performers in "producer-driven" network trade indicating participation in a new global division of labor based on production fragmentation. The available evidence suggests an economic success story in the making. Export expansion owes a lot to improved policy environment and domestic liberalization. It is rather telling that the recent expansion has coincided with the implementation of most of the provisions of the EU-Turkey Customs Union Agreement...

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2012, Volume 1 : Capturing New Sources of Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
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Growth in developing East Asia and the Pacific remained strong in 2011, although it slowed from its post-crisis peaks. Strong domestic demand offset weaker external demand from the United States and Western Europe. Looking ahead, the external environment is likely to remain weak. The best prospects for the region to maintain high rates of growth, job creation, and poverty reduction are through rebalancing towards domestic demand and investing in productivity increases and further international integration. The region remains vulnerable to the continued uncertainty in Europe through trade and financial linkages. Although last December's fiscal pact and liquidity support from the European Central Bank helped stabilize financial markets, recent political events and market developments point to continued challenges. Renewed market volatility and a further slowdown in European economies cannot be ruled out. The European Union (EU), along with the US and Japan, accounts for over 40 percent of the region's direct export shipments and an estimated 60 percent if intraregional trade linked to production networks is taken into account. A serious disruption in the EU would also have knock-on effects on East Asia's exports and growth by lowering growth in other regions...

Europe and ESTRO moving East. A story of betrayal and redemption—Candid observations by a privileged witness

Heeren, Germaine
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2013 Português
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After briefly looking into the dramatic twist of history that caused Central- and Eastern Europe to be separated from the West, the author observes the impact of 40 years of cold war and isolation on the state of radiotherapy (RT) in Central Europe. From her privileged position as a staff member in charge of public relations and society development at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), she witnesses and helps drive the “rapprochement” between radiation oncology professionals from both sides of the former iron curtain. Thanks to substantial support from target tailored EU projects, ESTRO was in a position to give a powerful impulse to the re-integration of Central European RT in the mainstream of European health care. The author describes from her own and privileged perspective the excitement of discovering the rich heritage of a shared common past and expresses her concern that in the dynamic repositioning of Europe's point of gravity towards the East, the multiple but still fragile links between Central- and West European radiotherapy, tied within ESTRO, should not get dissolved in transition.

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe

Bartlett, Will; Prica, Ivana
Fonte: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe Publicador: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the post-communist countries of South East Europe and Turkey. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced in the former group of countries during the transition period have improved their ability to cope with external shocks. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. The analysis shows that institutional progress (EU integration, transition, governance) had a negative relationship to economic growth in SEE during the crisis period. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis on the countries of the region can be explained mainly by their different degrees of integration into the EU and global economy. Institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom period only made countries more internationally integrated and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis and the more recent crisis of the euro zone. Thus, institutional reforms and improvements in competitiveness appear to be insufficient on their own to insulate such small open economies from negative influences emanating from the external environment.

Book review: Democratic institutions and authoritarian rule in South East Europe

Corbett, Anne
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2013 Português
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"Democratic Institutions and Authoritarian Rule in South East Europe." Danijela Dolenec. ECPR Press. May 2013. --- Two decades on from the strife that plagued the former Yugoslavia, many see the widening of EU membership into Southeast Europe as signifying the rise of stable and functioning democracy in the region. In Democratic Institutions and Authoritarian Rule in South East Europe, Danijela Dolenec takes issue with this view, making comparisons with the far more democratically stable countries of Central Europe. Anne Corbett commends the book’s in-depth examination of the political structural legacies which have led to ‘locked in’ authoritarianism in much of Southeast Europe.