The regulations and procedures for the training and assessment of pathologists engaged in morbid anatomy and histology, medical microbiology, haematology, and clinical chemistry in the countries of the European Economic Community are reviewed. Differences in the terminology used in the description of pathological disciplines are noted. Suggestions are made by which harmonisation of training, which is an EEC objective, could be achieved.
This research is an interdisciplinary approach to the EEC banking harmonization process. The methodology employed consists in focusing the subject from the legal, economic and political Science perspectives. Therefore, the underlying purpose of the research is to study the legal outcomes within their context. The research is subdivided in several parts. The first part is a legal approach to both the first and second Banking Directives as the cornerstones of the EEC banking harmonization process. The detailed analysis of both Directives from an EEC legal perspective is a condition precedent for the understanding of how is being shaped the Community Financial Policy. The Second Part is a political science approach to the role of interest within the EEC decision making process. More specifically, it is an attempt to show how banks can influence legislators for the achievement of their objectives. An additional study to this second part, is constituted by the analysis of the Community policies in consumer protection. This sector provides us with comparative information for an estimation of the importance of "interest” within the shaping of regulatory policies within the EEC. A socioeconomic approach to credit institutions strategies1 for the controlling of financial markets is the subject of the third part. Through the study of the United States current "deregulatory" trends...
The thesis examines how the European Commission responded to the challenges posed by Britain’s and Ireland’s attempts to join the European Economic Community (EEC) between 1958 and 1972.1 The part played by the Commission in the enlargement process of the 1960s is one that has received little critical attention by scholars dealing with the history of European integration. Each chapter examines the enlargement question largely from the Commission’s perspective intertwined with British and Irish views. It therefore moves beyond the more traditional focus of scholarly research that has to date been almost exclusively based around national accounts of how the Community went from six to nine members in January 1973. This dissertation aims, in part, to fill this void in the history of the early years of the EEC.; Defence date: 20 February 2009; Examining Board:
Prof. Pascaline Winand (EUI/Monash University) - supervisor
Prof. N. Piers Ludlow (London School of Economics) - co-supervisor
Prof. Kiran Klaus Patel (EUI)
Prof. Jan van der Harst (University of Groningen)
Both the European Community (EC) and its Member States agree that it is in their best interest to coordinate their action vis-à-vis the rest of the world in international trade agreements. Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy looks at the intricacies of the institutional framework of EC trade law, and with special emphasis on services trade, examines the law and practice of EC external trade relations from a policy, economic, legal and an overarching European constitutional perspective. The objective of the author’s analysis is not only to find ways to nurture and preserve the unitary character of EC external trade relations in areas of shared competence between EU Member States and EU institutions, but also to understand the management of the EC’s external trade relations. The book begins with an analysis of the evolution of the EC common commercial policy, through which the author examines the checks and balances at the micro, meso and macro levels. The author then proceeds to analyse the problems faced by the EU in its external relations and the legal complexity of mixed agreements. This unique legal phenomenon is tackled from an intra-EC perspective as well as from an extra-EU perspective taking into account various implications for third parties. The major EU institutions are examined: the Commission as the negotiator of international trade agreements...
The main objective of this study is to examine the phenomenon of dual nationality in the European Union (EU), particularly against the background of the status of European citizenship - a status that is linked to the nationality of each EU Member State (Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides that ‘citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship’). The study consists of two parts. The first part (Chapters 1 and 2) sets out the approach towards (dual) nationality in Private International Law and EU Law, in particular by analyzing the case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The second part (Chapters 3- 6) consists of an overview of the dual nationality regimes in four EU Member States - France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain -, and their possible effects on the EU as a whole. Chapter 2 of the thesis is entitled the ‘intra-EU context’, since it primarily deals with the ECJ’s approach towards a dual nationality consisting of two Member State nationalities. The country reports, on the other hand, deal with the ‘extra-EU context’ because the dual nationality policies of the countries under consideration predominantly affect non-Member State nationals. Thus...
No Abstract Available; Defense Date: 20/01/2011; Examining Board:
Prof. Marie-Ange MOREAU (European University Institute)
Prof. Marise CREMONA (European University Institute)
Prof. Catherine BARNARD (University of Cambridge)
Prof. Claire KILPATRICK (London School of Economics and Political Science)
The aim of this research is to analyse the interrelationship between Private International Law and European Union law in the area of contractual obligations. The Rome I Regulation on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations is used to delimit the scope of research. The material rules of Rome I will be discussed in order to demonstrate that the instrument follows the traditional European conflict of laws approach without any specific orientation towards internal market objectives. The influence of Union law upon PIL goes however beyond positive harmonisation, being the codification of conflict of law norms on the European level. In the analysis of the effects of Union law upon the conflict of law process, a distinction will be drawn between international and =European‘ contracts. As regards international contracts Rome I could be used to establish the international scope of application of secondary Union law when the contract involves a link with a third country. However the legislator seems to have given preference to an autonomous approach based upon the object and purpose of the relevant instrument. These directives create nuisance in the conflict of law process and it will be proposed to integrate sector specific scope rules in Rome I. With regard to contracts that exclusively have connections with two or more Member States it will be analysed to what extent rules of contract law are caught by the fundamental freedoms. It will be argued that primary law does not favour ex ante the application of the law of a specific Member State...
