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A lógica do mercado na educação pública municipal – a parceria público-privada em Catalão/Goiás; The logic of the educational market in (public) municipal education - a public-private partnership in education, Catalão, Goiás

Belo, Fernanda Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação (FE); Faculdade de Educação - FE (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação (FE); Faculdade de Educação - FE (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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66.31%
This study is part of the line of research State, Policy and History of Education and has been developed in the Post-Graduation Program in Education at the Federal University of Goiás. It aims to analyze the logic of the educational market in the context of (public) municipal education, in Catalão, Goiás, from the perspective of public- private partnerships in education - PPPE . The partnership between the City Department of Education of Catalão (Secretaria Municipal de Educação de Catalão – SMEC) with Positive Publishing House Ltd was formalised after 2008 and occurred by providing teaching materials called Teaching System Learn Brazil (Sistema de Ensino Aprende Brasil– SABE), monitoring and educational advisory services and access to this Publisher house’s website. To develop this study it was accomplished a literature review, documentary survey and analysis of relevant legislation, semi-structured interviews with individuals involved with the implementation of PPPE, using questionnaires with workers of the municipal public education, from pre-school and syndical leaders in this category. In this study, we question the educational policies of privatizing and economist character that enable PPPE to take effect as the standard of organization of public school education across from the historic proposal for public...

The Labor Market, Education and Armed Conflict in Tajikistan

Shemyakina, Olga N.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.28%
Shortly following its independence in 1991, Tajikistan suffered a violent civil war. This study explores the effect of this conflict on education and labor market outcomes for men and women. The results are based on the data from the 2003 and 2007 Tajik Living Standards Measurement Surveys that were separated from the 1992-1998 Tajik civil war by five and nine years, respectively. The regression analysis that controls for the cohort and regional-level exposure points toward a persistent and lasting gap in the educational attainment by women who were of school age during the war and lived in the more conflict-affected regions as compared with women the same age who lived in the lesser affected regions and also to the older generation. These empirical results support the anecdotal and observational evidence about the decline in female educational attainment in Tajikistan. Interestingly, this group of young women is more likely to hold a job as compared with the rest of the analytical sample. Conditional on being employed...

Educational Upgrading and Returns to Skills in Latin America : Evidence from a Supply-Demand Framework, 1990–2010

Gasparini, Leonardo; Galiani, Sebastian; Cruces, Guillermo; Acosta, Pablo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
It has been argued that a factor behind the decline in income inequality in Latin America in the 2000s was the educational upgrading of its labor force. Between 1990 and 2010, the proportion of the labor force in the region with at least secondary education increased from 40 to 60 percent. Concurrently, returns to secondary education completion fell throughout the past two decades, while the 2000s saw a reversal in the increase in the returns to tertiary education experienced in the 1990s. This paper studies the evolution of wage differentials and the trends in the supply of workers by educational level for 16 Latin American countries between 1990 and 2000. The analysis estimates the relative contribution of supply and demand factors behind recent trends in skill premia for tertiary and secondary educated workers. Supply-side factors seem to have limited explanatory power relative to demand-side factors, and are only relevant to explain part of the fall in wage premia for high-school graduates. Although there is significant heterogeneity in individual country experiences...

Linking Education Policy to Labor Market Outcomes

Fasih, Tazeen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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36.47%
Education plays a central role in preparing individuals to enter the labor force, as well as equipping them with the skills to engage in lifelong learning experiences. The objective of this study is to review what is known about the role of education in improving labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on policy considerations for developing countries. The report presents findings from current literature on the topic, which offers new ways of looking at the returns to education, together with evidence from four original data analysis and background studies of education and labor issues in Ghana and Pakistan. Country studies on Ghana and Pakistan are used to substantiate findings of the literature and illustrate the heterogeneity of education labor market linkages across regions. These countries were chosen because they are representative of two of the poorest regions of the world and because their inclusion in the analysis complements ongoing World Bank work on education and labor market issues in those countries. This report offers two types of findings: those relevant to the content of educational policies and those relevant to the framework for educational policy making.

