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E-learning for the environment : the Universidade Aberta (Portuguese OpenDistance University) experience in the environmental sciences post-graduate courses

Nicolau, Paula Bacelar; Caeiro, Sandra; Martinho, Ana Paula; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Amador, Filomena
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Purpose – In recent decades, there has been an increase of public awareness about environmental problems. A simultaneous effort to increase educational course offerings in this area has been made. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the first edition of the blended learning MSc in Environmental Citizenship and Participation that is offered by Universidade Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal. This is the first and only MSc offered in the distance learning mode in Portugal in this scientific area. The Master’s programme includes environmental and social sciences contents. Also the programme includes tools and methodologies designed to help the students put into practice their expanded awareness, and knowledge within educational and public participation processes, within environment projects, programs or plans. Design/methodology/approach – Evaluation is performed with the students using three data sources: a questionnaire survey, personal interviews and assessment materials produced by the students. These data are designed to evaluate course performance in terms of: student motivation, student-content interaction, student-student interaction, student-teacher interaction, learning activities, type of evaluation, and student’s environmental citizenship attitudes and behaviours. Findings – The qualitative analysis indicates a very high level of student motivation and satisfaction with the programme. The course contents...

Distance Education – The Experience with Environmental Sciences

Carapeto, Cristina
Fonte: Goran D. Putnik & Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha Publicador: Goran D. Putnik & Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Educational systems should warrant learning needs of the population they serve offering a diversity of educational agents, strategies and answers to the needs of those that seek knowledge (Caeiro et al., 2004). In Portugal the experience of teaching subjects related to Environmental Sciences via open distance learning started in 1995 at Universidade Aberta (a Public University specially dedicated to the open distance learning of graduate and undergraduate courses). This experience began with General Ecology, and in view of the interest showed by students (and in fact by a wider public) the University later offered other subjects such as Environmental Education and Water Pollution. Today we have a number of different subjects within the vast area of Environmental Sciences and are preparing an undergraduate programme in view of the recent Bolonha agreement. The University also offers post-graduate programmes that bring together the environment and the citizen participation. The aim is to heighten the interests of our students in scientific subjects related to the environment as well as providing a practical perspective of what they can do as active citizens. The programmes are supported by necessary tools that enable students to critically analyse and discuss press articles about the environment...

Long-term human response to uncertain environmental conditions in the Andes

Dillehay, Tom D.; Kolata, Alan L.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Human interaction with the physical environment has increasingly transformed Earth-system processes. Reciprocally, climate anomalies and other processes of environmental change of natural and anthropogenic origin have been affecting, and often disrupting, societies throughout history. Transient impact events, despite their brevity, can have significant long-term impact on society, particularly if they occur in the context of ongoing, protracted environmental change. Major climate events can affect human activities in critical conjunctures that shape particular trajectories of social development. Here we report variable human responses to major environmental events in the Andes with a particular emphasis on the period from anno Domini 500–1500 on the desert north coast of Perú. We show that preindustrial agrarian societies implemented distinct forms of anticipatory response to environmental change and uncertainty. We conclude that innovations in production strategies and agricultural infrastructures in these indigenous societies reflect differential social response to both transient (El Niño–Southern Oscillation events) and protracted (desertification) environmental change.

Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems

Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their metabolism, as in the majority of biogeochemical reactions, but a question then arises: Why should the combined by-product effects of the biota have a stabilizing, rather than destabilizing, influence on the environment? Under certain conditions, selection acting above the level of the individual can be an effective adaptive force. Here we present an evolutionary simulation model in which environmental regulation involving higher-level selection robustly emerges in a network of interconnected microbial ecosystems. Spatial structure creates conditions for a limited form of higher-level selection to act on the collective environment-altering properties of local communities. Local communities that improve their environmental conditions achieve larger populations and are better colonizers of available space...

Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment

Solinas, Marcello; Chauvet, Claudia; Thiriet, Nathalie; El Rawas, Rana; Jaber, Mohamed
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Environmental conditions can dramatically influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. For example, stress increases the reinforcing effects of drugs and plays an important role in determining the vulnerability to develop drug addiction. On the other hand, positive conditions, such as environmental enrichment, can reduce the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and may provide protection against the development of drug addiction. However, whether environmental enrichment can be used to “treat” drug addiction has not been investigated. In this study, we first exposed mice to drugs and induced addiction-related behaviors and only afterward exposed them to enriched environments. We found that 30 days of environmental enrichment completely eliminates behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference to cocaine. In addition, housing mice in enriched environments after the development of conditioned place preference prevents cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the brain circuitry involved in cocaine-induced reinstatement. Altogether, these results demonstrate that environmental enrichment can eliminate already established addiction-related behaviors in mice and suggest that environmental stimulation may be a fundamental factor in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to cocaine addiction.

Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics

Gianoulis, Tara A.; Raes, Jeroen; Patel, Prianka V.; Bjornson, Robert; Korbel, Jan O.; Letunic, Ivica; Yamada, Takuji; Paccanaro, Alberto; Jensen, Lars J.; Snyder, Michael; Bork, Peer; Gerstein, Mark B.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Recently, approaches have been developed to sample the genetic content of heterogeneous environments (metagenomics). However, by what means these sequences link distinct environmental conditions with specific biological processes is not well understood. Thus, a major challenge is how the usage of particular pathways and subnetworks reflects the adaptation of microbial communities across environments and habitats—i.e., how network dynamics relates to environmental features. Previous research has treated environments as discrete, somewhat simplified classes (e.g., terrestrial vs. marine), and searched for obvious metabolic differences among them (i.e., treating the analysis as a typical classification problem). However, environmental differences result from combinations of many factors, which often vary only slightly. Therefore, we introduce an approach that employs correlation and regression to relate multiple, continuously varying factors defining an environment to the extent of particular microbial pathways present in a geographic site. Moreover, rather than looking only at individual correlations (one-to-one), we adapted canonical correlation analysis and related techniques to define an ensemble of weighted pathways that maximally covaries with a combination of environmental variables (many-to-many)...

Examining the relative influence of familial, genetic, and environmental covariate information in flexible risk models

Bravo, Héctor Corrada; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Wahba, Grace
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
We present a method for examining the relative influence of familial, genetic, and environmental covariate information in flexible nonparametric risk models. Our goal is investigating the relative importance of these three sources of information as they are associated with a particular outcome. To that end, we developed a method for incorporating arbitrary pedigree information in a smoothing spline ANOVA (SS-ANOVA) model. By expressing pedigree data as a positive semidefinite kernel matrix, the SS-ANOVA model is able to estimate a log-odds ratio as a multicomponent function of several variables: one or more functional components representing information from environmental covariates and/or genetic marker data and another representing pedigree relationships. We report a case study on models for retinal pigmentary abnormalities in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Our model verifies known facts about the epidemiology of this eye lesion—found in eyes with early age-related macular degeneration—and shows significantly increased predictive ability in models that include all three of the genetic, environmental, and familial data sources. The case study also shows that models that contain only two of these data sources, that is, pedigree-environmental covariates...

Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS)

Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S.; Sparks, Donald L.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity...

INTERDISCIPLINARIDADE, INSTRUMENTOS LEGAIS DE PROTEÇÃO AO MEIO AMBIENTE E PERÍCIA AMBIENTAL; INTERDISCIPLINARITY, LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERTISE

MASCARENHAS, Luciane Martins de Araújo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias Ambientais; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias Ambientais; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
This tesis applied interdisciplinary bibliographic review to assess current risks of modernity, metaindividual rights, and legal tools of environmental protection with a special emphasis on investigation by experts . Firstly we present an interdisciplinary discussion including points of views of investigators and the interdependency of environmental sciences and environmental laws. Next, we present an interdisciplinary study about preservation areas, legal reserve and water resources associated with analysis of the vegetation cover over the high and the median Araguaia river basin located in the border of Mato Grosso an Goiás States analyzed though remote sensing. This study was based on 21 scenes of Sino-Brazilian satelyte of Earth Resources (CBERS-CDD) obtained from July to August 2006 that was georefenced and organized into mosaics and transformed into an image with normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI). This analysis indicated that 2/3 of study area no longer have the original vegetation cover. Regarding areas of permanent preservation 44,58% have been converted. These results indicate that legal determinations stablished by the Forest Code have not been followed. The issue of environmental risks of modernity, the environment as a fundamental and diffuse right and the history of access to justice are also discussed. This tesis also analyses the legal tools for the protection of the environment such as Civil and Penal Assize and Condut Adjustment Term in the extrajudicial field. Regarding collective civil actions we point out the roles of Popular Action and Public Civil Action as well as of Penal Action to prove an environmental crime. The proof in the civil and penal process was analysed with accentuation on investigation by experts . To finalize...

