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A DVA como instrumento para mensuração da relação custo-benefício na concessão de incentivos fiscais: um estudo de casos ; The value-added statement as an instrument for measuring the cost-benefit relationship for concession of fiscal incentives: a case study

Rodrigues Junior, Manuel Salgueiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Os incentivos fiscais são instrumentos utilizados pelas esferas governamentais com o intuito de desenvolver determinada região. Essa concessão é baseada na premissa que, os benefícios trazidos com a presença de indústrias superam os custos decorrentes da renúncia fiscal. Entretanto, essa relação Custo-Benefício vem sendo questionada, considerando-se que os custos de manter a empresa na região superam os benefícios gerados. Com o intuito de investigar essa situação, duas indústrias do ramo de fiação e tecelagem no Estado do Ceará foram pesquisadas. Elas foram beneficiadas pelos incentivos fiscais, e denominadas de empresa “A” e “B”. Foi calculado o Índice Custo-Benefício (ICB) de cada uma, sendo considerados os montantes dos benefícios e custos passíveis de mensuração. Na metodologia de cálculo dos benefícios foi utilizada a Demonstração do Valor Adicionado – DVA. Para os custos, foi considerado o total de tributos dispensados de recolhimento. Os resultados apontaram que os benefícios foram superiores aos custos (ICB > 1) em ambas as empresas. Entretanto, o índice foi decrescente na empresa “A”, podendo evidenciar uma dependência perigosa dos incentivos fiscais, a ponto de comprometer a continuidade da empresa caso fossem removidos. A empresa “B” apresentou o índice constante...

Desempenho do Município de São José do Hortêncio no Índice de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Social e de Gestão (IRFS) no período de 2006 até 2009

Freitas, Louise Ramos da Cunha
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.08%
O presente trabalho estuda as razões dos excelentes desempenhos obtidos pelo município de São José do Hortêncio no Índice de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Social e de Gestão (IRFS) de 2006 até 2009. O Índice de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Social e de Gestão (IRFS), criado em 2002, busca compreender, bem como estimular a melhoria das gestões municipais via disseminação da cultura de responsabilidade administrativa entre as prefeituras nacionais brasileiras (CONFEDERAÇÃO NACIONAL DOS MUNICÍPIOS, 2006), introduzindo outras dimensões, ultrapassando a dimensão puramente fiscal, tais como a gestão eficiente dos recursos públicos e o desempenho social (no campo da educação e da saúde). O trabalho aborda questões como Gestão Pública Municipal, Finanças Públicas Municipais (Receitas e Despesas), Indicadores e Índice de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Social e de Gestão (IRFS). O estudo tem como objetivo analisar os resultados obtidos pelo município de São José do Hortêncio no Índice de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Social e de Gestão (IRFS) de 2006 até 2009. Para tanto, a presente pesquisa exploratóriadescritiva via estratégia de estudo de caso recorre à análise documental, bem como à aplicação de entrevistas com gestores municipais da Prefeitura de São José do Hortêncio. Ao longo do período analisado...

Incompatibilidade entre o Fundeb e a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal quanto à despesa com pessoal e encargos sociais : um estudo nos municípios paraibanos

Queiroz, Dimas Barrêto de
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Programa Multiinstitucional e Inter-regional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Contábeis, 2011.; Este trabalho propõe uma discussão sobre o conflito entre uma política social e uma política fiscal brasileira. De um lado, existe o Fundeb, cujo objetivo é universalizar o atendimento à educação básica pública, determinando que, no mínimo, 60% dos recursos desse fundo devem ser aplicados na remuneração dos profissionais do magistério. Por outro lado, existe a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF), que restringe os gastos com pessoal e encargos sociais a, no máximo, 54% da receita corrente líquida (RCL) arrecadada anualmente pelos Municípios. Nesse sentido, a administração pública municipal convive com duas normas em sentidos opostos, embora possuam bases de cálculo diferentes. Em 2009, ano no qual o Fundeb terminou seu processo de implantação, 35,87% do municípios paraibanos ultrapassaram o índice máximo para gastos com pessoal determinado pela LRF. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em verificar se existe incompatibilidade entre o Fundeb e a LRF quanto à despesa com pessoal e encargos sociais nos municípios paraibanos. Trata-se de um estudo de survey, avaliado sob a ótica quantitativa e caracterizado como descritivo. A técnica utilizada consistiu na regressão logística ou modelo logit. Os dados foram processados pelo programa estatístico E-Views 5.0. A pesquisa revelou que...

