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Entrepreneurship performance indicators for employer enterprises in Portugal

Sarmento, Elsa; Nunes, Alcina
Fonte: ICABE - International Conference on Applied Business Economics Publicador: ICABE - International Conference on Applied Business Economics
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This study provides a description of active employer enterprises and enterprise creation dynamics in Portugal, using an entrepreneurship dataset conceived from Quadros de Pessoal based on the Eurostat/OECD methodology “Manual on Business Demography Statistics”, for the period 1987 to 2007. Using this unique matched employer-employee micro dataset, we discuss the prevalence of some of the main stylised facts of firm creation and firm size distribution. The main contribution of this analysis is to provide detailed disaggregated evidence of the performance of employer enterprises by firm dimension, region and main economic sectors over a period of 20 years. When relevant, we resort to international data for comparison.

Entrepreneurship performance indicators for employer enterprises in Portugal

Sarmento, Elsa; Nunes, Alcina
Fonte: Delta Publicaciones & ASEPELT Publicador: Delta Publicaciones & ASEPELT
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This study provides a description of active employer enterprises and enterprise creation dynamics in Portugal, using an entrepreneurship dataset conceived from Quadros de Pessoal based on the Eurostat/OECD methodology “Manual on Business Demography Statistics”, for the period 1987 to 2007. Using this unique matched employer-employee micro dataset, we discuss the prevalence of some of the main stylised facts of firm creation and firm size distribution. The main contribution of this analysis is to provide detailed disaggregated evidence of the performance of employer enterprises by firm dimension, region and main economic sectors over a period of 20 years. When relevant, we resort to international data for comparison.

The dynamics of employer enterprise creation in Portugal over the last two decades: a firm size, regional and sectoral perspective

Sarmento, Elsa de Morais; Nunes, Alcina
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
The Portuguese economy underwent a process of growth and structural transformation during the twentieth century, while the last two decades conveyed a period of considerable creative destruction of firms. Indeed, following a period of rapid economic expansion in the second half of the 1990s, the deterioration of the economic situation felt since 2001 contributed to the deceleration of economic growth, which has also had an impact on firm turbulence. Using Quadros de Pessoal and the Eurostat and OECD methodology (Manual on Business Demography Statistics), this article describes employer enterprise dynamics in Portugal over 1985-2007, and discusses the main stylized facts related to firm creation, performance, and firm size distribution by region and sector

The Demand for Labor: An Analysis Using Matched Employer-Employee Data from the German LIAB. Will the High Unskilled Worker Own-Wage Elasticity Please Stand Up?

Addison, John T.; Bellmann, Lutz; Schank, Thorsten; Teixeira, Paulino
Fonte: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros Publicador: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
This paper uses matched employee-employer LIAB data to provide panel estimates of the structure of labor demand in Germany, 1993-2002, distinguishing between highly skilled, skilled, and unskilled labor and between the manufacturing and service sectors. Reflecting current preoccupations, our demand analysis seeks also to accommodate the impact of technology and trade in addition to wages. The bottom-line interests are to provide elasticities of the demand for unskilled (and other) labor that should assist in short-run policy design and to identify the extent of skill biases or otherwise in trade and technology.

Efeito do tamanho do estabelecimento sobre os salários: uma análise com um painel de estabelecimentos e de seus trabalhadores; Employer size wage effect: an analysis with panel data from establishments and their workers

Casalecchi, Alessandro Ribeiro de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.34%
A literatura empírica em economia do trabalho mostra que o tamanho do empregador afeta positivamente o salário de seus trabalhadores. O presente trabalho utiliza uma especificação empírica da equação salarial que inclui efeitos fixos para os trabalhadores, para o empregador e para a qualidade do match entre eles, de modo que explicações teóricas para a existência do efeito do tamanho do empregador possam ser testadas sem que vieses de variável omitida prejudiquem as conclusões. Esta especificação com três efeitos fixos ainda não foi utilizada na literatura empírica do efeito salarial do tamanho do empregador. Os resultados indicam que mais da metade do efeito do tamanho do empregador é explicado pela correlação do tamanho com as três heterogeneidades não observáveis e que devemos rejeitar a validade empírica das explicações fornecidas pelos modelos teóricos testados de forma geral. Contudo, ressaltamos que tais modelos podem se aplicar em circunstâncias específicas.; Economists have persistently found a positive relationship between the employer size and the wage earned by employees. This paper uses an empirical specification that controls for unobserved heterogeneity at three levels: worker, employer and match quality...

