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Parental Financial Assistance and Young Adults’ Relationships With Parents and Well-Being

Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the impact of parental financial assistance on young adults’ relationships with parents and well-being. Conditional change models were estimated to evaluate the effects of parental financial assistance reported in Wave 3 (ages 18 – 26) and Wave 4 (ages 24 – 32) of the study. The results (Ns ranged from 9,128 to 13,389 across outcomes) indicated that financial assistance was positively associated with changes in depressive symptoms and closeness to both mothers and fathers in both periods. Changes in self-esteem were less robustly linked to parental financial assistance. Although the observed pattern with respect to parent – child relations held regardless of the progress young people had made in the transition to adulthood, the effects for well-being, which were also relatively small in magnitude, did not. In particular, changes in depressive symptoms associated with financial assistance were concentrated among individuals occupying adult social roles.

Evaluating the net additionality of industrial development assistance in Ireland

Lenihan, Helena; Hart, Mark; Roper, Stephen
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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56.34%
peer-reviewed; This paper examines an approach to estimating the net additionality of financial assistance to indigenously-owned firms in Ireland for the period 2000 to 2002. Using a sample of Enterprise Ireland assisted-firms an innovative self-assessment case study methodology was adopted in order to test the ways in which estimates of partial deadweight can be derived. The results show that the net additionality of Enterprise Ireland assistance can be estimated as around 50 per cent for this sample of case studies which represent a pool of clients which accounted for just-over two-thirds of the financial assistance provided by Enterprise Ireland in the period of the study.

Who You Train Matters : Identifying Complementary Effects of Financial Education on Migrant Households

Doi, Yoko; McKenzie, David; Zia, Bilal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.47%
There has long been a concern among policymakers that too much of remittances are consumed and too little saved, limiting the development impact of migration. Financial literacy programs have become an increasingly popular way to try and address this issue, but to date there is no evidence that they are effective in inducing savings among remittance-receiving households, nor is it clear whether such programs are best targeted at the migrant, the remittance receiver, or both. The authors conducted a randomized experiment in Indonesia which allocated migrants and their families to a control group, a migrant-only training group, a family member-only training group, and a training group in which both the migrant and a family member were trained. Three rounds of follow-up surveys are then used to measure impacts on the financial knowledge, behaviors, and remittance and savings outcomes of the remaining household. They find that training both the migrant and the family member together has large and significant impacts on knowledge...

History and Evolution of Social Assistance in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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56.52%
Over the past 13 years, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has moved from a set of temporary, crisis-driven social assistance initiatives towards a more permanent system of social assistance programs. This background paper aims to provide a brief history of the major developments in the GOI's household-targeted social assistance policy and programs with more limited discussion of supply-side and community social assistance initiatives. The note is organized chronologically with developments in social assistance presented together with information about the economic, political and social contexts in which these developments occurred. Indonesia's economic growth was also associated with substantial declines in the poverty, especially among rural households. The poverty headcount fell from 54.2 million to 34.5 million Indonesians and poverty incidence fell from 41.1 to 17.7 percent. While poverty reduction was not a policy objective in GOI documents until the early 1990s, the GOI's agricultural and rural development strategies and commitment to human capital investment through financing and provision of education and health services also contributed to poverty reduction. Furthermore...

Dominica : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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56.34%
Over the past five years, Dominica has experienced rising fiscal deficits and increasing debt levels, associated mainly with slow adjustment to declining growth rates, and an increase in commercial borrowing to finance public investments. In an effort to stabilize the economy, the government entered into a Standby Arrangement with the IMF in late August 2002. The implementation of the stabilization program under this agreement was intended to achieve a reduction in the government's deficit and to eliminate all domestic arrears by the end of FY2003, however performance to date has been questionable. With the IMF Standby Arrangement in place, the rules governing financial management are key to ensure that government spending remains within the fiscal constraints currently facing the economy. In tandem with this program, Dominica has requested technical and financial assistance from the World Bank in the form of an Economic Recovery Support Operation (ERSO). This operation, currently under preparation, would support the government's effort to regain economic sustainability and promote growth while mitigating the impacts of adjustment and protecting past social gains.

Indonesia - Financial Support for Public Private Partnerships : Guarantee Fund and World Bank Assistance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.44%
The Government of Indonesia has expressed interest in the World Bank's help in determining the best options for financing mechanisms to support public-private partnership (PPP) development. The Government would like to explore wholesale-type approaches via the establishment of a guarantee fund with financial support from the Bank and other multilateral institutions. This note discusses how the guarantee fund and the Bank's support will best work, presentation of options, how this concept relates to the current work on risk management strategies, and relevant international experience. After describing the background behind Indonesia s need for a guarantee fund, the report goes over possible steps in establishing a fund, and compares other governments experiences. Next, the concept of a government-sponsored guarantee fund is defined, along with its risks and benefits. The World Bank can provide advisory and financial support in the establishment of the guarantee fund. The last section describes the next steps to be taken by the government of Indonesia.