Creating Fiscal Space for Poverty Reduction in Ecuador : A Fiscal Management and Public - Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
This report consists of two volumes. Volume I examines whether, and how, the core goals of public expenditure management, i.e., balanced fiscal aggregates, resource allocations to strategic sectors, and equity and microeconomic efficiency of public spending are met in Ecuador. Volume II presents sector studies on fiscal sustainability, the fiscal rules, education, health, pensions, the results of a national teachers tracking survey, water and sanitation, electricity, telecommunications and oil. Volume II deals with sectoral policies, and their link to fiscal management. It identifies the most efficient and cost-effective interventions in the social sectors, while making an optimal use of the reduced and available fiscal space. The study also recognizes the importance of political constraints, and the difficulties of setting steady rules in a non-cooperative game among national political actors that are particularly reflected in budget allocations.

Seychelles : Public Sector Debt and Prospects for Successful Economic Reform

Kojo, Naoko C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
Seychelles is at a development crossroads. With public sector debt at over 200 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), manifested by years of poor macroeconomic management and rigid economic structure, the economy has been experiencing a serious downturn since the beginning of the 2000s. While real GDP contracted by cumulative nine percent for the past four years, the significantly overvalued rupee has led to a loss of export competitiveness, leading to persistent balance of payments difficulties. Following independence in 1976, Seychelles adopted a state-led development model, in which the Government plays a dominant role in every segment of the economy through extensive controls and regulations. It intervened directly in manufacturing, distribution, trade and other economic activities through its parastatals, often at the expense of private sector development. Provision of education and health services was predominantly the responsibility of the Government. Seychelles is faced with formidable challenges in the years ahead. With public sector debt at some 200 percent of GDP, manifested by decades of poor policy management, there is no painless solution to Seychelles debt predicament. For Seychelles the primary tool to reduce the debt burden...

How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the impact of the silent revolution of the last three decades on moving governments closer to people to establish fair, accountable, incorruptible and responsive governance. To accomplish this, a unique data set is constructed for 182 countries by compiling data from a wide variety of sources to examine success toward decentralized decision making across the globe. An important feature of this data set is that, for comparative purposes, it measures government decision making at the local level rather than at the sub-national levels used in the existing literature. The data are used to rank countries on political, fiscal and administrative dimensions of decentralization and localization. These sub-indexes are aggregated and adjusted for heterogeneity to develop an overall ranking of countries on the closeness of their government to the people. The resulting rankings provide a useful explanation of the Arab Spring and other recent political movements and waves of dissatisfaction with governance around the world.

Technical Note on the Methodology for the Allocation of Intergovernmental Grants in the Republic of Belarus

Timofeev, Andrey; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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25.87%
This technical note evaluates the methodology proposed by the Ministry of Finance for the allocation of transfers to subnational governments and suggest a number of alternative options for various grant design elements Overall, the framework laid out in the Budget Code and the implementation approach developed in the draft methodology conform to sound principles in fiscal decentralization and the best international practices. However, a number of elements of the methodology still need to be elaborated and some elements might need to be revised.

The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development

McMahon, Gary; Moreira, Susana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Many low and middle-income mineral-rich countries have experienced strong growth for a decade or longer, propelled by a rapid expansion of their mineral exports and a rise in prices of these commodities. This sustained strong economic performance goes against the accepted wisdom that even though the mining sector, like other extractive industries, can generate foreign exchange and fiscal revenues, it contributes little to sustained economic growth and, by extension, human development. Through the presentation of trends and patterns of various indicators, this paper shows that in addition to economic growth, countries rich in minerals other than oil have experienced significant improvements in their human development index (HDI) scores that are on average better than those experienced by countries without minerals. In a sample of five low and middle-income countries with relatively long histories of mining, benefits came from foreign direct investment (FDI), export revenues, and fiscal revenues. The overall impact of the mining sector was much stronger if there were infrastructure benefits and strong linkages to other industries...