Labor Market Adjustment, Reform and Productivity in Colombia : What are the Factors that Matter? Volume 2 : Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.25%
This report carries out a detailed evaluation of the 2002 labor reform in Colombia, and in doing so, it also assesses the performance of the Colombian urban labor market and identifies the main policy challenges faced in this area. The report has three broad goals: First, to provide additional evidence to inform the intense debate taking place in the country around labor market issues, especially the reform. Second, to shed light on the key factors preventing a swift recuperation of the labor market. Third, to offer sensible policy alternatives that complement the step taken with the labor reform and address those key factors. The analyses are carried out for the key labor market outcomes: employment, unemployment, formality and wages, as well as productivity. Through the analysis of these variables the report tries to enhance the understanding of issues such as informality, labor market rigidities, job creation, protection against shocks and private sector performance. By and large, these determine whether people can find gainful employment, be adequately protected against shocks and whether firms are profitable so that, on the one hand, investment and technology adoption take place and, on the other, employment and wages grow, which are the truly important concerns for policy makers. The report illustrates key problems faced by Colombia: slow growth reflecting poor productivity performance...

Recent Labor Market Performance in Vietnam through a Gender Lens

Pierre, Gaëlle
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.3%
This paper provides an overview of the recent performance of the labor market in Vietnam during the Great Recession. The analysis uses data from the Labor Force Survey and the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey. The author finds that, notwithstanding the global crisis and domestic volatility, job creation has been sustained in Vietnam, especially in the formal sector, but that the overall quality of employment has suffered. Gender differentials are found to affect older women especially, while educated women benefit from a skills wage premium. Reassuringly given the large youth share of the total workforce, the youth labor market is dynamic and outcomes for youths have improved. Meanwhile, participation in poverty alleviation programs and labor market programs has not changed, and few workers use the newly created employment services and unemployment benefits.

Exclusion and Discrimination in the Labor Market

Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.23%
The frameworks developed in this paper are based on a review of the literature on processes of discrimination and the norms and attitudes that accompany them. Intended as a background paper to the World Development Report 2013 this paper will also feed into the Social Inclusion Flagship Report by the Social Development Department at the World Bank. It is divided into six sections. This section one is an introduction to the objectives and provides the context for this work. Section two is a brief discussion of the conceptual underpinnings and measurement of labor market discrimination from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Section three lays out a typology of processes of discrimination, while section four is a discussion of the mechanisms of discrimination and the ways in which candidates are screened. Section five addresses the question of how discriminated groups react to discrimination. The final section addresses some of the ways in which occupational and labor market mobility is possible for disadvantaged groups and what policy implications it could have.

Portraits of Labor Market Exclusion

Sundaram, Ramya; Hoerning, Ulrich; De Andrade Falcao, Natasha; Millan, Natalia; Tokman, Carla; Zini, Michele
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The financial crisis that hit the global market in the middle of 2008 gave way to the sharpest contraction of the European economies since the Great Depression. In 2009 the economic output in the countries of the European Union shrank 4.5 percent, the largest reduction in GDP since its creation. Since then, the economies have slowly recovered, but unemployment has continued to rise, reaching 11 percent in 2013, up from 7.1 percent in 2008. The economy of the European Union shrank 4.5 percent, the largest reduction in its GDP since the Union s creation. Furthermore, for the European Union as a whole, long-term unemployment among 15- to 64-year-olds has increased from 37.2 percent in 2008 to 47.5 percent of total unemployment in 2013. In several countries more than half of those unemployed are long-term unemployed, that is, they have been looking for jobs for more than 12 months. In Greece and Bulgaria the share of long-term unemployed in 2013 was 67.5 percent and 57.3 percent, respectively. Youth unemployment, on the other hand...

Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.41%
Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor market institutions appear to have a limited impact on employment and wage levels, while the importance of active labor market programs is growing. This note aims to identify labor market signals that point to demand for specific current and future skills. The note seeks to answer the following questions: does the labor market place a higher premium on workers literacy and numeracy skills, technical skills, or behavioral skills?; is the labor market more in need of secondary or tertiary education graduates?; and will growing economic sectors (for example, tourism) benefit more by increasing the supply of sector-specific skills (for example...