Employer brand image in an international context – a comparison between Germany and Portugal

Luchtenveld, Anne Charlotte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
Master in Human Resources Management/ Classificação JEL: F23 empresa Multinacional - M31 - Marketing; Research Problem – The internationalization and globalization led companies expend their business all over the world and within they have to deal with people from all nationalities. Companies have to be aware of the different cultures and implement them into their strategies. Moreover need companies in times of “war of talent” a strategy to attract the right applicants for their company. For that employer branding is one possible one. The implementation of such a strategy should not miss to include the cultural aspect to be more strong and successful. Purpose of the Study – Even there are recently studies about employer branding and its implementation the cultural aspect is missing in further researches. Therefore the following study was conducted to determine the relationship between this two factors - at the example of Portugal and Germany. Design/Methodology/Approach – A qualitative content analysis was based on six interviews and a quantitative study (n = 200) to analyze the research questions was conducted and hypotheses were derived from a literature review. The interpretation is based on statistical and qualitative analysis. Findings/Implications – In fact there is a relationship between employer branding and cultural aspects. Moreover it can be assumed...

A comunicação no contexto de employer branding

PREITE, Nanci Horácio
Fonte: Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul Publicador: Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul
Tipo: Tese ou dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Dissertação apresentada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação da Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul; A capacidade de comunicar os atributos da marca de empregador é vital para atrair talentos para as organizações, de forma que contribua para agregar valor aos objetivos e resultados estratégicos. O objetivo desta dissertação é a conceituação e a caracterização da comunicação da marca empregadora (employer branding) no mercado de trabalho contemporâneo. Através de estudo de delineamento exploratório, faz uso de referencial teórico sobre employer branding, comunicação organizacional, marca e gestão de marca, além de entrevistas semiestruturadas com especialistas e estudos de casos múltiplos nos websites das empresas: Itaú, Petrobras, Natura e Unilever. A pesquisa revelou ser a comunicação um novo subsistema de recursos humanos, além de mostrar a quebra de paradigma no uso da comunicação para oferecer oportunidades de emprego. Outro aspecto relevante é quanto ao uso das mídias sociais digitais para promover a marca empregadora, destacando-se também a técnica de narrativas (storytelling) como novo recurso promocional que ajuda a construir um vínculo comunicacional forte e crível com públicos externos.; sim

Employer Perspectives on Secondary School Cooperative Education in a Southern Ontario City in Canada

Henderson, Joseph
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Despite 2 Ontario Ministry of Education policy documents which mandate that regular program effectiveness surveys be completed in secondary school co-op programs, research was either not occurring or data were not being made available. A lack of co-op research also existed at the postsecondary level. The primary reason for this study was to determine the perspectives of current secondary school co-op employers in the Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board (HWDSB) and to identify any program strengths as well as any areas in which improvement can be made. A secondary aim of the study was to discover the reasons that some employers decline to participate in the co-op program, and why other employers decide to discontinue their co-op partnerships. An online survey was utilized with 2 Likert scales and open-ended questions to solicit responses from the 100 participants. The findings from this study strongly supported previous secondary and postsecondary co-op research. Overall, the HWDSB co-op program was found to be very strong, and employer satisfaction very high. There were, however, areas in which improvement could be made. Although most employers felt supported by institutions and felt that expectations were clearly communicated and were reasonable...

Take me to your employer: the organisational reach of occupational health and safety regulation

Johnstone, Richard; Wilson, Therese
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 285224 bytes; 370 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
[Conclusion] We have explored two dimensions of the Australian OHS statutes which enable statutory OHS duties to reach more than one employer or self-employed person within a corporate group or network. First, most of the OHS statutes contain provisions extending the reach of employer’s duty beyond the employer’s employees. One legislative technique is to deem contractors and their employees to be employees of the principal contractor. Another imposes duties on employers and self-employed persons to persons who are not employees, so that employers and self-employed persons can be responsible for the OHS of firms, and those they engage, lower in the contractual chain. These duties are non-delegable, meaning that the principal contractor cannot seek to delegate OHS duties to firms lower in the contractual chain. Second, new Victorian ‘shadow officer’ provisions can be applied to remove difficulties and doubt as to the liability of partners in a partnership, officers of unincorporated associations, joint venturers, and holding and subsidiary companies within corporate groups. While the provisions can be argued simply to confirm that a partner who fails to take reasonable care in relation to OHS will be guilty of an offence, we demonstrate that there are very real benefits to having ‘shadow officer’ provisions which remove uncertainties about the liability of unincorporated associations...

