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Existe efeito decoupling entre BRIC e G7?

Santos, Carlos Alberto Barbosa
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC Publicador: Florianópolis, SC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 87 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
Português
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27.44%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia; O objetivo deste trabalho é oferecer uma análise do efeito decoupling. O termo denota o sentido de dissociação, uma divergência dos ciclos de negócios de seu padrão de correlação. A questão que orienta esta pesquisa é: o efeito decoupling realmente existe? Para respondê-la, partimos da premissa de que o padrão de desempenho dos ciclos de negócios dos países do BRIC tornou-se menos sincronizado em relação aos países do G7. As metodologias adotadas para checagem do comportamento entre esses grupos foram a adoção das medidas de similaridade, medidas não-paramétricas de sincronia e a estimativa Pooled de dados agrupados, com frequência trimestral, entre os anos de 1999 a 2009. A análise mostrou que, entre os grupos avaliados, verificou-se a fraca presença do efeito decoupling, o qual não deve ser considerado um comportamento consistente de redução da convergência entre os grupos. Portanto, as relações de convergência entre os ciclos de negócios do BRIC e G7 indicaram a elevação dos níveis de sincronia no período analisado.; The aim of this study is to offer an analysis of the decoupling effect. The term denotes a sense of dissociation...

Determinantes dos pedidos estrangeiros de patentes dos países do G7 nos BRICS

Bornschein, Francine Corrêa
Fonte: Florianópolis Publicador: Florianópolis
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 64 f.
Português
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TCC (graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro Sócio-Econômico. Economia.; Este estudo investiga os determinantes dos pedidos estrangeiros de patentes de origem no G7 (Alemanha, Canadá, Estados Unidos, França, Itália, Japão, Reino Unido) e destino nos BRICs (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China). Com base na revisão da literatura e do cenário mundial de patentes, constrói-se um conjunto de hipóteses que destacam, entre outras variáveis, variáveis de caráter gravitacional, como: distância entre os países emissores e receptores; e o tamanho das economias, medido pelo seu PIB real. Os dados são agrupados em modelo painel, e compreendem 185 observações, referentes aos anos de 1995 a 2006. Os resultados corroboram a literatura empírica, que identifica como variáveis determinantes as variáveis gravitacionais mencionadas, além do investimento direto externo (IDE), exportações e pedidos estrangeiros de patentes dos BRICs no mundo. Com destaque para a última variável, que apresentou alta significância sobre a variável dependente, indicando que a sinalização de conhecimento tecnológico nos países de destino (BRICs) faz aumentar aos olhos dos países emissores (G7) a possibilidade de aqueles descobrirem os segredos das empresas estrangeiras as quais...

Globalization and long-run co-movements in the stock market for the G7: An application of VECM under structural breaks

Menezes, Rui; Dionísio, Andreia
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper analyzes the process of long-run co-movements and stock market globalization on the basis of cointegration tests and vector error correction (VEC) models. The cointegration tests used here allow for structural breaks to be explicitly modeled and breakpoints to be computed on a relative-time basis. The data used in our empirical analysis were drawn from Datastream and comprise the natural logarithms of relative stock market indexes since 1973 for the G7 countries. The main results point to the conclusion that significant causal cointegration effects occur in this context and that there is a long-run relationship that governs the worldwide process of market integration. Globalization, however, is a complex adjustment process and in many cases there is only evidence of weak market integration which means that non-proportional price transmission occurs in the market along with proportional changes. The worldwide markets, as expected, appear to be driven in general by the US stock market.

On the globalization of stock markets: An application of Vector Error Correction Model, Mutual Information and Singular Spectrum Analysis to the G7 countries

Menezes, Rui; Dionisio, Andreia; Hossein, Hassani
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper analyzes stock market relationships among the G7 countries between 1973 and 2009 using three different approaches: (i) a linear approach based on cointegration, Vector Error Correction (VECM) and Granger Causality; (ii) a nonlinear approach based on Mutual Information and the Global Correlation Coefficient; and (iii) a nonlinear approach based on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). While the cointegration tests are based on regression models and capture linearities in the data, Mutual Information and Singular Spectrum Analysis capture nonlinear relationships in a non-parametric way. The framework of this paper is based on the notion of market integration and uses stock market correlations and linkages both in price levels and returns. The main results show that significant co-movements occur among most of the G7 countries over the period analyzed and that Mutual Information and the Global Correlation Coefficient actually seem to provide more information about the market relationships than the Vector Error Correction Model and Granger Causality. However, unlike the latter, the direction of causality is difficult to distinguish in Mutual Information and the Global Correlation Coefficient. In this respect, the nonlinear Singular Spectrum Analysis technique displays several advantages...