Just enough Education to Perform: The labour market integration of early school leavers in a European cross-national perspective

VAN ALPHEN, Stan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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36.28%
This thesis concerns the labour market outcomes of early school leavers in a European, cross-national perspective. More specifically, it deals with the way country level factors shape the disadvantages these early school leavers experience on the European labour market, when compared with those who have at least upper secondary education. To the extent that country level variation in the labour market integration of early school leavers can be attributed to specific institutional and macro-structural characteristics, it enriches the single cross-national definition of early school leaving, and points towards best practices that can be learned from. The overarching research question that runs through this thesis is twofold. To what extent is the labour market integration of early school leavers in Europe obstructed by the country-specific macro-structural factors underlying a knowledge economy? And, second, can the various education and labour market policies across the European countries help to decrease the relative labour market disadvantage of early school leavers? The concept of early school leaving, the process of ranking and rating countries on the basis of institutional and macro-structural characteristics, and the increasing availability of standardised country level indicators have all developed through a cross-fertilisation of academic research and EU policy making...

All in My Head?; The Play of Exclusion and Discrimination in the Labor Market

Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Labor market discrimination is very difficult to pinpoint, even more difficult to measure and almost impossible to “prove”. It has been studied in many disciplines of which economics and sociology are prime. The latter has focused more on the manner in which discrimination plays out and how it is related to different forms of social stratification. This paper reviews the literature and makes two main contributions: first, it builds a four-fold typology to think about discrimination—overt or covert; conscious or unconscious; legal or illegal and real or perceived. Second, it identifies screens and filters—devices through which discrimination plays out in the labor market. Unless more empirical studies identify the play of discrimination and exclusion, subordinate groups may well be told that discrimination is actually in their heads—that they are imagining it.

Skills for the Labor Market in Indonesia : Trends in Demand, Gaps, and Supply

di Gropello, Emanuela; Kruse, Aurelien; Tandon, Prateek
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Creating jobs and increasing productivity are key concerns for policy makers across the globe. For East Asian countries seeking to reduce poverty, expanding employment and productivity is at the top of the agenda. This book is a comprehensive look at the demand and supply of skills in Indonesia how skills have changed, how they will continue to evolve, and how the education and training sectors can be improved to be more responsive and relevant to the needs of the labor market and the economy as a whole. Using an innovative firm survey, the authors shed light on the functional skills that workers must possess to be employable and to support firms' competitiveness and productivity. They also assess the role of the education and training systems in providing those skills. Although this book focuses specifically on Indonesia, its methodologies, messages, and analysis will be instructive for researchers and policy makers who shape the delivery of education and training in other middle-income countries around the world.

Youth in Africa's Labor Market

Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The World Development report's main message is that the time has never been better to invest in young people living in developing countries. It offers a three pillar policy framework for investing in and preserving the human capital of the next generation. Both frameworks respond to the desire to find solutions to Africa's development challenges and to prepare for and benefit from the next generation of workers, parents, and leaders. This report examines the challenges Africa's youth face in their transition to working life and proposes policies for meeting these challenges. It presents evidence from case studies of 4 countries - Burkina Faso...

Promoting Labor Market Participation and Social Inclusion in Europe and Central Asia's Poorest Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
Português
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36.25%
This report, funded by the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), seeks to identify labor market inequalities in the ten countries outlined above, to relate these inequalities to other forms of social exclusion, and to propose areas for policy action aimed at boosting labor market participation. The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two describes the role that jobs play in fostering good living standards, productivity and social cohesion, and contextualizes the discussion on jobs and participation in the ten countries. Chapter three zooms in, highlighting inequalities in labor force participation across demographic groups. Chapter four shifts the focus to the factors explaining unequal labor force participation across groups, and discusses a policy agenda for these ten countries, drawing on experiences from the rest of the world. Chapter five concludes.

Gender Inequality in the Labor Market in Serbia

Reva, Anna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This paper presents a broad overview of labor market indicators for men and women in Serbia with a focus on employment patterns, entrepreneurship and career advancement as well as earnings differentials. The analysis relies primarily on the results of the Labor Force Surveys conducted in Serbia in April 2008 and October 2009. The findings show that although the overall labor market situation in Serbia is difficult, women are in a much more disadvantageous position than men. Women are much less likely to be employed, start a business or advance in the political arena. Furthermore, there is a significant wage gap between men and women in a number of sectors and occupational groups with low educated women being particularly disadvantaged. The results of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition demonstrate that the wage gap is indicative of discrimination of women in the labor market as earnings differentials cannot be explained by differences in observed characteristics of male and female employees. Based on the obtained results...