Picking winners?: New Zealand's recognised seasonal employer (RSE) policy and its impacts on employers, Pacific workers and their island-based communities.

Bedford, Charlotte Elisabeth
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Over the preceding decade there has been intensifying academic and policy debate about the migration-development relationship and a resurgence of interest in circular and temporary migration. This thesis provides an examination of the first five years' (2007-2OL2l operation of New Zealand's Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) policy, a managed low-skilled circular migration scheme that currently allows for 8,000 workers to be recruited annually for up to 7 months' seasonal employment in New Zealand's horticulture and viticulture (H/V) industries. The RSE policy seeks to deliver the triple 'wins' to migrants, origin and destination countries that were identified at the United Nations High-Level Dialogue on Migration and Development in September 2006. The policy has been recognised nationally as well as internationally as an example of 'best practice' in the field of low-skilled managed circular migration. The RSE policy is delivered through a system of relationships between employers, workers, and government agencies in a range of source countries, mainly in the Pacific region, and New Zealand. These relationships are examined at multiple scales: macro (national/international), meso (regional) and micro (household/individual) using concepts derived from systems theory and complexity theory. The RSE case study is situated in three contexts: theoretical (the migration and development literature); contextual (population movement in the Pacific lslands region); and empirical (labour supply issues facing producers in New Zealand's H/V industries). This thesis employs a critical realist perspective to explore the objectives and outcomes of the RSE policy over the first five years. Multiple methods are used to collect and analyse qualitative and quantitative data relating to RSE workers from five Pacific countries...

Employer participation in Florida school -to -work initiatives

Haley, Mary Ellen
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
This study used a cross-sectional design and descriptive research methodology to assess the characteristics and practices of employers participating in Florida school-to-work (STW) initiatives, the factors influencing their participation, and their STW partnerships with schools. The study also examined the relationships between employer characteristics and participation. ^ A sampling frame of 15,202 employers from the 28 Florida STW regions was constructed. Data were collected via a mail survey with a random sample of employers, using a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. ^ At the 95% confidence level, it was estimated that the mean establishment size in the population is between 25 and 51 employees and that employers have been involved in STW partnerships between five and seven years. ^ The study revealed broad-based employer participation in three of four areas: Working with Students, Working with Educators, and Internal Company Practices Supporting STW. A fourth area, Building a System, showed generally low participation. Data indicate that workforce needs are important incentives to employer STW participation beyond their desire to contribute to education or the community. Data also indicate that lack of information on STW is the greatest barrier to employer participation. ^ Sample employers have more positive perceptions of the value of their partnerships with schools than of the quality of the partnerships. Ninety-four percent agreed that students are better prepared for work and careers as a result of the partnership's activities. More than half agreed that a sense of trust and good communication exist between educators and employer partners. ^ Employer variables found to have a significant...

How Pro-Poor Is the Selection of Seasonal Migrant Workers from Tonga under New Zealand's Recognized Seasonal Employer Program?

Gibson, John; McKenzie, David; Rohorua, Halahingano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Temporary migration programs for unskilled workers are increasingly being proposed as a way to both relieve labor shortages in developed countries and aid development in sending countries without entailing many of the costs associated with permanent migration. New Zealand's new Recognized Seasonal Employer program is designed to enable unskilled workers from the Pacific Islands to work in horticulture and viticulture in New Zealand for a period of up to seven months. However, the development impact on a sending country will depend not only on how many workers participate, but also on who participates. This paper uses new survey data from Tonga to examine the process of selecting workers for the Recognized Seasonal Employer program, and to analyze how pro-poor the recruitment process has been to date. The findings show that recruited workers come from largely agricultural backgrounds, and have lower average incomes and schooling levels than Tongans not participating in the program. Comparing the characteristics of program workers with those of Tongans applying to permanently migrate to New Zealand through the Pacific Access Category...