Strategic Environmental Assessment in Policy and Sector Reform : Conceptual Model and Operational Guidance

World Bank; University of Gothenburg; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Around the world, it is increasingly being recognized that for sustainability goals to be reached, efforts need to go beyond complying with standards and mitigating adverse impacts, to identifying environmental sustainability as an objective of the development process. This approach requires the integration of environmental, sustainability, and climate change considerations into policy and sector reform. Because sector reform brings about significant policy change involving adjustments in laws, policies, regulations, and institutions, it is a sensitive political process often driven by strong economic interests. Policy makers are subject to a number of political pressures that originate in vested interests. The recommendations of environmental assessment are often of little relevance unless there are constituencies that support them and have sufficient political power to make their voices heard in the policy process. While strong constituencies are important during the design of sector reform, they are even more important during implementation. It follows that effective environmental assessment in policy and sector reform requires strong constituencies backing up recommendations...

Regulatory Aspects on the Use of Fish Embryos in Environmental Toxicology

HALDER Maria; LÉONARD Marc A; IGUCHI Taisen; ORIS James; RYDER Kathy; BELANGER Scott; BRAUNBECK Thomas; EMBRY Michelle; WHALE Graham; NORBERG-KING Teresa; LILICRAP Adam
Fonte: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Publicador: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Animal alternative tests are gaining serious consideration in an array of environmental sciences, particuarly as they relate to sound management of chemicals and wastewater discharges. The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test in March 2008. This relatively young discipline is following advances in animal alternatives for human safety sciences and it is advisable to develop a broad comparison of how animal alternative tests involving fish are viewed in a regulatory context over a wide array of authorities or advising bodies. These include OECD, Western Europe, North America, and Japan. This paper summarizes representative practices from these regions. Presently, the global regulatory environment has varying stances regarding the protection of fish for use as an experimental animal. Approaches in Europe are more restrictive and provide the greatest protection to fish, followed by North America and Japan. Such differences have a long-term potential to lead to a lack of harmony in approaches to fish toxicity testing especially for chemicals in commerce across multiple geographic regions. Implementation of alternative methods and approaches will be most successful if accepted globally...

El trabajo en equipo, una competencia a potenciar en la Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Alcalá; Teamwork, a competence to be promoted at the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Alcalá

Saldaña López, Asunción; Martínez Pérez, Silvia; Castro Díez, Pilar; Ramos Caicedo, Guadalupe; Rebollo Ferreiro, Luis F.; Salas Rey, Francisco Javier; Salado García, María Jesús; Sandín Vázquez, María; Vicente Lapuente, Rosa
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Escuela Universitaria Cardenal Cisneros Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Escuela Universitaria Cardenal Cisneros
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Incluye cuestionario en el Anexo I: "ENCUESTA: ACTIVIDAD DE TRABAJO EN EQUIPO"; El Grupo de Innovación Docente en Ciencias Ambientales analizó la competencia «trabajo en equipo» en la Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales de la Universidad de Alcalá. Para ello realizó una encuesta al profesorado de la Licenciatura y del Grado, para obtener información sobre el tipo de actividades que los docentes llevaron a cabo relacionadas con esta competencia. Se recibieron encuestas sobre 28 asignaturas, 17 de asignaturas del Grado y 11 de la Licenciatura. En el 88% de las asignaturas del Grado de las que se tuvo información se realizó alguna actividad de trabajo en equipo, porcentaje que ascendió al 91% en la Licenciatura. El 71% de los profesores de Grado encuestados y el 64% de los de la Licenciatura consideraron que los estudiantes no saben desarrollar adecuadamente esta competencia. El 65% de los profesores del Grado y el 74% de los de la Licenciatura opinan que la adquisición de conocimientos utilizando este método con respecto a la clase magistral es mejor; The «Environmental Sciences Teaching Innovation Group» analyzed the teamwork competence of the Faculty of Environmental Sciences of the University of Alcalá. Thus, a survey among lecturers was carried out to obtain information regarding the activities they implemented to promote this competence. 28 questionnaires were received...

