Página 1 dos resultados de 56 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

Central substance P NK(1) receptors are involved in fever induced by LPS but not by IL-1 beta and CCL3/MIP-1 alpha in rats

REIS, R. C.; BRITO, H. O.; FRAGA, D.; CABRINI, D. A.; ZAMPRONIO, A. R.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that can modulate inflammatory mediator release through activation of NK(1) receptors (NK(1)R). Some studies have also suggested the involvement of SP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever. However, the precise contribution of this neuropeptide to the pathways activated during fever is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of a selective NK(1)R antagonist, SR140333B, on the febrile response induced by LPS and cytokines. Our results show that the systemic injection of SR140333B did not modify the fever induced by LPS at a dose that is able to reduce protein extravasation induced by SP in the skin. On the other hand, intracerebroventricular administration of 5R140333B significantly reduced the fever induced by peripheral injection of LPS. These data emphasize an important role for SP in the central nervous system during the febrile response to LPS, and are reinforced by the fact that intracerebroventricular injection of SP also induced fever in a dose-dependent manner in captopril-treated rats. Considering that the febrile response can result from the generation of several endogenous pyrogens, among them interleukin (IL)-1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (CCL3/MIP-1 alpha)...

Chemical identity and connections of medial preoptic area neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone during lactation

RONDINI, Tatiane Araujo; DONATO JR., Jose; RODRIGUES, Bruno de Crudis; BITTENCOURT, Jackson Cioni; ELIAS, Carol Fuzeti
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Lactation is an energy-demanding process characterized by massive food and water consumption, cessation of the reproductive cycle and induction of maternal behavior. During lactation, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA and peptide expression are increased in the medial preoptic area (MPO) and in the anterior paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Here we show that MCH neurons in the MPO coexpress the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD-67 mRNA. We also show that MCH neurons in the MPO of female rats are innervated by neuropeptides that control energy homeostasis including agouti-related protein (AgRP), alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Most of these inputs originate from the arcuate nucleus neurons. Additionally, using injections of retrograde tracers we found that CART neurons in the ventral premammillary nucleus also innervate the MPO. We then assessed the projections of the female MPO using injections of anterograde tracers. The MPO densely innervates hypothalamic nuclei related to reproductive control including the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV). We found that the density of MCH-ir fibers is increased in the VMHvl and PMV during lactation. Our findings suggest that the expression of MCH in the MPO may be induced by changing levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolic control. These MCH/GABA neurons may...

Direct pyrogenic input from prostaglandin EP3 receptor-expressing preoptic neurons to the dorsomedial hypothalamus

Nakamura, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Kaneko, Takeshi; Morrison, Shaun F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
Fever is induced by the neuronal mechanism in the brain. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 acts as a pyrogenic mediator in the preoptic area (POA) probably through the EP3 subtype of PGE receptor expressed on GABAergic neurons, and this PGE2 action triggers neuronal pathways for sympathetic thermogenesis in peripheral effector organs including brown adipose tissue (BAT). To explore pyrogenic efferent pathways from the POA, we here determined projection targets of EP3 receptor-expressing POA neurons with a special focus on rat hypothalamic regions including the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), which is known as a center for autonomic responses to stress. Among injections of cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), a retrograde tracer, into hypothalamic regions at the rostrocaudal level of the DMH, injections into the DMH, lateral hypothalamic area (LH), and dorsal hypothalamic area (DH) resulted in EP3 receptor immunolabeling in substantial populations of CTb-labeled neurons in the POA. Bilateral microinjections of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, into the DMH and a ventral region of the DH, but not those into the LH, inhibited thermogenic (BAT sympathetic nerve activity, BAT temperature, core body temperature, and expired CO2) and cardiovascular (arterial pressure and heart rate) responses to an intra-POA PGE2 microinjection. Further immunohistochemical observations revealed close association of POA-derived GABAergic axon swellings with DMH neurons projecting to the medullary raphe regions where sympathetic premotor neurons for febrile and thermoregulatory responses are localized. These results suggest that a direct projection of EP3 receptor-expressing POA neurons to the DMH/DH region mediates febrile responses via a GABAergic mechanism.