Who Is Coming from Vanuatu to New Zealand under the New Recognized Seasonal Employer Program?

McKenzie, David; Garcia Martinez, Pilar; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
New Zealand's new Recognized Seasonal Employer program allows workers from the Pacific Islands to come to New Zealand for up to seven months to work in the horticulture and viticulture industries. One of the explicit objectives of the program is to encourage economic development in the Pacific. This paper reports the results of a baseline survey taken in Vanuatu, which the authors use to examine who wants to participate in the program, and who is selected among those interested. The findings show that the main participants are males in their late 20s to early 40s, and most are married and have children. Most workers are subsistence farmers in Vanuatu and have not completed more than 10 years of schooling. Such workers would be unlikely to be accepted under existing migration channels. Nevertheless, the program workers from Vanuatu tend to come from wealthier households, and have better English literacy and health than individuals not applying for the program. Lack of knowledge about the policy and the costs of applying appear to be the main barriers preventing poorer individuals applying.

Employer branding: elementos relevantes na intenção de permanecer: estudo exploratório com estagiários

Terrin, Simone Akemi
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.41%
Atrair e reter talentos por meio de salários inflacionados pode ser oneroso e não necessariamente efetivo. A atividade de Employer Branding (EB), que consiste nos esforços das empresas em promover características e atributos que as tornem diferentes e desejáveis como empregadoras, começa a despertar o interesse tanto das empresas quanto dos pesquisadores de Recursos Humanos e Práticas de Gestão. À luz da recente e escassa literatura internacional, este estudo exploratório buscou identificar quais aspectos do Employer Branding são mais importantes para os indivíduos na intenção de permanecer em uma empresa após o período de estágio. As análises consideraram 443 questionários respondidos por estagiários de uma empresa multinacional de grande porte do setor financeiro, utilizando-se a escala de atratividade do empregador (Berthon et al., 2005), que considera cinco dimensões do Employer Branding: desenvolvimento, social, interesse, aplicação e econômica. Testes estatísticos permitiram afirmar que variáveis demográficas como gênero, tipo de custeio da faculdade (público ou privado) e nível de responsabilidade financeira influenciam na maneira como os indivíduos valorizam cada uma das dimensões. Além disso...

Employer Branding: What Makes a Firm a Desirable Place to Work

Berlenga, Ana Inês da Silva
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 02/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Mestrado em Gestão/MBA; A new concerning is coming to human resource management: the way organizational branding can influence human resources to applied and be committed to enterprises. This application of branding to human resource management has been designate as "employer branding." In the present exploratory study the major objective is to understand the role of organizational reputation, organizational personality and tangible organizational attributes and manager's perception of enterprise attractiveness and commitment. Using an online survey on a 214 sample of Portuguese managers, they describe organizational reputation by emotional appeal and product and services characteristics. Work environment is also important. Organizational personality was characterized by being technical, hard working and secure. The most desirable tangible attributes on enterprise is money and work characteristics. Managers think that their enterprise believe that employees are important but the company don't spend a significant amount of money to keep their employees happy. Manager's main factor of commitment is loyalty and proud that they are part of the company. However they don't consider their company as being the best place to work.

Employer branding : a visão dos jovens talentos quanto à marca Nestle

Ribeiro, Paula Alexandra Nunes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
Projecto de Mestrado em Gestão de Recursos Humanos; A esfera internacional está a mudar rapidamente. Nada é permanente, e a causa do sucesso de ontem poderá ser a causa do fracasso de amanhã. Actualmente, ter uma boa reputação enquanto empregador e uma força de trabalho qualificada que esteja comprometida oferece vantagem competitiva, pois torna mais fácil para um empregador contratar e reter talentos. De forma a responder a esta dinâmica dos mercados surge o Employer Branding, sendo definido como ―o esforço de uma organização em promover, tanto dentro como fora da empresa, uma visão clara do que a torna diferente e desejável enquanto empregador. Neste sentido, o principal objectivo deste estudo consiste na averiguação de como a empresa Nestlé é percepcionada enquanto entidade empregadora pelos seus futuros e potenciais colaboradores, bem como a verificação da validação do Questionário quando aplicado a uma população-alvo com alguma dimensão. Para a concretização deste projecto, os dados foram recolhidos através da aplicação de questionários nos diversos ―Fóruns de Empresa onde a Nestlé esteve presente durante o ano de 2010 (ISCTE-IUL, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Universidade de Engº do Porto e Universidade de Aveiro)...

