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Effect of erythromycin on motility and gastric emptying in dogs, by AC Biosusceptometry

Andreis, U.; Corá, L. A.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R A
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 307-310
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
We employed ACB to characterize Gastric Emptying Time (GET - T1/2) and Gastric Activity Contraction (GAC) in dogs after erythromycin administration. An erythromycin dose of 50 mg was infused, after 24 h of fasting. Without erythromycin administration, ACB recorded GET of 157.5 ± 13.6 min (mean ± SD) and GAC of 4.4 ± 0.5 cpm (cycles per minute). After erythromycin administration was measured a GET of 84.2 ± 19.7 min. GAC was measured before, during and after erythromycin administration and results were, respectively, 4.4 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 0.6 and 4.2 ± 0.3 cpm. Erythromycin produced efficient prokinetic action in gastric emptying and increased gastric motility in dogs. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Erythromycin versus neomycin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis: A randomized double-blind study

Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; da Silva Yamashiro, Fabio; Américo, Madileine Francely; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Silva, Giovanni Faria; Miranda, JoséRicardodeArruda; Caramori, Carlos Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a severe complication in patients with hepatic cirrhosis, which causes numerous hospital admissions and deaths. Antibiotics are the best options in HE treatment, but head-to-head comparisons between these drugs are scarce. Erythromycin combines the antimicrobial effect and prokinetic properties in the same drug, but it has never been used in HE treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin as an HE treatment.Methods: We achieved a randomized controlled trial of adult patients with HE and hepatic cirrhosis admitted in our hospital. After randomization, the subjects received either erythromycin 250 mg or neomycin 1 g orally QID until hospital discharge or prescription of another antibiotic. All subjects were blindly evaluated every day towards quantifying clinical, neuropsychometric, hepatic and renal exams. Statistical analysis was employed to compare the groups and correlate the variables with hospitalization duration.Results: 30 patients were evaluated (15 treated with each drug). At hospital admission, the groups were homogeneous, but the erythromycin group subjects achieved a shorter hospitalization stay (p = 0.032) and a more expressive reduction in alanine aminotranspherase levels (p = 0.026). Hospitalization duration was positively correlated with C reactive protein levels measured previous to (p = 0.015) and after treatment (p = 0.01).Conclusions: In the sample evaluated erythromycin was associated with significant reductions in hospital stay and in alanine aminotranspherase values. Hospitalization time was positive correlated with C reactive protein levels measured before and after the treatments. © 2013 Romeiro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

In vitro evaluation of erythromycin in chloroquine resistant brazilian P. falciparum freshly isolates: modulating effect and antimalarial activity evidence

MENEZES,Carla M. S.; KIRCHGATTER,Karin; DI SANTI,Sílvia M. F.; SAVALLI,Carine; MONTEIRO,Fabíola G.; PAULA,Gilberto A.; FERREIRA,Elizabeth I.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Erythromycin, a reversal agent in multidrug-resistant cancer, was assayed in chloroquine resistance modulation. The in vitro microtechnique for drug susceptibility was employed using two freshly isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from North of Brazil. The antimalarial effect of the drug was confirmed, with an IC50 estimates near the usual antimicrobial therapy concentration, and a significant statistical modulating action was observed for one isolate.

Use of erythromycin for the treatment of severe chronic constipation in children

Bellomo-Brandão,M.A.; Collares,E.F.; da-Costa-Pinto,E.A.L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
The efficacy of erythromycin was assessed in the treatment of 14 children aged 4 to 13 years with refractory chronic constipation, and presenting megarectum and fecal impaction. A double-blind, placebo- controlled, crossover study was conducted at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital. The patients were randomized to receive placebo for 4 weeks followed by erythromycin estolate, 20 mg kg-1 day-1, divided into four oral doses for another 4 weeks, or vice versa. Patient outcome was assessed according to a clinical score from 12 (most severe clinical condition) to 0 (complete recovery). At enrollment in the study and on the occasion of follow-up medical visits at two-week intervals, patient score and laxative requirements were recorded. During the first 30 days, the mean ± SD clinical score for the erythromycin group (N = 6) decreased from 8.2 ± 2.3 to 2.2 ± 1.0 while the score for the placebo group (N = 8) decreased from 7.8 ± 2.1 to 2.9 ± 2.8. During the second crossover phase, the score for patients on erythromycin ranged from 2.9 ± 2.8 to 2.4 ± 2.1 and the score for the patients on placebo worsened from 2.2 ± 1.0 to 4.3 ± 2.3. There was a significant improvement in score when patients were on erythromycin (P < 0.01). Mean laxative requirement was lower when patients ingested erythromycin (P < 0.05). No erythromycin-related side effects occurred. Erythromycin was useful in this group of severely constipated children. A larger trial is needed to fully ascertain the prokinetic efficacy of this drug as an adjunct in the treatment of severe constipation in children.