Efferent Projections of Prokineticin 2 Expressing Neurons in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Zhang, Chengkang; Truong, Kimberly K.; Zhou, Qun-Yong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the predominant circadian clock in mammals. To function as a pacemaker, the intrinsic timing signal from the SCN must be transmitted to different brain regions. Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is one of the candidate output molecules from the SCN. In this study, we investigated the efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons in the SCN through a transgenic reporter approach. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene expression was driven by the PK2 promoter, we were able to obtain an efferent projections map from the EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN. Our data revealed that EGFP-expressing neurons in the SCN, hence representing some of the PK2-expressing neurons, projected to many known SCN target areas, including the ventral lateral septum, medial preoptic area, subparaventricular zone, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular thalamic nucleus. The efferent projections of PK2-expressing neurons supported the role of PK2 as an output molecule of the SCN.

Neurons that co-localize aromatase- and kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity may regulate the HPG axis of the Mallard drake (Anas platyrhynchos)

Saldanha, Colin J.; Walters, Bradley J.; Fraley, Gregory S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Kisspeptin is a potent regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The activation of several vernal and pubertal behaviors involves the action of locally synthesized estradiol by hypothalamic aromatase-expressing neurons. Little is known about kisspeptin in non-mammalian systems, and its interaction with aromatase remains unexamined. The Mallard drake is a seasonal breeder and an excellent model for studying the neural mechanisms that regulate the HPG. The goals of these studies were to determine (a) if and how kisspeptin regulates the drake HPG, (b) if kisspeptin and aromatase are expressed in the Mallard brain, and (c) if kisspeptin is co-localized or in apposition with, aromatase- and gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) positive neurons. Central kisspeptin administration increased plasma luteinizing hormone, an effect blocked by pretreatment with the GnRH antagonist, acyline, suggesting a conservation of kisspeptin function and mechanism of action in birds and mammals. The distribution of kisspeptin in the mallard brain was examined with immunocytochemistry (ICC). Neurons that express kisspeptin-like immunoreactive (ir) protein were observed in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and in ir-fibers throughout the drake brain. Virtually all POM kisspeptin-ir soma also expressed aromatase-ir...

Different Populations of Prostaglandin EP3 Receptor-Expressing Preoptic Neurons Project to Two Fever-Mediating Sympathoexcitatory Brain Regions

Nakamura, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Morrison, S. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
The central mechanism of fever induction is triggered by an action of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. EP3 receptor (EP3R)-expressing POA neurons project directly to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and to the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa), key sites for the control of thermoregulatory effectors. Based on physiological findings, we hypothesize that the febrile responses in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and those in cutaneous vasoconstrictors are controlled independently by separate neuronal pathways: PGE2 pyrogenic signaling is transmitted from EP3R-expressing POA neurons via a projection to the DMH to activate BAT thermogenesis and via another projection to the rRPa to increase cutaneous vasoconstriction. In this case, DMH-projecting and rRPa-projecting neurons would constitute segregated populations within the EP3R-expressing neuronal group in the POA. Here, we sought direct anatomical evidence to test this hypothesis with a double-tracing experiment in which two types of the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), conjugated with different fluorophores were injected into the DMH and the rRPa of rats and the resulting retrogradely labeled populations of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in the POA were identified with confocal microscopy. We found substantial numbers of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in both the DMH-projecting and the rRPa-projecting populations. However...

