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Land Rental Markets in the Process of Rural Structural Transformation: Productivity and Equity Impacts from China

Jin, Songqing; Deininger, Klaus
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.5%
Although the importance of land rental for overall economic development and development of the non-agricultural economy has long been recognized in theory, empirical evidence on factors that can promote or impede operation of such markets and their productivity and equity impacts, especially in rapidly developing economies with rather equal land endowments, remains limited. A large household level panel is used to illustrate the large contribution of land markets to occupational diversification, productivity of land use, and household welfare. Factors affecting land market participation are derived from a household model with transaction cost and individual ability. Results suggest that, by transferring land from less able and more affluent households who joined the non-farm sector to poorer ones with ample family labor, land markets are critical not only for non-agricultural growth but, by allowing more effective use of potentially idle land can contribute to significant productivity gains. Policy implications are derived.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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65.54%
The report is part of a broader study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. This paper is one of a series of country-level studies, where national data were disaggregated to more local and sector levels, helping to understand adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Ethiopia is heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture. Its geographical location and topography in combination with low adaptive capacity entail a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Historically the country has been prone to extreme weather variability. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity, and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space. Since the early 1980s, the country has suffered seven major droughts five of which have led to famines in addition to dozens of local droughts. Major floods also occurred in different parts of the country in 1988...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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65.53%
This report is part of a broader global study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two principal objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. The purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Mozambique in its efforts to understand the potential economic impacts of climate change and to support its efforts to develop sound policies and investments in response to these potential impacts. The Mozambique Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study selected four sectors that are believed to be vulnerable to climate change: (1) agriculture, which employs over 70 percent of the population; (2) energy, particularly hydropower generation, which is dependent on water runoff; (3) transport infrastructure, notably roads; and (4) coastal areas, which do not conform to a "sector" but characterize specific geographical areas vulnerable to floods and storm surges directly and indirectly related to sea level rise. The report ends with a discussion of seven lessons learned from the study. Volume 1contains the final report...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ghana, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The report is organized as follows. The next section puts the study into context by briefly discussing the global EACC study and the EACC methodology, which was applied in this study at a more disaggregated level. The section highlights the differential impacts of climate change among different regions of the world, including Africa. Chapter three presents an overview of the methodology used, including the key assumptions. An effort has been made to present this information in nontechnical language where possible. The more technical aspects of the study can be found in the annexes. The sector results are contained in chapter four. The chapter begins with an overview of the Ghanaian economy, followed by the climate projections for Ghana and the overall economic impacts. Next, the results for each sector are presented in three parts: climate change impacts, the adaptation options, and the adaptation costs. The final chapter concludes with a summary and policy implications.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ghana, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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55.59%
The report is organized as follows. The next section puts the study into context by briefly discussing the global EACC study and the EACC methodology, which was applied in this study at a more disaggregated level. The section highlights the differential impacts of climate change among different regions of the world, including Africa. Chapter three presents an overview of the methodology used, including the key assumptions. An effort has been made to present this information in nontechnical language where possible. The more technical aspects of the study can be found in the annexes. The sector results are contained in chapter four. The chapter begins with an overview of the Ghanaian economy, followed by the climate projections for Ghana and the overall economic impacts. Next, the results for each sector are presented in three parts: climate change impacts, the adaptation options, and the adaptation costs. The final chapter concludes with a summary and policy implications.

Resource Discoveries, Learning, and National Income Accounting

Hamilton, Kirk; Atkinson, Giles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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55.51%
Questions about the ultimate size of mineral and energy resource endowments and the degree of fiscal prudence which should be exercised by countries engaged in resource extraction have become central for many developing countries during the recent resource boom. To explore these questions, this paper develops a model of optimal resource extraction and discovery that combines two polar assumptions: (i) that discovering a resource today drives up the cost of future resource discoveries, and (ii) that extracting resources yields knowledge that reduces the cost of discovery. Although the model shows that resource discoveries should be valued at marginal discovery cost in measures of national saving and income, the ultimate size of the resource that can be exploited is the result of the interplay between rising discovery costs and accumulating knowledge. Empirical tests of the model show that the resulting income estimates would be extremely volatile for many extractive economies, owing to the lumpiness of resource discoveries. Two alternative accounting approaches...