Arab Donors Respond Favorably to the Global Financial Crisis

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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46.48%
The World Bank's 2010 study, Arab Development Assistance: four decades of cooperation, showed that Arab countries have been generous donors over the years, particularly the three Gulf countries - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which represent over 90 percent of total Arab aid provided by those countries on which information is available. This paper confirms that the generosity extends to the period of the global financial and economic crisis. Arab Gulf countries and regional financial institutions were responsive to this new reality and collectively scaled up financial assistance to address critical development and humanitarian needs in developing countries.

Côte d’Ivoire - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Volume 1. Main Report; Cote d'Ivoire - Revue de la gestion et du systeme des finances publiques

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.48%
This review was conducted in Cote d'Ivoire with the goal of establishing the reference situation of the management and system of public finances, including procurement, and facilitating the monitoring of the impact of the reforms to improve the management and efficiency of public policies and their fiduciary framework. The review presents three in-depth analyses. After summarizing the main conclusions and recommendations of the priority measures, the review presents the results of the following analyses: i) public expenditure review, which analyses recent macro-economic and fiscal developments in relation to the budget execution and Cote d'Ivoire's poverty reduction strategy; ii) review of the public financial management system, conducted on the basis of the findings of the "Public Financial Management Performance Report" (PFM PR), which constitutes volume two of this review. The PFM PR was prepared using the "Public Financial Management Performance Measurement Framework" established in the context of the partnership under the "Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability" (PEFA) program; and iii) review of the public procurement system prepared on the basis of findings of the "Public Procurement Assessment Report". This report...

Côte d’Ivoire - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Volume 3. Public Procurement Assessment Report; Cote d'Ivoire - Revue de la gestion et du systeme des finances publiques

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
This review was conducted in Cote d'Ivoire with the goal of establishing the reference situation of the management and system of public finances, including procurement, and facilitating the monitoring of the impact of the reforms to improve the management and efficiency of public policies and their fiduciary framework. The review presents three in-depth analyses. After summarizing the main conclusions and recommendations of the priority measures, the review presents the results of the following analyses: i) public expenditure review, which analyses recent macro-economic and fiscal developments in relation to the budget execution and Cote d'Ivoire's poverty reduction strategy; ii) review of the public financial management system, conducted on the basis of the findings of the "Public Financial Management Performance Report" (PFM PR), which constitutes volume two of this review. The PFM PR was prepared using the "Public Financial Management Performance Measurement Framework" established in the context of the partnership under the "Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability" (PEFA) program; and iii) review of the public procurement system prepared on the basis of findings of the "Public Procurement Assessment Report". This report...

How Should Donors Respond to Resource Windfalls in Poor Countries? From Aid to Insurance

Dobronogov, Anton; Gelb, Alan; Brant Saldanha, Fernando
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.47%
Natural resources are being discovered in more countries, both rich and poor. Many of the new and aspiring resource exporters are low-income countries that are still receiving substantial levels of foreign aid. Resource discoveries open up enormous opportunities, but also expose producing countries to huge trade and fiscal shocks from volatile commodity markets if their exports are highly concentrated. A large literature on the "resource curse" shows that these are damaging unless countries manage to cushion the effects through countercyclical policy. It also shows that the countries least likely to do so successfully are those with weaker institutions, and these are most likely to remain as clients of the aid system. This paper considers the question of how donors should respond to their clients' potential windfalls. It discusses several ways in which the focus and nature of foreign aid programs will need to change, including the level of financial assistance. The paper develops some ideas on how a donor like the International Development Association might structure its program of financial transfers to mitigate volatility. The paper outlines ways in which the International Development Association could use hedging instruments to vary disbursements while still working within a framework of country allocations that are not contingent on oil prices. Simulations suggest that the International Development Association could be structured to provide a larger degree of insurance if it is calibrated to hedge against large declines in resource prices. These suggestions are intended to complement other mechanisms...

Republic of South Sudan : Country Integrated Fiduciary Assessment Southern Sudan, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment
Português
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46.48%
The purpose of this Country Integrated Fiduciary Assessment (CIFA) is: (i) to assess the quality of public finance management and procurement systems in South Sudan; and (ii) to then determine the extent of fiduciary risk posed to domestic and external tax payers by the government's use of their funds through these systems. South Sudan has great potential for further increases in living standards, but achieving them will require large improvements in public services, both in access and in quality. In turn, Public Finance Management (PFM) and procurement systems need to be strengthened in order to improve public services; this will require linking spending more tightly to policy objectives and strengthening the operational efficiency of expenditures. In sum, strengthened PFM and procurement systems are not an end in themselves but, rather, the necessary means to achieving the ultimate objective: improved service delivery in South Sudan. This CIFA will be used by the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) and by the country state governments to inform their design or reforms of PFM and procurement systems and...