This thesis explores the impact of the increasing role of systematisation in European law on the example of EU risk regulation as a reference area. It argues that systematisation in European law has a much wider impact than what is regularly perceived as rationalisation. It creates a new integration-method, which economises European law to an extend that it effects the state-making and society building in EU law. In this respect, it also contributes to the legitimacy of EU legal action and shapes the EU constitution. Risk regulation forms an ideal test case for this thesis as it has emerged in recent years from a sector-specific and reactive field of law to an increasingly coherent and autonomous legal system at European level, which follows its own rules and procedures. While within the two main regimes of risk regulation, which I call ‘new approach’ and ‘new governance’, systematisation developed at a different speed and under different circumstances, these concepts are increasingly merged at European level. When I talk about the technique of systematisation, however, this concept requires adjustment as to the features of European law. While systematisation has been a main feature of the state-making agenda of nation-states...
This thesis examines the difficult creation of a common European research policy as part of the process of the emergence of the European Community (EC)/European Union (EU) as an increasingly powerful global political and economic actor. It shows that strong discursive continuity and institutional path-dependency, together with the ability of the promoters of the common research policy to adapt their claims to a broader ideational framework, were the key factors that enabled the EC to enlarge its role in a field in which it originally lacked policy competence, and in which states have traditionally been reluctant to pool national sovereignty in supranational institutions. Moreover, the concept of EC/EU research policy, and the concrete steps towards its realisation, would not have been possible without three fundamental ideational and political transformations: the changing relationship between science and the state and the subsequent establishment of national institutions and practices to promote and orient scientific activity the emergence of economic growth as an ubiquitous political objective in all industrialised countries and the increasing conceptualisation of science in economic terms the rapid liberalisation of the world markets...
In May 1950, Robert Schuman, then the Foreign Minister of France proposed the
establishment of a common market among the countries of Western Europe in coal,
iron, and steel. The treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community came
into effect a little over two years later, and its success encouraged the creation
of the other communities, the Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic
Community itself. The latter began to operate at the beginning of 1958 and extended
to the whole field of international trade the principles which underlay the original
common market in coal and steel.
À la suite de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’Europe est affaiblie et divisée. Les horreurs de la guerre amènent les Européens à repenser leur cohabitation et l’idée d’une Europe, unie par des liens économiques et politiques forts, germe dans l’esprit des Européens. Ils créent alors la CECA en 1951 puis, sept ans plus tard, la Communauté économique européenne. Puisque cette dernière aura du succès, certains pays européens, dont la Grande-Bretagne, demandent à la rejoindre. La France d’alors, sous la présidence de Charles de Gaulle, s’oppose à cette demande d’adhésion à deux reprises, en 1963 et en 1967. Il faut attendre l’arrivée de Georges Pompidou à l’Élysée pour que Londres intègre la CEE. L’élargissement de la Communauté est un évènement important; il a un impact direct sur le rôle de la France en Europe et dans le monde. Il a également une incidence certaine sur le rôle de l’Europe dans le monde bipolaire de l’époque, ainsi que sur ses relations avec l’allié américain.
La presse des pays concernés suivra ces évènements avec intérêt, telle la presse quotidienne française, qui commente abondamment les décisions prises par son gouvernement. Le présent mémoire, qui étudie certains journaux d’importance à la lumière des ouvrages d’érudition et des sources primaires...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In the United Kingdom, a central issue of contemporary foreign policy is whether or not to enter into full membership of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Membership has profound implications for the development of the European Union (EU) and the future of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and potentially upon the much heralded Anglo-American 'special relationship'. On a practical level, excluding the political implications of membership, joining the EMU means surrendering the pound sterling for the euro and in doing so the British would also surrender control of monetary policy. This thesis will examine the historical links between British defence and monetary policy and argues that there are strong historical bonds that link the two in the political psychology of Britain. This link has created for Britain twin nationalistic icons in the pound and the military. This thesis illustrates that a paradox exists in that membership in the EMU would improve British defence spending and yet nationalistic forces resist membership. At the same time, forces in Britain in favor of monetary integration, unable to accomplish it but pressured to show they are dedicated to the project of European integration...