Indonesia Economic Quarterly, October 2013 : Continuing Adjustment

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The Indonesia Economic Quarterly (IEQ) has two main aims. First, it reports on the key developments over the past three months in Indonesia's economy, and places these in a longer-term and global context. Based on these developments and on policy changes over the period, the IEQ regularly updates the outlook for Indonesia's economy and social welfare. Second, the IEQ provides a more in-depth examination of selected economic and policy issues, and analysis of Indonesia's medium-term development challenges. It is intended for a wide audience, including policymakers, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals engaged in Indonesia's evolving economy. A key component of the reform process has been the devolution of responsibility for basic education services to local governments and schools, and improvements in local governance can thus play a vital role in raising the quality of basic education and ensuring children leave school with adequate skills. Indeed...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : A Public Expenditure Review, Volume 1. Synthesis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Libya's 2008-12 development programs is the biggest and most ambitious Public Investment Program (PIP) ever. Public expenditure has also been pro-poor. Past outcomes show that Libyan authorities have worked on their macroeconomic and social fundamentals, so as to have a solid base to sustain its steady progress toward building a market-based economy and reintegrating into the world economy. Making optimal use of a sizable public expenditure, and especially public investment, is an essential component of achieving this strategy. The reports built upon the framework of fiscal management in oil-dependent economies, which features three parts. The first deals with collecting and saving oil revenues, leading to one stream of a large literature exploring both fiscal sustainability and the pros and cons of alternative models of an oil stabilization fund. The second deals with development spending, leading to a second stream of a large literature assessing standards in public investment and the many effects of sizable public investment programs. The third deals with financing current spending...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : A Public Expenditure Review, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Libya's 2008-12 development programs is the biggest and most ambitious Public Investment Program (PIP) ever. Public expenditure has also been pro-poor. Past outcomes show that Libyan authorities have worked on their macroeconomic and social fundamentals, so as to have a solid base to sustain its steady progress toward building a market-based economy and reintegrating into the world economy. Making optimal use of a sizable public expenditure, and especially public investment, is an essential component of achieving this strategy. The reports built upon the framework of fiscal management in oil-dependent economies, which features three parts. The first deals with collecting and saving oil revenues, leading to one stream of a large literature exploring both fiscal sustainability and the pros and cons of alternative models of an oil stabilization fund. The second deals with development spending, leading to a second stream of a large literature assessing standards in public investment and the many effects of sizable public investment programs. The third deals with financing current spending...

Impact and Implications of Recent and Potential Changes to Brazil's Subnational Fiscal Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Brazil's subnational fiscal framework has remained a source of unabated controversy despite its relative stability over the past decade. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nature and impact of recent and expected changes to Brazil's subnational fiscal framework in light of these debates. More specifically, this work has focused on recent and proposed changes to: 1) the Tax on Goods Circulation, Communication and Inter-municipal and Inter-state Transportation Services (ICMS); 2) the State Participation Fund (FPE) as well as the transfers from oil and mining royalties; and 3) the subnational debt and borrowing framework. These three broad areas are precisely the ones that are the center of the current debate on Brazil's subnational fiscal framework. In order to achieve the proposed objective, three background papers were commissioned, each covering one of the issues outlined above. The main value-added of this study is an examination-and an attempt at a quantification of the impacts of the changes underway in these three dimensions of Brazil's intergovernmental fiscal framework. The remainder of this synthesis report is organized as follows. Section two provides a brief overview of how Brazil's subnational fiscal framework currently works. Section three describes the ongoing efforts to reform Brazil's subnational fiscal framework and points to the advantages of a more coordinated approach over a piecemeal one. Section four discusses the expected fiscal impact on subnational governments of the most likely reform scenarios. Section five concludes. Finally...