Nicaragua: Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.44%
The overarching goal of this Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) i s to assist the Government in achieving effective implementation of its strategy for strengthened growth and poverty reduction through good public financial management. Some of the report's general conclusions are as follows: The laws and regulations governing public financial management are generally sound, but need to be consolidated and modernized. The Government has gradually improved budget classification, realism and participation of executing entities in its preparation. Still, there is budget incrementalism and an effective separation of recurrent and investment budgeting. The Government's integrated financial management system has considerably improved public financial management, establishing the concept of increased efficiency through integration of budgeting, accounting, treasury, public debt and procurement. Operation of the treasury single account system has contributed significantly to effective cash position controls...

The World Bank Annual Report 2009; Banque Mondiale rapport annuel 2009 : bilan de l'exercice Banco Mundial informe anual 2009 : resena del ejercicio Relatorio annual de 2009 do Banco Mundial : ano em perspectiva; Year in Review, Volume 2. Financial statements

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: World Bank Annual Report
Português
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46.48%
The World Bank group, among the world's largest development institutions, is a major source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. In fiscal 2009, the World Bank group sponsored 767 projects with a total commitment of $58.8 billion, distributed in credits, loans, grants, and guarantees. This fiscal year's funding marks a 54 percent increase over the previous fiscal year and a record high for the Bank group. The Bank group's investment projects are aimed largely at improving infrastructure services associated with poverty reduction and enhanced growth. In fiscal 2009, the Bank group committed $20.7 billion to infrastructure, a critical sector to provide the foundation for rapid recovery from the crisis and to support job creation. The sustainable infrastructure action plan, launched in July 2008, will leverage up to $72 billion to provide additional financing of up to $149 billion in public and private investments over fiscal 2009-11. The Bank group's investment projects are aimed largely at improving infrastructure services associated with poverty reduction and enhanced growth.

Republic of Panama : Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability; Panama - Informe del desempeno de la gestion de las finanzas publicas (PEFA)

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
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46.44%
Panama's public financial management (PFM) system displays several strengths with respect to the fiscal position, debt management, and payroll administrative controls, but from a systemic perspective budget preparation and budget credibility issues undermine the efficiency of sectoral investment plans and make it difficult to advance on other improvements in the public sector. An efficient and transparent allocation of budgetary resources allows the government to achieve value for money in delivering public services. This assessment is undertaken at the request of the Government of Panama (GoP) which is in the process of reforming and modernizing its public finances, and is therefore interested in establishing both a baseline for future PFM performance measures and the degree of management alignment to internationally accepted best practices. The public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) methodology provides relevant information on current management and will allow establishment or adjustment of a reform strategy to improve PFM quality. This PEFA assessment provides a reference and a baseline for two projects and a baseline for the GoP to measure progress of the current reform. The projects are: (i) the program to strengthen fiscal management financed by Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)...

Assessing the Financial Vulnerability to Climate-Related Natural Hazards

Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer, Stefan; Pflug, Georg; Lotsch, Alexander; Williges, Keith
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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56.53%
National governments are key actors in managing the impacts of extreme weather events, yet many highly exposed developing countries -- faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness, and limited donor assistance -- have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged infrastructure and restore livelihoods after major disasters. Such financial vulnerability hampers development and exacerbates poverty. Based on the record of the past 30 years, this paper finds many developing countries, in particular small island states, to be highly financially vulnerable, and experiencing a resource gap (net disaster losses exceed all available financing sources) for events that occur with a probability of 2 percent or higher. This has three main implications. First, efforts to reduce risk need to be ramped-up to lessen the serious human and financial burdens. Second, contrary to the well-known Arrow-Lind theorem, there is a case for country risk aversion implying that disaster risks faced by some governments cannot be absorbed without major difficulty. Risk aversion entails the ex ante financing of losses and relief expenditure through calamity funds...

Response of the Arab Donors to the Global Financial Crisis and the Arab Spring

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Development assistance from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Arab financial institutions has been responsive in addressing development and humanitarian needs in many developing countries. Since the global financial crisis (2008-2011), the combined net official development assistance (ODA) from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the UAE peaked at US$ 6.5 billion in 2008at the height of the global financial crisis. It has since remained relatively high at US$ 4.8 billion annually on average. Total ODA from the three also increased significantly as a share of gross national income, yielding a weighted average of 0.55 percent during 2008-2011, compared to 0.49 percent in the previous four years. The share of Arab financial institutions' aid to International Development Association (IDA) recipients grew by 9 percentage points between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012, reaching 47 percent of total commitments. The overall annual average of financial assistance provided to Arab Spring countries by Arab financial institutions in 2011 and 2012 was slightly higher than the average during the global economic and financial crisis...