Inflation dynamics in open economies: empirical evidence for G7 countries on the role of import prices and the cost channel

Lagoa, S.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 26/04/2013 Português
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26.89%
The supply side effects of nominal interest rate and import prices on inflation are very important for the design of monetary policy. However, the empirical identification of the cost channel has ignored import prices. We start by developing a model which shows that ignoring import prices in the estimation of the cost channel may lead to wrong results. Taking this into account, we study the empirical relevance of the cost channel and import prices using the New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) for the G7 countries. In order to introduce import prices in the NKPC, we test several ways in which imports can affect inflation. It is assessed if imports should be treated as inputs and/or consumption goods, and also if there is immediate or slow exchange rate passthrough. Finally, besides the traditional concept of cost channel, where wages are paid in advance, it is tested whether is relevant to extend the cost channel assuming that imports of final consumption goods are also paid in advance. Empirical results indicate that the cost channel is present in imported consumption good and open economy variables play an important role in explaining inflation dynamics.

Potências médias emergentes e reforma da arquitetura financeira mundial?: Uma análise do BRICS no G20

Ramos,Leonardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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27.33%
A partir de 2000, na cúpula de Okinawa, o sistema G7/8 começou um movimento de outreach, ou seja, tanto de "alcançar" aqueles que se encontravam fora quanto de "expandir" o sistema G7/8. Neste sentido, pela primeira vez países não-participantes do G8 foram envolvidos tanto em encontros do G8 quanto em consultas pré-cúpula. Neste processo a cúpula de Gleneagles, em 2005, foi um marco, pois nesta pela primeira vez há um documento conjunto emitido por Brasil, Índia, China, África do Sul e México (BICSAM) - Outreach Five ou Grupo dos Cinco (+5). Tal articulação entre tais países tendo como foco o sistema G7/8 vai ocorrer até a cúpula de L’Aquila, em 2009. Não obstante, como desde 2008 o G20 vem lidando com tais questões como um fórum de líderes e a partir de 2009 o BRIC passa a se reunir como coalizão, tal articulação paralela ao G8 perde sua relevância. Neste contexto, uma questão que surge diz respeito à relação entre BRICS e G20. Como se dá a ação de tal bloco emergente neste fórum? Qual seu impacto para as decisões tomadas no âmbito de tal fórum? Qual a importância da China neste processo? Questões deste tipo são relevantes uma vez que muitas abordagens sobre o G20 e sobre as potências médias emergentes falam a respeito da legitimidade e da representatividade do G20 sem...

Physical and Functional Interactions between Vaccinia Virus F10 Protein Kinase and Virion Assembly Proteins A30 and G7

Szajner, Patricia; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 Português
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An early step in vaccinia virus morphogenesis, the association of crescent membranes with electron-dense granular material, is perturbed when expression of the viral protein encoded by the A30L or G7L open reading frame is repressed. Under these conditions, we found that phosphorylation of the A17 membrane protein, which is mediated by the F10 kinase, was severely reduced. Furthermore, A30 and G7 stimulated F10-dependent phosphorylation of A17 in the absence of other viral late proteins. Evidence for physical interactions between A30, G7, and F10 was obtained by their coimmunoprecipitation with antibody against A30 or F10. In addition, phosphorylation of A30 was dependent on the F10 kinase and autophosphorylation of F10 was stimulated by A30 and G7. Nevertheless, the association of A30, G7, and F10 occurred even with mutated, catalytically inactive forms of F10. Just as A30 and G7 are mutually dependent on each other for stability, F10 was nearly undetectable in the absence of A30 and G7. The reverse is not true, however, as repression of F10 did not diminish A30 or G7. Interaction of F10 with A30 and G7 presumably occurred within the virus factory areas of the cytoplasm, where each was concentrated. F10 localized predominantly in the cortical region of immature virions...

Loss and Gain of Elicitor Function of Soybean Mosaic Virus G7 Provoking Rsv1-Mediated Lethal Systemic Hypersensitive Response Maps to P3

Hajimorad, M. R.; Eggenberger, A. L.; Hill, J. H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2005 Português
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Rsv1, a single dominant resistance gene in soybean PI 96983 (Rsv1), confers extreme resistance against all known American strains of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), except G7 and G7d. SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR), whereas SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of SMV-G7, induces systemic mosaic. To identify the elicitor of Rsv1-mediated LSHR, chimeras were constructed by exchanging fragments between the molecularly cloned SMV-G7 (pSMV-G7) and SMV-G7d (pSMV-G7d), and their elicitor functions were assessed on PI 96983 (Rsv1). pSMV-G7-derived chimeras containing only P3 of SMV-G7d lost the elicitor function, while the reciprocal chimera of pSMV-G7d gained the function. The P3 regions of the two viruses differ by six nucleotides, of which two are translationally silent. The four amino acid differences are located at positions 823, 915, 953, and 1112 of the precursor polypeptide. Analyses of the site-directed point mutants of both the viruses revealed that nucleotide substitutions leading to translationally silent mutations as well as reciprocal amino acid substitution at position 915 did not influence the loss or gain of the elicitor function. pSMV-G7-derived mutants with amino acid substitutions at any of the other three positions lost the ability to provoke LSHR but induced SHR instead. Two concomitant amino acid substitutions at positions 823 (V to M) and 953 (K to E) abolished pSMV-G7 elicitor function...