Exploring the role of employer brand equity in the labour market: differences between existing employee and job seeker perceptions.

Alshathry, Sultan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.54%
In recent years, companies in developed markets have faced challenges in securing and retaining high-quality employees as a result of aging workforces and skills and labour shortages. To address this challenge, some organisations have developed employer branding programs aimed at building employer brand equity (EBE) in the labour market so the organisation will become an employer of choice (EoC). Traditionally, the branding concept has been used for building brand equity in order to acquire and retain customers. The adaptation of this marketing concept to the field of HR management has been widely accepted among scholars and practitioners; however, the effects of EBE in the labour market remain unclear because of a lack of empirical evidence. Employer branding has two audiences—externally it targets potential employees and internally it is directed towards employees. The majority of studies have focused on the external effects of employer branding, which raises the question of whether EBE has the same effect for job seekers and employees. The aim of this study is to provide an understanding of what drives EBE and to what extent it affects job seekers and employees. The main assumption in employer branding is that employer brands play a similar role to brands in a traditional consumer context. Therefore...

Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: employee and employer perspectives

Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Kessler, Ian
Fonte: Psychology Press Publicador: Psychology Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.34%
This article explores reciprocity within the exchange relationship between the employee and employer using the psychological contract framework. Specifically, we examine the bi-directionality of the norm of reciprocity. We hypothesize that there will be a positive relationship between perceived employer obligations, fulfilment of obligations and employee obligations and fulfilment. In addition, we hypothesize that employee fulfilment of obligations will be positively associated with perceived employer obligations. Using a longitudinal survey of 1400 public sector employees and 84 managers, our findings suggest that there is broad agreement between the two parties regarding the norm of reciprocity that governs the relationship. We found that perceived employer obligations at time 1 is positively associated with employees’ fulfilment of obligations at time 2 and perceived employer fulfilment of obligations at time 1 is positively related to employee obligations and fulfilment of obligations at time 2. Furthermore, we found that employee fulfilment of obligations at time 1 is positively associated with perceived employer obligations at time 2. Overall, these findings provide initial empirical support for the norm of reciprocity in exchange relationships from both the perspective of employees as well as managers...

Employer Branding Constrains Applicants' Job Seeking Behaviour?

Roque Gomes,Daniel; Neves,José
Fonte: Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones Publicador: Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
Researchers have been consistent in advising managers to invest on the organization's employer brand, based on the argument that it will benefit recruitment practice. However, this premise has been majorly sustained following an organizational point of view. As such, the employer branding effects on applicants' job search behavior of applying to a vacancy remains undetermined. Main purpose of this study is to understand if employer branding constrains applicants' job seeking behavior. We propose that applicants develop the desire of submitting to a vacancy through a process having the organizational attributes as its predictor and attractiveness as its mediator. We then investigate if and how employer branding constrains this process, by evaluating its moderating effect. Using confirmatory analysis methodology, we found that employer branding moderates the proposed job seeking process. A positive employer branding has strengthened the process leading to the intention to apply to a vacancy, when compared with neutral or negative employer brandings. This explains applicants' desire of submitting to a vacancy. Based on our results, we suggest directions for practitioners concerning recruitment efficacy.

Reasonable accommodation in the workplace: to be or not to be?

Bernard,RB
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Freedom of religion is a fundamental right enshrined in and protected by section 15 of the Constitution. This right allows for the practice of religion without interference from the state and individuals. A question which often arises relates to the extent to which freedom of religion can be exercised in the workplace. Religious practice often extends beyond societal norms, but religious intolerance has proven to be a source of conflict. In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's labour and service conflicts with the employee's inability or refusal to render services because of a religious or cultural belief".a The courts have played an important role in balancing the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the rights of the employee to practice his religious or cultural beliefs. The critical question is how the employer is expected to balance and maintain an orderly, disciplined and efficient workplace whilst accommodating an employee's right to religious freedom. The case of Department of Correctional Services v Police and Prison Civil Rights Union (POPCRU) 2011 32 IU 2629 (LAC) is one where the employer's application of rules relating to the dress code of employees impacted on the religious beliefs and practices of five staff. In this note...