India : Sustaining Reform, Reducing Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: New Delhi: Oxford University Press Publicador: New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
The report analyzes India ' s continued good progress in increasing incomes, and improving living standards over the past decade, which after the setback associated with the 1991 balance of payments crisis, economic growth picked up, income poverty continued to decline, and many social indicators, in particular literacy, continued to improve. Likewise, there has been an opening to private activity, trade policy and the exchange rate regime have been further liberalized, and capital markets have been reformed, leading to an improved investment climate. Nonetheless, development progress has been steady, but uneven, while in addition, the recent growth deceleration was accompanied by a slowdown in investment, especially in the private sector. The fiscal position of the general government has now also deteriorated, with a rising budget deficit, the result of a significant increase in government consumption, and continued low revenue mobilization. But at the same time, prudent monetary policy has helped contain inflation...

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Reforming Local Public Finance for More Efficient, Equitable, and Fiscally Sustainable Subnational Spending

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
This report reviews intergovernmental fiscal relations in Moldova and recommends ways to improve the efficiency and equity of local public finance, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. Local public authorities are responsible for meeting key public service delivery needs. They play a major role in education and bear primary responsibility for urban and rural functions such as water supply and local road construction and maintenance. But local authorities are unable to fulfill this role due to sub-optimal size, inadequate financial capacity, and low administrative capacity. The Government of Moldova is reforming intergovernmental fiscal relations, as part of broader commitments under the national decentralization strategy (2012). They set new rates for sharing national taxes with the two tiers of local government, introduce formulas for transfers to local governments, and remove subordination in financial relations between top and bottom tiers of local government. This report reviews recent reforms in local public finance and makes suggestions to further improve subnational expenditures...

Mongolia - Consolidating the Gains, Managing Booms and Busts, and Moving to Better Service Delivery : A Public Expenditure and Financial Management Review - Core Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
Mongolia's external economic outlook is dramatically changing as it faces sharp reductions in the copper price, caused by the financial crisis and global downturn. This compels the government now to drastically cut spending to prudently manage the budget. The budget is extremely dependent on mining revenues. Government is taking the right step in proposing a balanced budget for 2009. But further adjustments will be needed given the continuing fall in copper prices. A prudent fiscal stance will also be needed to manage inflation, which accelerated in the past year to over 30 percent. The current situation highlights the need to manage mining revenues better than in recent years. Mongolia saved little during the boom years, but instead dramatically increased expenditures on wages and salaries, and poorly-targeted social transfers. Adopting a multi-year fiscal framework-which enforces saving during the boom years, sets limits to expenditure growth and debt, and ensures transparency to the public-can help. Since much of the past windfall revenues have been spent...

Accelerating Trade and Integration in the Caribbean : Policy Options for Sustained Growth, Job Creation, and Poverty Reduction

Hamilton, Pamela Coke; Tsikata, Yvonne; Moreira, Emmanuel Pinto
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.54%
This volume builds on the foundation laid by the 2005 report by focusing on the factors affecting the region's competitiveness and the critical role that the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) has to play as a driver of integration and economic development. In addition it highlights the potential of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), if properly implemented, to significantly increase the region's competitiveness and to help it attain long-term sustained development. This potential, however, will only be realized if precise trade and competitiveness strategies are crafted to focus primarily on removing the constraints to competitiveness endemic in the region. In addition, and this is a critical element of any newly-devised strategy, is the necessity to revise regional institutional mechanisms and mandates to promote implementation and to take advantage of the market access opportunities presented by successive trade agreements such as the EPA. This report, while highlighting the need for immediate and concrete actions on the part of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) member states...

South-South Cooperation : How Mongolia Learned from Chile on Managing a Mineral-Rich Economy

van den Brink, Rogier; Sayed, Arshad; Barnett, Steve; Aninat, Eduardo; Parrado, Eric; Hasnain, Zahid; Khan, Tehmina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Mongolia's mineral-rich economy was hit extremely hard by the global downturn during 2008-9, when copper prices plunged, external demand fell, and growth collapsed. The shock exposed serious underlying weaknesses in the management of the country's natural resource wealth, particularly the lack of policies to insulate the economy from commodity cycles and real exchange rate appreciation pressures, an inadequate safety net, and poor public investment planning. These issues gained further urgency with the signing of a major copper mining deal in 2009 that further increased the country's mineral dependence. As part of its reform efforts and with the assistance of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the government began an intensive south-south exchange, notably with Chile, another major copper producer, on strengthening the policy environment. The dialogue proved critical in the passage of several landmark laws within the space of a few years, including a fiscal stability law modeled after Chile...