Gender, Geography and Generations : Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Post-reform India

Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
India experienced sustained economic growth for more than two decades following the economic liberalization in 1991. While economic growth reduced poverty significantly, it was associated with an increase in inequality. Does this increase in inequality reflect deep-seated inequality of opportunity or efficient incentive structure in a market oriented economy? This paper provides evidence on economic mobility in post-reform India by focusing on the educational attainment of children. It uses two related measures of immobility: sibling and intergenerational correlations. The paper analyzes the trends in and patterns of educational mobility from 1992/93 to 2006, with a special emphasis on the roles played by gender and geography. The evidence shows that family background plays a strong role; the estimated sibling correlation in India in 2006 is higher than the available estimates for Latin American countries. There is a persistent gender gap in rural and less-developed areas. The only group that experienced substantial improvements is women in urban and developed areas, with the lower caste women benefiting the most. Almost 70 percent of the variance in children's education can be accounted for by parental education and geographic location. The authors provide possible explanations for the apparently puzzling improvements for urban women in a country with strong son preference.

Mexico : Earnings Inequality after Mexico's Economic and Educational Reforms, Volume 1. Main Document

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.24%
The study reviews the forces driving Mexico's inequality, in particular, the recent expansion in earnings inequality, emphasizing the roles of education on: establishing an analytical framework, that allows interaction between education, and labor market; examining the evolution of earnings inequality, following the macroeconomic, and educational policies of the 80s, and 90s; exploring best practices for the use, and allocation of public educational resources, in light of foreseeable increases in earnings inequality; and, identifying those areas of educational public policy, which impact student graduation. The study argues on the student's decision-making at the secondary, and tertiary levels, concerning the disciplines to pursue, - a choice clearly influenced by several factors - such as taste, abilities, family background, etc. Though some factors may be intrinsic, others could be used as policy tools, to provide advice on best study options, but insufficient effort on the part of educational institutions...

An Assessment of Skills in the Formal Sector Labor Market in Bangladesh : A Technical Report on the Enterprise-Based Skills Survey 2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Education and skill development have played a crucial role in economic growth, poverty reduction and social transformation in Bangladesh, particularly the inclusion of women in the labor force in the last decade. Bangladesh has made impressive gains in improving access to education, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of gender parity at the primary and secondary levels. Increased access to secondary education among girls over the past twenty years appears to have produced a powerful agent of social mobility as it is likely that many of the young girls who benefitted from the female stipends in the early 90s have now entered the labor market and may be enjoying higher earnings than older female cohorts. The widespread entry of women into the labor market has been a leading factor in the rapid expansion of the garment industry. With around USD 15 billion in export value in 2010, the readymade garment industry is currently Bangladesh's most important industry sector (McKinsey and Company 2011). In this context...

Socioeconomic school segregation in a market-oriented educational system. The case of Chile

Ríos, Danae de los; Bellei Carvacho, Cristian; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
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36.26%
Artículo de publicación ISI; This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between some local educational market dynamics and the observed magnitude of SES school segregation at municipal level. The main findings were: first, the magnitude of the SES segregation of both low- SES and high-SES students in Chile was very high (Duncan Index ranged from 0.50 to 0.60 in 2008); second, during the last decade, SES school segregation tended to slightly increase in Chile, especially in high schools (both public and private schools); third, private schools – including voucher schools – were more segregated than public schools for both low-SES and high-SES students; and finally, some market dynamics operating in the Chilean education (like privatization, school choice, and fee-paying) accounted for a relevant proportion of the observed variation in SES school segregation at municipal level. These findings are analyzed from an educational policy perspective in which the link between SES school segregation and market-oriented mechanisms in education plays a fundamental role.

Mobility, Scarring and Job Quality in Indonesia’s Labor Market

Naidoo, Darian; Packard, Truman; Auwalin, Ilmiawan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.24%
This paper investigates the occupational mobility and job quality of young people in Indonesia and relates this to the concept of “scarring.” The concept of labor market scarring in this paper is the occurrence of low or zero returns to certain types of work (for example, self-employment). Scarring is expected to occur whenever an individual spends periods working in occupations in which their human capital is either stagnant or deteriorating. Fixed effects estimations using panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey reveal that a period in self-employment is associated with negative returns for youth (about 3 to 4 percent per year penalty), but not for older adults. In addition, there are clear patterns of persistence in self-employment over time with few individuals progressing from petty self-employment to businesses with permanent workers.