Aprendizaje de competencias a través de proyectos en el ámbito universitario: Salud Pública para el Grado de Ciencias Ambientales; Learning competencies through projects in the university: Public Health for Environmental Sciences Degree;

Sandín Vázquez, María; Giménez Baldazo, Mónica; Rodríguez Martínez, Marta; Lazo Vitoria, Ximena
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Escuela Universitaria Cardenal Cisneros Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Escuela Universitaria Cardenal Cisneros
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
El aprendizaje por proyectos es una estrategia de enseñanza que constituye un modelo de aprendizaje en el que los estudiantes diseñan, planean y evalúan proyectos que tienen aplicación en el mundo real más allá del aula de clase, enfoque que concuerda con la nueva aproximación de aprendizaje por competencias. Objetivo. Este trabajo expone cómo se ha adaptado la enseñanza basada en proyectos constituyendo la parte práctica de la asignatura Toxicología Ambiental y Salud Pública del Grado en Ciencias Ambientales de la Universidad de Alcalá. Método. Se presenta el desarrollo de contenidos y actividades, así como las evaluaciones del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje por parte del alumnado. Resultados. Los alumnos valoran de una manera muy positiva el aprendizaje mediante esta metodología. Conclusiones. Mediante el aprendizaje por proyectos obtiene una serie de efectos positivos como son la conexión del aprendizaje con el mundo real, el aumento de motivación, el fomento la interdisciplinariedad, y la adquisición de competencias genéricas.; Project-based learning is a learning strategy that involves students in designing, planning and evaluating projects with a real application beyond the classroom setting, an methodology that is consistent with the new approach of learning competencies. Objective. This paper presents how project-based learning has been adapted to the practical part of the subject “Environmental Toxicology and Public Health”...

News from the SETAC Europe Student Advisory Council (April 2013) - the 3rd Young Environmental Scientists (YES) meeting at the Jagiellonian University, Poland

Zubrod, Jochen P.; Jevtic, Dragan M.; Melato, Aupaki, Michael; Englert, Dominic; Weil, Mirco; Brockmeier, Erica K.
Fonte: Springer Open Journal (Environmental Sciences Europe); Springer Open Journal (Environmental Sciences Europe) Publicador: Springer Open Journal (Environmental Sciences Europe); Springer Open Journal (Environmental Sciences Europe)
Tipo: mixed material
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Publication of this article was funded in part by the University of Floirda Open-Access publishing Fund. In addition, requestors receiving funding through the UFOAP project are expected to submit a post-review, final draft of the article to UF's institutional repository, IR@UF, (www.uflib.ufl.edu/UFir) at the time of funding. The institutional Repository at the University of Florida community, with research, news, outreach, and educational materials.; Zubrod et al. Environmental Sciences Europe 2013, 25:16 http://www.enveurope.com/content/25/1/16; Pages 1-5; doi:10.1186/2190-4715-25-16 Cite this article as: Zubrod et al.: News from the SETAC Europe Student Advisory Council (April 2013) - the 3rd Young Environmental Scientists (YES) meeting at the Jagiellonian University, Poland. Environmental Sciences Europe 2013 25:16.

A study of selected environmental issues related to the production of plasmid DNA for application in gene therapy

Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
non-peer-reviewed; The concept of gene therapy involves the transfer of genetic material into a human cell, tissue or organ with the objective of either curing a disease or decreasing the progression of the disease. With the increasing use of plasmid DNA (pDNA) vector vehicles for the delivery of this genetic material, it becomes appropriate to investigate the potential environmental effects of the waste streams discharged from the possible industrial scale manufacture of pDNA. These waste streams can contain biological impurities such as proteins, genomic DNA and endotoxin as well as chemical components such as buffer constituents and unutilised nutrients. Specifically, phosphorus and nitrogen emissions from upstream processing were assessed in order to determine the extent of their use by Escherichia coli (E. coli) during fermentation. The results indicated the spent media waste exhibited only a minor reduction of these nutrient concentrations, indicating minimal uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen by the microorganisms in the fermentation process. The unutilised excess level of phosphorus and nitrogen within the waste streams generated suggested a strong potential for environmental impact in the form of eutrophication. In this regard...