Egypt - Positive Results from Knowledge Sharing and Modest Lending : An IEG Country Assistance Evaluation 1999-2007

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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46.53%
This country assistance evaluation reviews World Bank support to the Arab Republic of Egypt from fiscal 1999 through 2007. Egypt's economic performance over the period improved substantially. This was particularly true after 2004, following improvements in economic management, an increase in the pace of structural reforms, and correction of the exchange rate. Gross domestic product growth averaged about five percent over the period, rising to almost seven percent in 2006 and 2007. Human development indicators improved significantly. However, progress in poverty reduction has been disappointing, with a deterioration in the poverty headcount, particularly in Upper Egypt. Future Bank strategy needs to reflect Egypt's middle-income status by including a flexible lending program and an emphasis on knowledge services, including reimbursable technical assistance. The Bank can further strengthen the partnership by focusing on: (i) the persistent issue of poverty and inequality; (ii) analytic work on macroeconomic analysis and income disparities and its improved dissemination; (iii) further financial sector reforms and promoting continued reforms in systems that indirectly combat corruption; and (iv) sectoral strategies and policy and institutional reforms in infrastructure and energy.

Communicating About Costs: A qualitative analysis to understand the out-of-pocket financial burden associated with cancer care

Harris, Jessica R.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 Português
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46.55%
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Policy Question In the context of the Affordable Care Act, what factors create financial burden for female breast cancer patients eligible for Medicare? Specifically, how can LIVESTRONG, a leading cancer advocacy organization, minimize the individual burden from out-of-pocket costs? Recommendations The goal of this study was two-fold: 1) develop recommendations to target LIVESTRONG ‘s research about the practical concerns of survivorship, and 2) improve the effectiveness and impact of LIVESTRONG’s navigation services. Correspondingly, my recommendations are separated into these two categories. Past research on patient-provider communication, medical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness precede this work. All recommendations were evaluated using the criteria of minimizing implementation costs, and maximizing collaboration and buy-in among stakeholders, and maximizing applicability to clients of diverse backgrounds. Further Research 1. Conduct market research to develop a segmented approach to assist different client groups. OOP costs are a universal challenge. However, different types of individuals (age, gender, race, socio-economic position, insurance type, etc.) access information in different ways. These groups likely have different coping strategies and varying comfort levels in discussing costs. The Medicare population in this study...

Kinship Status and Life Course Transitions as Determinants of Financial Assistance to Adult Children

Remle, Robert Corey
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 817572 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 21/04/2008 Português
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56.5%
This dissertation contributes to the literature on intergenerational transfers by examining the dynamics of financial assistance provided by midlife parents to their adult children across the life course. This dissertation also examines whether the cumulative advantage hypothesis stretches across generational lines during co-occurring life course experiences so that financial transfers convey additional advantages to adult children. I use panel data from four waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1992, 1994, 1996 and 1998) to provide a broad picture of the process of financial assistance to younger adults within extended families. I constructed within-family trajectories of assistance to demonstrate that financial transfers are more common than previously estimated. Over 60% of all midlife-parent households gave $500 or more at least once and many parents gave multiple transfers and/or gave transfers to several adult children during a seven-year period. In an examination of kinship structures that differentiates between paternal children and maternal children within blended families, I use nonlinear logistic regression models to show that the decreased likelihood that fathers provided financial assistance to children from a previous marriage accounted solely for the reduction in transfers that all stepchildren received compared to biological children. Multilevel regression models demonstrate that transfer amounts are also influenced by kinship structures and parental resources. Additional analyses show adult child life course transitions related to schooling and coresidence were influential for parents' transfer behaviors while other life course transitions related to work...

The effects of federal financial assistance: attitudes and actions of local emergency managers

Crabill, Amy L.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Yanich, Danilo; Scholars agree that, since the inception of the Department of Homeland Security, emergency management in the United States has been increasingly centralized. This study posits that centralization has been a longer term trend with negative effects on federal relationships. This dissertation examines the pay arrangements between the local and federal governments with respect to the Emergency Management Performance Grant and the Public Assistance Program. A nationwide study of county emergency managers investigated the attitudes towards these two programs and related budgetary actions. Respondents were asked to consider the extent of federal control over these financial assistance programs and the extent to which they were dependent upon them for program sustainment. Results of the study show that elements of federal control are more evident in the program that requires only a 25% match by the local government. Further, emergency managers report that their organizations are dependent on federal aid and experience decreased autonomy as a result of the receipt of funds. Lastly, budgetary activities on the local level which would guard against this dependence and loss of autonomy are generally not undertaken.; University of Delaware...