Fluorimetric method for the determination of erythromycin using a photochemical derivatization approach

Finete,Virginia de L. M.; Arissawa,Márcia; Aucélio,Ricardo Q.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Photochemical derivatization was proposed to enable intense fluorescence (412/465 nm) from erythromycin. Crucial experimental parameters such as type and concentration of the acid used to treat analyte solutions and UV irradiation time were adjusted. Limits of detection and quantification of 0.025 and 0.085 µg mL-1 were achieved with linear range up to 200 µg mL-1. The procedure was selective towards the presence of aminoglycoside antibiotics (kanamycin, gentamycin and amikacin). The method was tested using pharmaceutical formulations and one vaccine composition containing erythromycin as a preservative component, with analyte recoveries between 98 and 105%.

The inter-relationship between inoculum concentration, morphology, rheology and erythromycin productivity in submerged cultivation of Saccharopolyspora erythraea

Ghojavand,H.; Bonakdarpour,B.; Heydarian,S. M.; Hamedi,J.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Submerged cultivation of Saccharopolyspora erythraea, at different initial spore concentrations, was carried out to study the inter-relationship between inoculum concentration, morphology, rheology and erythromycin production. Pellet morphology was dominant in runs at 10³ and 10(4) spore/ml initial spore concentrations, whereas there was a significant presence of clump morphology in runs at initial spore concentrations of 10(5)-10(7) spore/ml. The S. erythraea cultivation broths exhibited Newtonian rheology in runs at initial spore concentrations of 10³ and 10(4) spore/ml, whereas at higher initial spore concentrations the rheological data could be fitted with the power law model. Runs in which clump morphology was predominant resulted in the highest erythromycin productivities. The findings of the present work suggest that the predominance of clump morphology, smaller sized clumps and, in the case of non-Newtonian S. erythraea cultivation broths, a decrease in viscosity enhance erythromycin production.

Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis

Wang,Liping; Zhang,Yuanshu
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

Mutation and cloning of eryG, the structural gene for erythromycin O-methyltransferase from Saccharopolyspora erythraea, and expression of eryG in Escherichia coli.

Paulus, T J; Tuan, J S; Luebke, V E; Maine, G T; DeWitt, J P; Katz, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
A mutant strain derived by chemical mutagenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly known as Streptomyces erythreus) was isolated that accumulated erythromycin C and, to a lesser extent, its precursor, erythromycin D, with little or no production of erythromycin A or erythromycin B (the 3"-O-methylation products of erythromycin C and D, respectively). This mutant lacked detectable erythromycin O-methyltransferase activity with erythromycin C, erythromycin D, or the analogs 2-norerythromycin C and 2-norerythromycin D as substrates. A 4.5-kilobase DNA fragment from S. erythraea originating approximately 5 kilobases from the erythromycin resistance gene ermE was identified that regenerated the parental phenotype and restored erythromycin O-methyltransferase activity when transformed into the erythromycin O-methyltransferase-negative mutant. Erythromycin O-methyltransferase activity was detected when the 4.5-kilobase fragment was fused to the lacZ promoter and introduced into Escherichia coli. The activity was dependent on the orientation of the DNA relative to lacZ. We have designated this genotype eryG in agreement with Weber et al. (J.M. Weber, B. Schoner, and R. Losick, Gene 75:235-241, 1989). It thus appears that a single enzyme catalyzes all of the 3"-O-methylation reactions of the erythromycin biosynthetic pathway in S. erythraea and that eryG codes for the structural gene of this enzyme.

Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

Yan, W; Taylor, D E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.28%
The mechanism of resistance to erythromycin, the drug of choice in the treatment of campylobacter gastroenteritis, was investigated. Erythromycin resistance (MICs, greater than 1,024 micrograms/ml) in three clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and one C. coli isolate was determined to be constitutive and chromosomally mediated. In vivo protein synthesis in erythromycin-susceptible C. jejuni and C. coli strains was completely inhibited by low levels of erythromycin (5 micrograms/ml), whereas a high concentration of the antibiotic (100 micrograms/ml) had no effect on protein synthesis in erythromycin-resistant strains. Biological assays showed that extracellular degradation of erythromycin was not responsible for erythromycin resistance in strains of Campylobacter species. The rates and amounts of uptake of [14C]erythromycin by resistant and susceptible campylobacter cells were determined to be similar. Binding assays with purified campylobacter 70S ribosomes as well as 50S ribosomal subunits showed that those from erythromycin-resistant strans bound much less [14C]erythromycin than did those from susceptible strains. Genomic DNA from C. coli UA585 was used to transform erythromycin resistance to C. coli UA417. The erythromycin resistance marker was associated with a 240-kb SmaI fragment of the C. coli UA585 genome. Our results rule out erythromycin inactivation or efflux and are not consistent with the production of an RNA methylase...

Erythromycin-Inducible Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Requirements for Induction

Weisblum, B.; Siddhikol, C.; Lai, C. J.; Demohn, V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1971 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
At least two functionally different types of ribosomes are found in strains of Staphylococcus aureus which display “dissociated” resistance to erythromycin. One type of ribosome is found under conditions of growth in ordinary nutrient broth, and the second is formed during growth in the presence of erythromycin. In these strains, erythromycin acts as an inducer of resistance to three different classes of inhibitors of the 50S ribosomal subunit—the macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B-type antibiotics. The optimal inducing concentration of erythromycin is between 10−8 and 10−7m. Concentrations as low as 10−9m can produce a 10-fold increase in resistant cells over the uninduced, background level, whereas concentrations greater than 10−7m block induction owing to inhibition of protein synthesis. Resistant cells begin to appear within 5 to 10 min after addition of erythromycin (to 10−7m), and within 40 min (i.e., about one generation) more than 90% of the entire culture is resistant to erythromycin as well as to lincomycin and vernamycin Bα. A resistant culture becomes sensitive if grown for 90 min in the absence of erythromycin. The process of induction is inhibited by chloramphenicol and streptovaricin, which inhibit protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis...

Erythromycin improves gastric emptying in critically ill patients intolerant of nasogastric feeding

Chapman, M.; Fraser, R.; Kluger, M.; Buist, M.; De Nichilo, D.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intravenous erythromycin on gastric emptying and the success of enteral feeding in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients with large volume gastric aspirates. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: General intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients intolerant of nasogastric feeding (indicated by a residual gastric volume of > or =250 mL during feed administration at > or =40 mL/hr). INTERVENTIONS: After a gastric aspirate of > or =250 mL, which was discarded, the enteral feeding was continued at the previous rate for 3 hrs. Intravenous erythromycin (200 mg) or placebo was then administered over 20 mins. The residual gastric contents were again aspirated and the volume was recorded 1 hr after the infusion began. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Gastric emptying was calculated as volume of feed infused into the stomach over 4 hrs minus the residual volume aspirated. Mean gastric emptying was 139+/-37 (+/-SEM) mL after erythromycin and -2+/-46 mL after placebo (p = .027). Nasogastric feeding was successful in nine of ten patients treated with erythromycin and five of ten who received placebo 1 hr after infusion (chi-square p = .05). CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients who have large volumes of gastric aspirates indicating a failure to tolerate nasogastric feeding...

Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of erythromycin in man: Absolute bioavailability and comparison with enteric coated erythromycin

Somogyi, A.; Bochner, F.; Hetzel, D.; Williams, D.
Fonte: PLENUM PUBL CORP Publicador: PLENUM PUBL CORP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
To determine the role of acid hydrolysis on the gastrointestinal absorption of erythromycin, six healthy subjects received erythromycin as a 240 mg intravenous dose, a 250 mg oral solution administered via endoscope directly into the duodenum and bypassing the stomach, and an enteric-coated 250 mg capsule. Blood samples were collected for 6 hours and serum erythromycin quantified by a microbiological method. The time to achieve maximum serum concentrations for the solution was 0.25 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SD) hours and for the capsule was 2.92 +/- 0.55 hours. The absolute bioavailability of erythromycin from the capsule was 32 +/- 7% and for the duodenal solution 43 +/- 14%. The ratio of the areas under the serum erythromycin concentration-time curve of capsule to solution was 80 +/- 28% (range 38 to 110%). There is substantial loss of erythromycin apart from gastric acid hydrolysis, which cannot be accounted for by hepatic first-pass metabolism. Attempts to further improve the oral bioavailability of erythromycin beyond 50% by manipulation of formulation are likely to be futile.