Implementation of REDD+ Mechanisms in Tanzania

Cordero Cordero, Paula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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55.55%
This paper explains the major issues and lessons derived from the national forest management program and REDD+ initiatives in Tanzania. It finds that addressing the most important drivers of forest degradation and deforestation, in particular the country energy needs and landownership, is essential for success in reducing emissions regardless of the type of program implemented. It also finds that, through the national program, forest users have learned to maximize profit from the sustainable use of the forest; however, the program reports great variability in the success of forest conservation. REDD+ may complement the national program by adding funding and other resources to start projects at the local level while giving additional payments for the permanence of carbon stocks may help to improve the social outcomes of those villages practicing sustainable forest management. However, a careful characterization of the national projects is necessary to generalize how REDD+ can be effectively implemented so that additional economic and environmental benefits are generated over what the national program is already achieving. Addressing this issue is key for identifying the conditions under which REDD+ achieves environmental additionality in Tanzania.

The Misallocation of Land and Other Factors of Production in India

Duranton, Gilles; Ghani, Ejaz; Goswami, Arti Grover; Kerr, William
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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65.53%
This paper quantifies the misallocation of manufacturing output and factors of production between establishments across Indian districts during 1989-2010. It first distills a number of stylized facts about misallocation in India, and demonstrates the validity of misallocation metrics by connecting them to regulatory changes in India that affected real property. With this background, the study next quantifies the implications and determinants of factor and output misallocation. Although more-productive establishments in India tend to produce more output, factors of production are grossly misallocated. A better allocation of output and factors of production is associated with greater output per worker. Misallocation of land plays a particularly important role in these challenges.

The Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies

Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.53%
The continued decline in global poverty over the past 100 years particularly in the past three decades is a remarkable achievement. In 1981, 52 percent of the world population lived on less than $1.25 a day. By 2005, that rate had been cut in half, to 25.0 percent, and by 2008 to 22.2 percent (World Bank 2012). Preliminary estimates for 2010 indicate that the extreme poverty rate has fallen further still; if follow-up studies confirm this, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving world poverty will have been reached five years early (World Bank 2010). In recent years, poverty reduction has continued in most countries, even after the financial, food, and fuel shocks of 2008-09. Although poverty remains widespread in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, progress has been substantial: extreme poverty fell in South Asia from 54 percent in 1990 to 36 percent in 2008 (World Bank 2012). In Sub-Saharan Africa, where population growth exceeded the rate of poverty reduction, the number of extremely poor people increased from 290 million in 1990 to 356 million in 2008...

Increasing Resilience to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector in the Middle East : The Cases of Jordan and Lebanon

Verner, Dorte; Lee, David R.; Ashwill, Maximillian; Wilby, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
The increasing resilience to climate change in the agricultural sector report presents local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, to build agricultural resilience in both countries. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to improve the understanding of climate change projections and impacts on rural communities and livelihoods in selected regions of Jordan and Lebanon, specifically the Jordan River Valley and Lebanon's Bekaa Valley; (2) to engage local communities, farmers, local experts, and local and national government representatives in a participatory fashion in helping craft agricultural adaptation options to climate change; and (3) to develop local and regional climate change action plans that formulate recommendations for investment strategies and strategic interventions in local agricultural systems. The climate challenges confronting development in the Middle East are particularly stark. This region, and in particular its rural people, face what might be called a "triple threat" from climate change. First...