Leptin Induces Phosphorylation of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in Defined Hypothalamic Neurons

Donato, Jose; Frazão, Renata; Fukuda, Makoto; Vianna, Claudia R.; Elias, Carol F.
Fonte: The Endocrine Society Publicador: The Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
Studies have indicated that the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) mediates leptin’s effects in the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. However, the neurons involved in these effects and their regulation by leptin is still unknown. We aimed to determine whether NO neurons are direct targets of leptin and by which mechanisms leptin may influence neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase activity and leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 immunoreactivity were coexpressed in subsets of neurons of the medial preoptic area, the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH), the posterior hypothalamic area, the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV), the parabrachial nucleus, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Fasting blunted nNOS mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area, Arc, DMH, PMV, and posterior hypothalamic area, and this effect was not restored by acute leptin administration. No difference in the number of neurons expressing nNOS immunoreactivity was noticed comparing hypothalamic sections of fed (wild type and ob/ob), fasted, and fasted leptin-treated mice. However...

Leptin Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus and Median Preoptic Area Regulate Sympathetic Brown Adipose Tissue Circuits

Zhang, Yan; Kerman, Ilan A.; Laque, Amanda; Nguyen, Phillip; Faouzi, Miro; Louis, Gwendolyn W.; Jones, Justin C.; Rhodes, Chris; Münzberg, Heike
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical to maintain homoeothermia and is centrally controlled via sympathetic outputs. Body temperature and BAT activity also impact energy expenditure and obesity is commonly associated with decreased BAT capacity and sympathetic tone. Severely obese mice that lack leptin or its receptor (LepRb) show decreased BAT capacity, sympathetic tone and body temperature, and thus are unable to adapt to acute cold exposure (Trayhurn et al., 1976). LepRb expressing neurons are found in several hypothalamic sites including the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and median preoptic area (mPOA), both critical sites to regulate sympathetic, thermoregulatory BAT circuits. Specifically, a subpopulation in the DMH/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) is stimulated by fever inducing endotoxins or cold exposure (Dimicco and Zaretsky, 2007;Morrison et al., 2008). Using the retrograde, transsynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) injected into the BAT of mice we identified PRV labeled LepRb neurons in the DMH/DHA and mPOA (and other sites), thus indicating their involvement in the regulation of sympathetic BAT circuits. Indeed, acute cold exposure induced cFos (as a surrogate for neuronal activity) in DMH/DHA LepRb neurons...

Identifying the efferent projections of leptin-responsive neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus using a novel conditional tracing approach

Gautron, Laurent; Lazarus, Michael; Scott, Michael M.; Saper, Clifford B.; Elmquist, Joel K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Tracing the axonal projections of selected neurons is labor intensive and inherently limited by currently available neuroanatomical methods. We developed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that can be used for efficiently tracing identified neuronal populations. The virus encodes a humanized Renilla Green Fluorescent Protein (hrGFP) which is transcriptionally silenced by a neo cassette flanked by LoxH/LoxP sites (AAV-lox-Stop-hrGFP). Thus, hrGFP is expressed only in neurons with Cre recombinase activity. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the virus was injected unilaterally into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of mice that express Cre in neurons expressing the leptin receptor. Animals with DMH injections showed robust hrGFP expression in DMH neurons, as visualized by its endogenous fluorescence or following immunolabeling. We found that hrGFP was expressed in approximately 1/3 to 1/2 of Cre-expressing neurons at the site of injection, but not in non-Cre-expressing neurons. The expression of GFP allowed us to identify the projection fields of DMH leptin-responsive neurons. Our results show hrGFP-positive axonal projections and terminals in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...