Erythromycin dose of 70 mg accelerates gastric emptying as effectively as 200 mg in the critically ill

Ritz, M.; Chapman, M.; Fraser, R.; Finnis, M.; Butler, R.; Cmielewski, P.; Davidson, G.; Rea, D.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of 70-mg and 200-mg doses of intravenous erythromycin in improving gastric emptying in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Gastric emptying was measured on consecutive days; day 1 (pre-treatment), day 2 (post-treatment) after an intravenous infusion of either 70 or 200 mg erythromycin or saline placebo (0.9%), in a randomized double-blind fashion. SETTING: Mixed medical/surgical intensive care unit, tertiary referral. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five randomly selected, mechanically ventilated, enterally fed critically ill patients (median APACHE II score 19 on admission). INTERVENTIONS: On day 2 either 70 or 200 mg erythromycin or saline was administered intravenously over 20 min. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Gastric emptying was measured using the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. The gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) and half-emptying time (t1/2) were calculated from the area under the 13CO2-recovery curve. Pre-treatment gastric emptying measurements were similar in all three patient groups. Treatment with both doses of erythromycin significantly reduced the gastric t1/2: 70 mg, 98 min (IQR 88-112); 200 mg, 86 min (75-104); vs. placebo, 122 min (102-190) (p<0.05). The GEC was higher with both doses of erythromycin: 70 mg...

Erythromycin is more effective than metoclopramide in the treatment of feed intolerance in critical illness

Nguyen, Q.; Chapman, M.; Fraser, R.; Bryant, L.; Holloway, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to a) compare the efficacy of metoclopramide and erythromycin in the treatment of feed intolerance in critical illness; and b) determine the effectiveness of "rescue" combination therapy in patients who fail monotherapy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Level III mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Ninety mechanically ventilated, medical patients with feed-intolerance (gastric residual volume>or=250 mL). INTERVENTIONS: Patients received either metoclopramide 10 mg intravenously four times daily (n=45) or erythromycin 200 mg intravenously twice a day (n=45) in a double-blind, randomized fashion. After the first dose, nasogastric feeding was commenced and 6-hourly nasogastric aspirates were performed. If a gastric residual volume>or=250 mL recurred on treatment, open-label, combination therapy was given. Patients were studied for 7 days. Successful feeding was defined as 6-hourly gastric residual volume<250 mL with a feeding rate>or=40 mL/hr. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographic data, blood glucose levels, and use of inotropes, opioids, and benzodiazepines were similar between the two groups. After 24 hrs of treatment, both monotherapies reduced the mean gastric residual volume (metoclopramide...

Plasma erythromycin concentrations predict feeding outcomes in critically ill patients with feed intolerance

Nguyen, Q.; Grgurinovich, N.; Bryant, L.; Burgstad, C.; Chapman, M.; Holloway, R.; Mangoni, A.; Fraser, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
OBJECTIVE: Motilin receptors are rapidly down-regulated by exposure to erythromycin, and its progressive loss of clinical prokinetic effect may relate to higher plasma drug concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between plasma erythromycin concentrations and feeding outcomes in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Observational comparative study. SETTING: Tertiary critical care unit. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine feed-intolerant (gastric residual volume >250 mL) mechanically ventilated, medical critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received intravenous erythromycin 200 mg twice daily for feed intolerance. MEASUREMENTS: Plasma erythromycin concentrations were measured 1 and 7 hrs after drug administration on day 1. Success of enteral feeding, defined as 6-hourly gastric residual volume of ≤ 250 mL with a feeding rate ≥ 40 mL/h, was recorded over 7 days. RESULTS: At day 7, 38% (11 of 29) of patients were feed tolerant. Age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores, serum glucose concentrations, and creatinine clearance were comparable between successful and failed feeders. Both plasma erythromycin concentrations at 1 and 7 hrs after drug administration were significantly lower in successfully treated patients compared to treatment failures (1 hr: 3.7 ± 0.8 mg/L vs. 7.0 ± 1.0 mg/L...