Economics of Climate Change in the Arab World : Case Studies from the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen

Verner, Dorte; Breisinger, Clemens
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
This Economics of Climate Change in the Arab World is presents detailed case studies on the impacts of climate change in the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen that were summarized. The Arab region is already being impacted by climate change through more frequent cyclones, floods, and prolonged droughts. Thousands of rural producers have seen their crops and herds devastated by extreme conditions, and have been forced to abandon their traditional way of life and migrate to crowded urban areas. Those who stay behind in rural areas struggle to cope with shortages of food and water. Climate change affects countries' economies and households through a variety of channels. Rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns affect agricultural yields of both rainfed and irrigated crops, and thus global and local food markets. Adaptation is a process that will take place over decades as new information makes policy makers reevaluate their climate vulnerabilities. Still, by seizing the opportunity to act now and act together...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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55.55%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group, Technical Annexes for FY09-11

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Legal Knowledge and Economic Development: The Case of Land Rights in Uganda; Land Economics

Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Yamano, Takashi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
Although many African countries have recently embarked on revisions of their land legislations to give recognition to customary arrangements and strengthen women's rights, few studies assess the actual or potential economic impact of such steps. We use data from Uganda to assess the impact of tenure regime, perceived transfer rights, and legal knowledge on investment, productivity, and land values. While results support strong and positive investment-impacts of tenure and transferability, knowledge of the new law's provisions adds considerably to these, pointing towards substantial potential from disseminating the law that has not yet been fully realized.

The Effect of Climate and Technological Uncertainty in Crop Yields on the Optimal Path of global land use

Cai, Yongyang; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Elliott, Joshua; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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65.71%
The pattern of global land use has important implications for the world's food and timber supplies, bioenergy, biodiversity and other eco-system services. However, the productivity of this resource is critically dependent on the world's climate, as well as investments in, and dissemination of improved technology. This creates massive uncertainty about future land use requirements which compound the challenge faced by individual investors and governments seeking to make long term, sometimes irreversible investments in land conversion and land use. This study assesses how uncertainties associated with underlying biophysical processes and technological change in agriculture affect the optimal profile of land use over the next century, taking into account the potential irreversibility in these decisions. A novel dynamic stochastic model of global land use is developed, in which the societal objective function being maximized places value on food production, liquid fuels (including bio-fuels), timber production...

The Growth Report : Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development; Informe sobre el crecimiento : estrategias para el crecimiento sostenido y el desarrollo incluyente

Commission on Growth and Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.39%
The report has four main parts. In the first, the commission reviews the 13 economies that have sustained, high growth in the postwar period. Their growth models had some common flavors: the strategic integration with the world economy; the mobility of resources, particularly labor; the high savings and investment rates; and a capable government committed to growth. The report goes on to describe the cast of mind and techniques of policy making that leaders will need if they are to emulate such a growth model. It concludes that their policy making will need to be patient, pragmatic, and experimental. In the second part, the commission lays out the ingredients a growth strategy might include. These range from public investment and exchange rate policies to land sales and redistribution. A list of ingredients is not enough to make a dish, of course, as Bob Solow, a Nobel Prize-winning economist and a member of the Commission, points out. The commission, however, refrains from offering policy makers a recipe...

Stakeholder Assessment of Opportunities and Constraints to Sustainable Land Management in Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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55.56%
Stakeholders' perceptions of opportunities and constraints to sustainable land management in Ethiopia was assessed through interviews and a review of secondary data. Stakeholders included farmers as well as representatives of development agencies, agricultural organizations, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and agricultural research systems. Stakeholders generally perceive that the numerous, well-intentioned but piecemeal interventions undertaken over the last few decades have contributed little to reversing the negative spiral of land degradation, for several reasons: 1) the top-down, non participatory approach was generally unsuited to specific farming systems; 2) most funding for sustainable land management (SLM) was channeled to so-called 'low-potential' areas, neglecting 'high-potential' areas where serious land degradation is now occurring; and 3) agricultural research, training, and extension were not sufficiently integrated. In particular, research, training, and extension institutions are crop focused...