A passion for environmental sociology. Exploring links between social environmental sciences, interdisciplinary integration and sustainability with Professor Riley E. Dunlap

Tàbara, J. David; Polo, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Professor Riley E. has been one of the «founding fathers» and still is one of the most outstanding academics of contemporary environmental sociology. In fact, it is not possible to understand the development of this discipline, which now extends over three decades, without understanding his contribution. In this research note, we use an approach which combines biographical, historical and personal aspects to underline some of the most important hallmarks of his professional career and we transcribe the content of an interview carried out in May 2004 at IEST-UAB, Barcelona. We use this dialogical narrative tool to further understand broader critical issues such as the role of social science in sustainability science and the possible evolution of environmental sociology towards an ecological sociology. The difficulties encountered by environmental sociology in its process of institutionalisation are to a large extent also representative of the power inequalities, dysfunctions and resistances of the existing systems of the production of environmental and sustainability knowledge with «scientific authority» that limit the emergence of innovative interdisciplinary and integrative approaches which include the insights from social sciences.; El profesor Riley E. Dunlap ha sido uno de los «padres fundadores» y sigue siendo uno de los académicos más destacados de la sociología ambiental contemporánea. En realidad...

R. M. Harrison and S. J. De Mora: Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences [book review]

Hoffmann, Michael R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Harrison and De Mora have revised the first edition of their book, Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences, which has an intended reading audience of college or university undergraduates who are studying or majoring in the environmental sciences, environmental chemistry, or ecology. Their intent is to present the basic concepts of chemistry within the context of the thermodynamic universe known at ‘the environment'.

Indian Toilets and Tanzanian Mosquito Nets: Understanding Households' Environmental Health Decisions in Developing Countries

Dickinson, Katherine Lee
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 4475043 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 25/04/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Diarrhea and malaria are two of the most devastating public health threats in the developing world, resulting in millions of childhood deaths each year. Part of the challenge in addressing these threats arises from the fact that many of the causes of and potential remedies for these diseases lie squarely at the intersection of environment, development, and health. In addition, while many environmental, economic, and health-related policies focus on expanding access to new technologies (e.g., latrines, mosquito nets), inadequate attention to factors that affect the use of these technologies often leads to disappointing policy outcomes. This dissertation applies an economic framework to explore the drivers of households' environmental health decisions in two specific contexts. The first study examines sanitation behaviors and child health outcomes in Orissa, India, while the second case involves malaria-related knowledge, prevention, and treatment behaviors in Mvomero, Tanzania. In both cases, theoretical models are developed that focus on the perceived costs and benefits households consider in their decisions to adopt certain behaviors. A key insight is that technologies targeting diarrhea and malaria have characteristics of both private and public goods. For both epidemiological and social reasons...

Towards an ontological politics of comparative environmental analysis: the Green Economy and local diversity

Forsyth, Tim; Levidow, Les
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
This paper contributes to comparative environmental politics by integrating comparative analysis with debates about ontological politics and Science and Technology Studies (STS). Comparative environmental analysis makes two tacit assumptions: that the subject of comparison (e.g. an environmental policy framework) is mobile and can be detached from its contexts; and that studying this subject in more than one location can identify its diffusion and implementation anywhere. These assumptions are sites of ontological politics by predetermining (or restricting) environmental outcomes. Environmental analysis needs to consider how far its own comparative acts might reify supposedly global frameworks rather than acknowledge how different localities appropriate and give meaning to them in diverse ways. The concept of civic epistemologies illustrates how domestic politics are organized around supposedly global concepts, rather than how global concepts diffuse around the world, as illustrated here by a comparative analysis of the United Nations’ Green Economy Initiative.

Assessing the relationship between human well-being and ecosystem services: a review of frameworks

Agarwala, Matthew; Atkinson, Giles; Fry, Benjamin Palmer; Homewood, Katherine; Mourato, Susana; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Wallace, Graham; Milner-Gulland, E. J.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Pvt. Ltd. Publicador: Medknow Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world's poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being...