Angola : Oil, Broad-Based Growth, and Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
This book points out that the main issues confronting the Angolan authorities in their efforts to consolidate macroeconomic stability on a sustainable basis and in promoting an improvement in the welfare of the Angolan citizens do not seem to differ significantly from those addressed in the 1990 report. Therefore, in the current Country Economic Memorandum, the Bank reassesses some of the key issues that remain relevant nowadays and that should help the Angolan economy reach a path of sustainable economic development. The analysis in this report centers around the following four core issues: (i) taking stock of socio-economic realities; (ii) the options available for the management of the country's mineral wealth without deleterious macroeconomic consequences; (iii) the main constraints to economic diversification away from the mineral sectors; and (iv) the challenges and opportunities to improve the welfare of the population. Each of these core issues forms the building blocks that provide an overview of the current situation and a possible solution to Angola's structural problems in the short to the medium term. The report thus plays an informative role and offers policy recommendations. In Chapter 1...

Compatibilizando a responsabilidade fiscal com o social na gestão de pequenos municípios: um estudo de caso em uma prefeitura do rio de janeiro; Compatibilizando la responsabilidad fiscal con lo social en la gestión de pequeños municipios: un estudio de caso en una municipalidad de Río de Janeiro; Matching fiscal responsibility with social responsibility in the management of small municipalities: a case study of mendesin the Rio de Janeiro State

Andrade, Carolina Riente de; Coscarelli, Bruno Vidigal; Paula, Caésio de Sousa; Ckagnazaroff, Ivan Beck
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.03%
This article is a descriptive and quantitative case study about the financial management of Mendes, a small municipality with modest GDP in the Rio de Janeiro state. It identifies strategies applied by City Hall to achieve satisfactory results in the fiscal, social and managerial areas. Records from 2005 to 2007 were used to obtain information on the municipal situation regarding fiscal and social responsibilities. Data were analyzed by using the Kohama quotients, quotients of the financial situation, of the permanent situation and of the assets; the horizontal and vertical analysis and the model proposed by Fleuriet, Kehdy and Blanc (1978). Analysis shows that Mendes has achieved good results according to the Fiscal and Social Responsibility Index and that changes in the financial structure and balance sheets have been positive. In summary it is possible for a small Brazilian municipality to achieve fiscal responsibility without undermining the ability to make social and managerial investments; O presente artigo, que se baseia em um estudo de caso de caráter descritivo e de natureza quantitativa, tem como objetivo descrever o comportamento financeiro de um pequeno município com Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) modesto e que apresenta índices de responsabilidade fiscal...

Responsabilidade social e investimento social privado: entre o discurso e a evidenciação; Social responsibility and private social investment: between discourse and disclosure

Milani Filho, Marco Antonio Figueiredo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar se as empresas que se declaram socialmente responsáveis divulgam informações financeiras específicas sobre os recursos gastos em benefício público (investimento social privado) e, também, verificar se há diferença significativa da dimensão desses gastos entre empresas cujos produtos estão associados a externalidades negativas e as organizações participantes do Índice de Sustentabilidade Empresarial (ISE) da Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Bovespa). A amostra foi formada por 52 empresas, segregando-se em: 34 organizações participantes do ISE e 18 empresas das indústrias de fumo, bebidas alcoólicas e armas. Os dados foram obtidos dos relatórios anuais dos exercícios de 2005 e 2004, páginas eletrônicas e balanços sociais das respectivas empresas, do banco de dados eletrônicos da Bovespa e, ainda, de questionários enviados aos gestores cujas empresas não explicitavam, publicamente, seus projetos sociais. Os resultados apontaram que nem todas as organizações que declaram realizar investimentos sociais evidenciam tal fato. Na amostra, 11,8% das entidades componentes do ISE e 72,2% das organizações vinculadas a externalidades negativas, não divulgam informações financeiras sobre o valor de gastos sociais...