Formación del precio de las transacciones internacionales de electricidad entre Colombia y Ecuador

Gómez Toro, Catalina
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Maestría en Economía; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Maestría en Economía; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas
Tipo: masterThesis; Tesis de Maestría; acceptedVersion
Português
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65.47%
En este artículo se describe la operación de las transacciones internacionales de electricidad entre Colombia y Ecuador, su principal regulación y las características más importantes de ambos mercados haciendo énfasis en la formación del precio. Además se hacen dos ejercicios econométricos, análisis de componentes principales y beta convergencia, para observar si ha existido convergencia en precios entre estos dos países llegando a la conclusión de no convergencia en precios entre los dos mercados.; 22 p.; This article describes the operation of the international electric transactions between Colombia and Ecuador, its principal regulation and the most important characteristics of both markets paying special attention to the price formation. There is also two econometrics exercises, principal component analysis and beta convergence, to see if there has been price convergence between these two countries showing that there is no price convergence between both markets.

Evidencia empírica en alta frecuencia de la prima de riesgo forward para los mercados de energía eléctrica en Colombia

Salazar Marín, Gloria Stella
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Maestría en Administración - MBA; Escuela de Administración. Departamento de Organización y Gerencia Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Maestría en Administración - MBA; Escuela de Administración. Departamento de Organización y Gerencia
Tipo: masterThesis; Tesis de Maestría; acceptedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.4%
Apoyado en el análisis empírico y la utilización de alta frecuencia del conjunto de datos horario, de la bolsa de energía y los precios del mercado mayorista de energía en Colombia, este trabajo considera la existencia de las primas de riesgo en los precios futuros de electricidad, mostrando cómo sus propiedades y el comportamiento también se explica por la diferencias entre los segmentos de mercado y la regulación. Estas primas varían en función del segmento de mercado, no regulado, intermediación y regulado, lo que demuestra que la prima de riesgo media es positiva para la mayoría de las horas en los dos segmentos y negativo para el otro respectivamente. Por otra parte, se presenta evidencia acerca de los cambios estructurales en el mercado mayorista, debido a que este mercado está en un proceso de consolidación y por lo tanto, es muy sensible a los cambios de reglamentación, lo que generó las condiciones especiales que impactaron el mercado y el comportamiento de los agentes participantes y su tolerancia al riesgo; 38 p.; Supported on empirical analysis and using a high-frequency data set of hourly spot and forward prices from wholesale power market in Colombia, this paper finds that there are significant riskpremia in electricity forward prices...

Decarbonising the English residential sector: modelling policies, technologies and behaviour within a heterogeneous building stock; Modelling policies, technologies and human behaviour within a heterogeneous building stock; A new building stock model for the english residential sector; A systems approach to modelling energy and emissions from the residential sector

Kelly, Scott
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research; Selwyn College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research; Selwyn College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
It is now widely accepted that the residential sector offers significant potential for carbon mitigation. This is true for both the overall magnitude of emissions reductions and the cost per tonne of CO2(eq) mitigated. However, both the scope and scale of potential carbon mitigation pathways remain controversial. The pace of decarbonisation is also openly debated. Examples of some of these contentions include: centralised versus decentralised energy supply; energy efficiency versus low carbon generation; demolition versus renovation of the existing building stock and behaviour change versus technological solutions. Incontrovertibly, any one of these seemingly apparent tensions is not mutually exclusive, and the ultimate decarbonisation pathway will likely consist of most if not all of these proposed solutions being implemented to some varying degree. Despite the significant potential for carbon mitigation in the built environment, deep cuts have not yet materialised. It is argued that this lack of progress stems from a poor understanding of the highly complex socio-economic, socio-dynamic and technical physical systems that underpin energy use in dwellings.Modelling this requires requires novel methods capable of capturing the complexities that arise from government policies...