Randomized double-blind crossover study to determine the effects of erythromycin on small intestinal nutrient absorption and transit in the critically ill

Deane, A.; Wong, G.; Horowitz, M.; Zaknic, A.; Summers, M.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Sim, J.; Maddox, A.; Bellon, M.; Rayner, C.; Chapman, M.; Fraser, R.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
BACKGROUND: The gastrokinetic drug erythromycin is commonly administered to critically ill patients during intragastric feeding to augment small intestinal nutrient delivery. However, erythromycin has been reported to increase the prevalence of diarrhea, which may reflect reduced absorption and/or accelerated small intestinal transit. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of intravenous erythromycin on small intestinal nutrient absorption and transit in the critically ill. DESIGN: On consecutive days, erythromycin (200 mg in 20 mL 0.9% saline) or placebo (20 mL 0.9% saline) were infused intravenously between 220 and 0 min in a randomized, blinded, crossover fashion. Between 0 and 30 min, a liquid nutrient containing 3-Omethylglucose (3-OMG), [13C]triolein, and [99mTc]sulfur colloid was administered directly into the small intestine at 2 kcal/min. Serum 3-OMG concentrations and exhaled 13CO2 (indices of glucose and lipid absorption, respectively) were measured. Cecal arrival of the infused nutrient was determined by scintigraphy. Data are medians (ranges) and were analyzed by using Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test. RESULTS: Thirty-two mechanically ventilated patients were studied. Erythromycin increased small intestinal glucose absorption [3-OMG AUC360: 105.2 (28.9–157.0) for erythromycin compared with 91.8 (51.4–147.9) mmol/L _ min for placebo; P = 0.029] but tended to reduce lipid absorption [cumulative percentage dose 13CO2 recovered: 10.4 (0–90.6) compared with 22.6 (0–100) %; P = 0.06]. A trend to slower transit was observed after erythromycin [300 (39– 360) compared with 228 (33–360) min; P = 0.07]. CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of erythromycin increases small intestinal glucose absorption in the critically ill...

Concentrations of erythromycin, 2'-acetyl erythromycin, and their anhydro forms in plasma and tonsillar tissue after repeated dosage of erythromycin stearate and erythromycin acistrate.

Gordin, A; Männistö, P T; Antikainen, R; Savolainen, S; Ylikoski, J; Kokkonen, P; Rauramaa, V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
The concentrations of erythromycin, 2'-acetylerythromycin (2'-AE) and their anhydro forms in plasma and tonsillar tissue were analyzed after a 3-day repeated-dosage regimen of erythromycin stearate (ES; 500 mg twice a day [b.i.d]) and erythromycin acistrate (EA), a new erythromycin prodrug, at two doses (400 and 500 mg b.i.d.). The tonsils of 40 patients were removed at 112 to 329 min after intake of the last dose. Blood samples were collected at the time of tonsillectomy and at 0, 2, and 6 h after the last dose. At all time points, EA produced severalfold more total antibiotic (erythromycin + 2'-AE) concentrations in plasma compared with ES. There were two nonabsorbers in the ES group, but none in the two EA groups. The mean total antibiotic levels in tonsillar tissue after EA treatment exceeded the levels after treatment with ES by a factor of 3 (for EA at 400 mg b.i.d.) and 4.5 (for EA at 500 mg b.i.d.). The ratios of erythromycin concentration in tonsil to that in plasma at the time of tissue removal were quite similar for all groups (means, 0.51 to 0.54). In the EA groups, 2 of 26 (8%) patients had no measurable erythromycin in the tonsillar tissue samples, whereas in the ES group, 3 of 14 (21%) patients had no measurable erythromycin in the same tissue. The degree of hydrolysis of 2'-AE to erythromycin was about 25% in plasma at the time of tonsillectomy for both EA groups and about 40% in tonsillar tissue. There were negligible amounts of anhydro forms in plasma after EA administration...