Defence date: 28 January 2011; Examining Board:
Prof. Ernst- Ulrich Petersmann (Supervisor), EUI;
Prof. Inger-Johanne Sand, University of Oslo;
Prof. Christian Joerges, University of Bremen;
Prof. Loic Azoulai, EUI.; The aim of the thesis is to explore the function of proportionality analysis (PA) as a tool of judicial adjudication in European law. In this effort the author analyses in the first part of the thesis the way in which European supra-/international courts, notably the ECJ, the EFTA Court and the Human Rights Court, apply PA. The analysis reveals that PA is a flexible instrument of judicial review. In the second part of the thesis the application of PA by UK and Norwegian courts is discussed. The respective countries´ courts have not traditionally applied PA but various reasonableness tests. The purpose of the investigation is thus to shed comparative light on PA by contrasting it with comparable assessment schemes. To the extent PA is taken on by the two national courts the investigation may display the persuasive nature of PA. The legal dogmatic approaches taken in part one and two of the thesis does only partly help determine the function of PA. A broader approach is needed to this end. In part three of the thesis the author firstly discuss what it means that PA consists of both rationality and reasonableness tests and thereafter whether PA is of a substantial or a procedural nature. Concluding that PA is of a procedural nature - securing a legal safeguard for individuals - it is nevertheless clear that PA implies the strengthening of the judiciary. This leads to an elaboration on the virtues and vices of 'judicial governance'. In this connection it is suggested that the establishment of PA as a (general) principle of law (together with the tri-partial structure) is a way in which courts may attempt to legitimise the extensive judicial power...
Defense date: 21/06/2010; Examining Board:
Prof. Harold James (Princeton University - EUI) - supervisor
Prof. N. Piers Ludlow (LSE)
Prof. Kiran Patel (EUI)
Prof. Éric Bussière (Paris IV-Sorbonne); The creation of the European Monetary System (EMS) represents one of the landmarks of post-war European economic and political history, and constitutes a fascinating case-study of the formation of an incipient trans- and supranational polity, namely the European Economic Community (EEC). This thesis is the first detailed archivally-based study of European monetary cooperation from the mid- to late 1970s. It is based on an extensive multi-archival and multinational research, including archives of the French, British and German governments, as well as of EEC institutions (Commission, Council of Ministers, Monetary Committee, Committee of Central Bank Governors). This thesis analyses the complex interaction between the numerous actors involved in the process (Finance Ministers, heads of government, central bankers, economic advisors, academic economists) at various levels (domestic, EEC, international), and explains why and how the attention shifts from one level to another. In order to explain the reasons, modes and the extent to which Western European governments were willing to further their monetary cooperation through the EEC...
This paper applies a partial equilibrium
model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the
prospective economic partnership agreement between the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the
European Union. The authors find that, under standard import
price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating
tariffs on all imports from the European Union would
increase ECOWAS' imports from the European Union by
10.5-11.5 percent for selected ECOWAS countries, namely Cape
Verde, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. This increase in imports
would be accompanied by a 2.4-5.6 percent decrease in total
government revenues, owing mainly to lower fiscal revenues.
Tariff revenue losses should represent 1 percent of GDP in
Nigeria, 1.7 percent in Ghana, 2 percent in Senegal, and 3.6
percent in Cape Verde. However, the revenue losses may be
manageable because of several mitigating factors, in
particular the likelihood of product exclusions, the length
of the agreement's implementation period, and the scope
for reform of exemption regimes. The large
country-by-country differences in fiscal revenue loss
suggest that domestic tax reforms and fiscal transfers
within ECOWAS could be important complements to the
Expanded employment opportunities across
the continent have been one of the most significant changes
to have taken place in Europe during the past 50 years.
Since the inception of the European Economic Community in
1957 involving 6 countries (Belgium, France, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany) with a
combined population of less than 200 million, the European
Union (EU) has grown to encompass nearly 500 million people
across 27 member countries that produce, in total, about 30
percent of the world's total gross domestic product.
May 2010 marked the six-year anniversary of the inclusion of
eight countries from Central and Eastern Europe (Czech
Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the
Slovak Republic and Slovenia) into the EU, followed by
Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007. An important
consequence of these 10 new member states (henceforth EU10)
joining the EU has been to expand the internal EU labor
market, albeit to varying extents for nationals of different
member countries. Migration flows out of the EU10 following
the 2004 enlargement is hampered by various technical and
data constraints. As a result...
The ongoing crisis should spur deeper
European integration, rather than a return to the
nationalism of the past. The World Development Report 2009,
reshaping economic geography, spotlights several issues for
new European Union (EU) member states. From 1950 to 1990,
Eastern Europe was impermeable to the flow of goods,
services and ideas from the West, and grew slowly. During
the same period, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in
fourteen Western European economies grew at three times the
pace of Eastern Europe. The drivers of West European growth
were market economies, regional cooperation, and global
economic integration. The European Economic Community,
started by six Western European nations in 1957, continued
to increase its membership with the ultimate aim of full
economic and monetary integration. After the collapse of the
former Soviet Union in 1991, the EU10 countries, along with
Malta and Cyprus, joined the expanded European Union, an
economic zone based on the principles of democracy, markets
and the free mobility of goods...