Characterization of Type I and Type II nNOS-Expressing Interneurons in the Barrel Cortex of Mouse

Perrenoud, Quentin; Geoffroy, Hélène; Gauthier, Benjamin; Rancillac, Armelle; Alfonsi, Fabienne; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Rossier, Jean; Vitalis, Tania; Gallopin, Thierry
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
In the neocortex, neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) is essentially expressed in two classes of GABAergic neurons: type I neurons displaying high levels of expression and type II neurons displaying weaker expression. Using immunocytochemistry in mice expressing GFP under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67k (GAD67) promoter, we studied the distribution of type I and type II neurons in the barrel cortex and their expression of parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We found that type I neurons were predominantly located in deeper layers and expressed SOM (91.5%) while type II neurons were concentrated in layer II/III and VI and expressed PV (17.7%), SOM (18.7%), and VIP (10.2%). We then characterized neurons expressing nNOS mRNA (n = 42 cells) ex vivo, using whole-cell recordings coupled to single-cell reverse transcription-PCR and biocytin labeling. Unsupervised cluster analysis of this sample disclosed four classes. One cluster (n = 7) corresponded to large, deep layer neurons, displaying a high expression of SOM (85.7%) and was thus very likely to correspond to type I neurons. The three other clusters were identified as putative type II cells and corresponded to neurogliaform-like interneurons (n = 19)...

The origin of neocortical nitric oxide synthase-expressing inhibitory neurons

Jaglin, Xavier H.; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Fishell, Gord; Batista-Brito, Renata
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Inhibitory neurons are critical for regulating effective transfer of sensory information and network stability. The precision of inhibitory function likely derives from the existence of a variety of interneuron subtypes. Their specification is largely dependent on the locale of origin of interneuron progenitors. Neocortical and hippocampal inhibitory neurons originate the subpallium, namely in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), and in the preoptic area (POA). In the hippocampus, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing cells constitute a numerically large GABAergic interneuron population. On the contrary, nNOS-expressing inhibitory neurons constitute the smallest of the known neocortical GABAergic neuronal subtypes. The origins of most neocortical GABAergic neuron subtypes have been thoroughly investigated, however, very little is known about the origin of, or the genetic programs underlying the development of nNOS neurons. Here, we show that the vast majority of neocortical nNOS-expressing neurons arise from the MGE rather than the CGE. Regarding their molecular signature, virtually all neocortical nNOS neurons co-express the neuropeptides somatostatin (SST) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and about half of them express the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). nNOS neurons thus constitute a small cohort of the MGE-derived SST-expressing population of cortical inhibitory neurons. Finally...

Multiple embryonic origins of nitric oxide synthase-expressing GABAergic neurons of the neocortex

Magno, Lorenza; Oliveira, Marcio G.; Mucha, Mariusz; Rubin, Anna N.; Kessaris, Nicoletta
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Cortical GABAergic interneurons in rodents originate in three subcortical regions: the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence (LGE/CGE), and the preoptic area (POA). Each of these neuroepithelial precursor domains contributes different interneuron subtypes to the cortex. Neuronal NOS (nNOS)-expressing neurons represent a heterogenous population of cortical interneurons. We examined the development of these cells in the mouse embryonic cortex and their abundance and distribution in adult animals. Using genetic lineage tracing in transgenic mice we find that nNOS type I cells originate only in the MGE whereas type II cells have a triple origin in the MGE, LGE/CGE, and POA. The two populations are born at different times during development, occupy different layers in the adult cortex and have distinct neurochemical profiles. nNOS neurons are more numerous in the adult cortex than previously reported and constitute a significant proportion of the cortical interneuron population. Our data suggest that the heterogeneity of nNOS neurons in the cortex can be attributed to their multiple embryonic origins which likely impose distinct genetic specification programs.

Adenosine A2A receptors regulate the activity of sleep regulatory GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus

Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Seema; Hsieh, Kung-Chiao; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md. Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) are two hypothalamic regions that have been implicated in sleep regulation, and both nuclei contain sleep-active GABAergic neurons. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep regulatory substance, which promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors (A2AR). Infusion of A2AR agonist into the lateral ventricle or into the subarachnoid space underlying the rostral basal forebrain (SS-rBF), has been previously shown to increase sleep. We examined the effects of an A2AR agonist, CGS-21680, administered into the lateral ventricle and the SS-rBF on sleep and c-Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in GABAergic neurons in the MnPN and VLPO. Intracerebroventricular administration of CGS-21680 during the second half of lights-on phase increased sleep and increased the number of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing Fos-IR. Similar effects were found with CGS-21680 microinjection into the SS-rBF. The induction of Fos-IR in preoptic GABAergic neurons was not secondary to drug-induced sleep, since CGS-21680 delivered to the SS-rBF significantly increased Fos-IR in MnPN and VLPO neurons in animals that were not permitted to sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of ZM-241385, an A2AR antagonist...

