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Book Review: Iran Oil: The New Middle East Challenge to America by Roger Howard

Looney, Robert
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Livro
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Book review by Dr. Robert Looney of the book Iran Oil: The New Middle East Challenge to America written by Roger Howard.; Anti-American sentiments have risen to levels not seen since the 1980s. These senttiments affect US relations even with traditional allies in the Muslim world, like Turkey, Egypt, and Pakistan, as well as with countries of the EU. The policies of the Bush administration, and esppecially the 2003 invasion of Iraq, are the most obvious cause of the world’s worsening image of the United States. However, Roger Howard’s Iran Oil: The New Middle East Challenge to America suggests that US economic pressures on Iran and those who would do business with it are also an important, albeit more subtle, source of the rising anti-Americanism...

Arab Society in Revolt: The West's Mediterranean Challenge

Fonte: Brookings Institution Press Publicador: Brookings Institution Press
Tipo: Livro
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Output of the project on 'The Mediterranean Microcosm in the Broader Relationship Between the West and the Arab-Muslim World' conducted by IAI in cooperation with the Center for the US and Europe (CUSE) of the Brookings Institution, in Washington and the Robert Schuman Centre (RSC) of the European University Institute (EUI), in Florence.; The Arab Spring will be remembered as a period of great change for the Arab states of North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. The significant transitions in governance are the result of the profound social, cultural, and religious changes these countries have been undergoing for a long time. The European Union and the United States, caught unprepared by the uprisings, now must address the inescapable challenges of those changes. How will the West respond to these new realities, particularly in light of international economic uncertainty, EU ambivalence toward a "cohesive foreign policy," and declining U.S. influence abroad? The book explains and interprets the societal transformations occurring in the Arab Muslim world, their ramifications for the West, and possible policy options for dealing with this new world. The volume examines areas of change particularly relevant in the southern Mediterranean: demography and migration...

Egypt's asymmetric integration in the EU : the making (and unmaking) of a neoliberal borderland?

ROCCU, Roberto
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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There is little doubt that the EU has played a key role within the wider constellation of forces pushing several Arab Mediterranean countries on the path of economic reform since the late 1980s. This is particularly clear in the case of Egypt, where the EU has been able to differentiate itself from international financial institutions and main donors in two crucial respects. On the one hand, it has proposed integration through a gradualist approach to economic reforms. On the other hand, within the wider process of multiscalar restructuring, the EU has tried to entrench its own model of integration through re-regulation in its periphery, promoting EU standards in several key areas ranging from agriculture to banking to telecoms. Following from these processes, Egypt has been asymmetrically integrated in the EU’s economic ‘sphere of influence’, a process which in turn has contributed to three fundamental forms of differential integration within Egypt. One is most obvious and has a sectorial nature, with some parts of the Egyptian economy highly integrated with, and others effectively prevented access to, the EU market. The second form of differential integration is socioeconomic, and has seen outward-oriented sections of the Egyptian elite capturing most benefits of integration...

Human rights and democracy in EU foreign policy: The cases of Ukraine and Egypt.

Balfour, Rosa
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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This thesis empirically analyses the role that human rights and democracy have played in European Union foreign policy towards Ukraine and Egypt since the end of the Cold War. It departs from the dominant approach in international relations theory that conceptualises the pursuit of such aims as an illustration of the EU's sui generis actorness, to trace empirically the sources of the rhetorical inclusion of human rights and democracy in foreign policy and their implementation. The thesis argues that the 'logic of diversity' provides the most powerful means to understand the 'push' factors that led to the integration of human rights and democracy in EU foreign policy and the 'brakes' in their implementation. Whereas scholars have suggested numerous ways in which such 'normative' positions are overridden by other strategic concerns, my research findings conclude that the EU increased its 'normative' coordination in parallel to pursuing further engagement with third countries on key interests, making the dilemma between 'principles and interests' more acute. Notwithstanding the finding that EU action has been, mostly but not exclusively, limited to declaratory positions, the single most important factor jeopardising a stronger policy can be located in the intergovernmental politics within the Union. Human rights and democracy have thus been pushed up the EU agenda thanks to the 'policy entrepreneurship' of some member states...