Estudo comparativo de duas técnicas farmacopéicas de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos fármacos: nistatina, eritromicina, neomicina e gentamicina; Comparison of two pharmacopeical thecnics to the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the drugs: nystatin, erythromycin, neomycin and gentamicin

Vital, Tatiane Margato; Reis, Cleomenes; García-Zapata, Marco Túlio Antonio; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Através das técnicas de difusão em ágar com discos de papel e cilindros de aço inoxidável, analisou-se quantitativamente a atividade antimicrobiana de 123 medicamentos contendo os fármacos: nistatina (43 amostras de creme vaginal), eritromicina (14 amostras de comprimidos e 9 amostras de suspensão oral), gentamicina (33 amostras de líquido injetável) e neomicina (24 amostras de creme de uso tópico), mediante as seguintes cepas de microrganismos: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2601 para a nistatina; Staphylococcus epidermidis 12228 para a gentamicina e neomicina e Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 para a eritromicina. O preparo das cepas, soluções de padrão e amostra e meios de cultura nos dois métodos seguiram as recomendações da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV (1988) e Farmacopéia Americana 24 (2000). Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelos testes de Fisher (p=0,05) e Student (p=0,05). Dentre as 43 amostras de nistatina creme vaginal analisadas, verificaram-se pelo teste de Student , diferenças pouco significativas (para p=0,05) de atividade antimicrobiana entre os métodos dos discos e cilindros; porém no teste de Fisher não houve diferenças. Nas amostras de eritromicina, gentamicina e neomicina não se obtiveram diferenças significativas entre os testes estatísticos de Fisher e Student. Conclui-se que...

Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Argentina

Lopardo,Horacio A.; Hernandez,Claudia; Vidal,Patricia; Vazquez,Miryam; Rosaenz,Liliana; Rubinstein,Gabriela; Smayevsky,Jorgelina; Tokumoto,Marta; Fernandez Lausi,Adriana; Daher,Omar; Kaufman,Sara; Soriano,Silvia V.; Brasili,Susana; Bottiglieri,Marina; Car
Fonte: Medicina (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Erythromycin (ERY) resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes has recently emerged as a problem of growing concern all through the world. We are presenting the comparison of results of the continuous surveillance of erythromycin resistance in S. pyogenes performed since 1989 in the Hospital de Pediatría J.P.Garrahan of Buenos Aires City, with independently observed rates in other five centers of Buenos Aires and seven centers of six other Argentinian cities, obtained between 1999 and 2001. A significant increase of erythromycin resistance was observed among S. pyogenes isolated in the Hospital Garrahan (6.6% in 1998-1999 to 9.9% in 2000). Similar trends were also detected in other centers of other Argentinian cities when recent data were compared to results of a multicenter study performed in 1995. However, lower rates of resistance were recorded in Mendoza, Cipolletti and Neuquén in comparison with data of 1995, 1998 and 1998 respectively. The reason of such decreasing resistance rates deserves to be investigated. The average of ERY-resistance rates obtained in the surveyed centers was 6.7% (range 0.5 - 14.1%). Control of antimicrobial use should be performed to warrant the future effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics regarding the positive association between use and resistance. These results also suggest that susceptibility tests for macrolides should be performed whenever S. pyogenes is isolated in Argentina.

Inhibition of the Corrosion of Zinc in 0.01 - 0.04 M H2SO4 by Erythromycin

Eddy,N.O.; Odoemelam,S.A.; Ogoko,E.C.; Ita,B.I.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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Inhibition of the corrosion of zinc in 0.01 to 0.0 4 M H2SO4 by erythromycin was studied using weight loss and hydrogen evolution methods. The results obtained indicate that erythromycin is a good adsorption inhibitor for the corrosion of zinc in H2SO4 solutions. The inhibition efficiency of erythromycin increases with increasing concentration but decreases with increase in temperature. Thermodynamic and adsorption studies reveal that the adsorption of erythromycin on zinc surface is exothermic, spontaneous and is characterised with increasing degree of orderliness. The adsorption characteristics of the inhibitor are best described by the Langmuir adsorption model. From the variation of inhibition efficiency with temperature and the calculated values of the activation and free energies (which are within the limits expected for physical adsorption), we propose that the adsorption of erythromycin on zinc surface is consistent with the mechanism of physical adsorption.