Modulation of the arcuate nucleus-medial preoptic nucleus lordosis regulating circuit: a role for GABAB receptors

Sinchak, Kevin; Dewing, Phoebe; Ponce, Laura; Gomez, Liliana; Christensen, Amy; Berger, Max; Micevych, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Estradiol rapidly activates a microcircuit in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that is needed for maximal female sexual receptivity. Membrane estrogen receptor-α complexes with and signals through the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a stimulating NPY release within the ARH activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. These POMC neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and release β-endorphin. Estradiol treatment induces activation/internalization of MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOR) to inhibit lordosis. Estradiol membrane action modulates ARH gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-B (GABAB) activity. We tested the hypothesis that ARH GABAB receptors mediate estradiol-induced MOR activation and facilitation of sexual receptivity. Double label immunohistochemistry revealed expression of GABAB receptors in NPY, ERα and POMC expressing ARH neurons. Approximately 70% of POMC neurons expressed GABAB receptors. Because estradiol initially activates an inhibitory circuit and maintains activation of this circuit, the effects of blocking GABAB receptors were evaluated before estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment and after at the time of lordosis testing. Bilateral infusions of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP52432, into the ARH prior to EB treatment of ovariectomized rats prevented estradiol-induced activation/internalization of MPN MOR...

Expression of Arginine Vasotocin Receptors in the Developing Zebrafish CNS

Iwasaki, Kenichi; Taguchi, Meari; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Kuwada, John Y.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Vasotocin/vasopressin is a neuropeptide that regulates social and reproductive behaviors in a variety of animals including fish. Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is expressed by cells in the ventral hypothalamic and preoptic areas in the diencephalon during embryogenesis in zebrafish suggesting that vasotocin might mediate other functions within the CNS prior to the development of social and reproductive behaviors. In order to examine potential early roles for vasotocin we cloned two zebrafish vasotocin receptors homologous to AVPR1a. The receptors are expressed primarily in the CNS in similar but generally non-overlapping patterns. Both receptors are expressed in the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain by larval stage. Of note, AVTR1a-expressing neurons in the hindbrain appear to be contacted by the axons of preoptic neurons in the forebrain that include avt+ neurons and from sensory axons in the lateral longitudinal fasciculus (LLF). Furthermore, AVTR1a-expressing hindbrain neurons extend axons into the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) that contains axons of many neurons thought to be involved in locomotor responses to sensory stimulation. One hypothesis consistent with this anatomy is that AVT signaling mediates or gates sensory input to motor circuits in the hindbrain and spinal cord.

GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons

Saito, Yuki C.; Tsujino, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Emi; Akashi, Kaori; Abe, Manabu; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakimura, Kenji; Sakurai, Takeshi
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
Populations of neurons in the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) fire rapidly during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent firing patterns that are the reciprocal of those observed in the arousal system. The majority of these preoptic “sleep-active” neurons contain the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. On the other hand, a population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contains orexins, which play an important role in the maintenance of wakefulness, and exhibit an excitatory influence on arousal-related neurons. It is important to know the anatomical and functional interactions between the POA sleep-active neurons and orexin neurons, both of which play important, but opposite roles in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. In this study, we confirmed that specific pharmacogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the POA leads to an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We next examined direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neurons and orexin neurons using channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) as an anterograde tracer as well as an optogenetic tool. We expressed ChR2-eYFP selectively in GABAergic neurons in the POA by AAV-mediated gene transfer, and examined the projection sites of ChR2-eYFP-expressing axons...

Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behavior

Wu, Zheng; Autry, Anita E.; Bergan, Joseph F.; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Dulac, Catherine G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Mice display robust, stereotyped behaviors toward pups: virgin males typically attack pups, while virgin females and sexually experienced males and females display parental care. We show here that virgin males genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental. Further, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are specifically activated during male and female parenting, and a different subpopulation activated during mating. Genetic ablation of MPOA galanin neurons results in dramatic impairment of parental responses in males and females and affects male mating. Optogenetic activation of these neurons in virgin males suppresses inter-male and pup-directed aggression and induces pup grooming. Thus, MPOA galanin neurons emerge as an essential regulatory node of male and female parenting behavior and other social responses. These results provide an entry point to a circuit-level dissection of parental behavior and its modulation by social experience.

Area-specific analysis of the distribution of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the rat ventral tegmental area, with special reference to the GABAergic and glutamatergic efferents

Kalló, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Szöke, Sarolta; Fekete, Csaba; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a main regulator of reward and integrates a wide scale of hormonal and neuronal information. Feeding-, energy expenditure-, stress, adaptation- and reproduction-related hypothalamic signals are processed in the VTA and influence the reward processes. However, the neuroanatomical origin and chemical phenotype of neurons mediating these signals to the VTA have not been fully characterized. In this study we have systematically mapped hypothalamic neurons that project to the VTA using the retrograde tracer Choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) and analyzed their putative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate character with in situ hybridization in male rats. 23.93 ± 3.91% of hypothalamic neurons projecting to the VTA was found in preoptic and 76.27 ± 4.88% in anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamic regions. Nearly half of the retrogradely-labeled neurons in the preoptic, and more than one third in the anterior, tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus appeared in medially located regions. The analyses of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) mRNA expression revealed both amino acid markers in different subsets of retrogradely-labeled hypothalamic neurons...

Molecular Dissection of Neural Circuits Underlying Parental Behavior in Mice

Wu, Zheng
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
Mice display robust and stereotyped behaviors towards pups: virgin males typically attack pups, while virgin females and sexually experienced males display parental care. I show here that virgin males that are genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental, suggesting a key role of the vomeronasal system in controlling male infanticide. In addition, we have identified putative vomeronasal receptors (or receptor groups) for the detection of pup odors, thus uncovering new tools for the molecular and genetic dissection of male infanticide. Further, we have uncovered galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as key regulators of male and female parental behavior. Genetic ablation of MPOA galanin- neurons results in dramatic impairment of parental responses in both virgin females and sexually experienced males. In addition, optogenetic activation of these cells in virgin males suppresses infanticide and induces pup grooming. Thus, MPOA galanin-expressing neurons emerge as an essential node of regulation of innate behavior in the hypothalamus that orchestrates male and female parenting while opposing vomeronasal circuits underlying infanticide. Our results provide an entry point for the genetic and circuit-level dissection of mouse parental behavior and its modulation by social experience.

Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behavior

Wu, Zheng; Autry, Anita E.; Bergan, Joseph F.; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Dulac, Catherine G.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Mice display robust, stereotyped behaviors toward pups: virgin males typically attack pups, while virgin females and sexually experienced males and females display parental care. We show here that virgin males genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental. Further, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are specifically activated during male and female parenting, and a different subpopulation activated during mating. Genetic ablation of MPOA galanin neurons results in dramatic impairment of parental responses in males and females and affects male mating. Optogenetic activation of these neurons in virgin males suppresses inter-male and pup-directed aggression and induces pup grooming. Thus, MPOA galanin neurons emerge as an essential regulatory node of male and female parenting behavior and other social responses. These results provide an entry point to a circuit-level dissection of parental behavior and its modulation by social experience.