Genetic and Cell Biological Characterization of the Vaccinia Virus A30 and G7 Phosphoproteins

Mercer, Jason; Traktman, Paula
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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The vaccinia virus proteins A30 and G7 are known to play essential roles in early morphogenesis, acting prior to the formation of immature virions. Their repression or inactivation results in the accumulation of large virosomes, detached membrane crescents, and empty immature virions. We have undertaken further study of these proteins to place them within the context of the F10 kinase, the A14 membrane protein, and the H5 phosphoprotein, which have been the focus of previous studies within our laboratory. Here we confirm that both A30 and G7 undergo F10 kinase-dependent phosphorylation in vivo and recapitulate that modification of A30 in vitro. Although the detached crescents observed upon loss of A30 or G7 echo those seen upon repression of A14, no interaction between A30/G7 and A14 could be detected. We did, however, determine that the A30 and G7 proteins are unstable during nonpermissive tsH5 infections, suggesting that the loss of A30/G7 is the underlying cause for the formation of lacy or curdled virosomes. We also determined that the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Cts11 virus is due to mutations in two codons of the G7L gene. Phenotypic analysis of nonpermissive Cts11 infections indicated that these amino acid substitutions compromise G7 function without impairing the stability of either G7 or A30. Utilizing Cts11 in conjunction with a rifampin release assay...

B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2·5 non-obese diabetic (BDC2·5NOD) stem cells do not develop autoimmune diabetes

Rajasekaran, N; Wang, N; Hang, Y; Macaubas, C; Rinderknecht, C; Beilhack, G F; Shizuru, J A; Mellins, E D
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In BDC2·5 non-obese diabetic (BDC2·5NOD) mice, a spontaneous model of type 1 diabetes, CD4+ T cells express a transgene-encoded T cell receptor (TCR) with reactivity against a pancreatic antigen, chromogranin. This leads to massive infiltration and destruction of the pancreatic islets and subsequent diabetes. When we reconstituted lethally irradiated, lymphocyte-deficient B6.g7 (I-Ag7+) Rag–/– mice with BDC2·5NOD haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC; ckit+Lin–Sca-1hi), the recipients exhibited hyperglycaemia and succumbed to diabetes. Surprisingly, lymphocyte-sufficient B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2·5NOD HSPCs were protected from diabetes. In this study, we investigated the factors responsible for attenuation of diabetes in the B6.g7 recipients. Analysis of chimerism in the B6.g7 recipients showed that, although B cells and myeloid cells were 98% donor-derived, the CD4+ T cell compartment contained ∼50% host-derived cells. These host-derived CD4+ T cells were enriched for conventional regulatory T cells (Tregs) (CD25+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+] and also for host- derived CD4+CD25–FoxP3– T cells that express markers of suppressive function, CD73, FR4 and CD39. Although negative selection did not eliminate donor-derived CD4+ T cells in the B6.g7 recipients...

Genetic Characterization of Human-Derived Hydatid Cysts of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato in Heilongjiang Province and the First Report of G7 Genotype of E. canadensis in Humans in China

Zhang, Tiemin; Yang, Dong; Zeng, Zhaolin; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Aiqin; Piao, Daxun; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Weizhe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
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Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1–G10) have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6) and G7 genotype (n = 4). All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.

As interrelações envolvendo as principais Bolsas de Valores mundiais: um enfoque utilizando séries temporais

Batista, Arturo Toscanini Soares
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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As alocações de recursos financeiros em aplicações de bolsas de valores passam por análise dos diversos mercados bursáteis. Nesse sentido, este estudo buscou como objetivo principal a análise das inter-relações existentes entre as bolsas de valores do G7 (grupo dos sete países mais economicamente desenvolvidos) e do BRIC (grupo dos quatro principais países emergentes da atualidade). Para concretização desse objetivo, foram utilizados séries temporais dos principais índices dos mercados de bolsas de valores pesquisadas, cujos dados foram coletados pelo período de janeiro de 2003 a setembro de 2008 e métodos econométricos que envolveram as teorias de causalidade de Granger e a previsibilidade entre mercados, decorrida, da utilização do modelo de Vetores Autoregressivos. Os resultados mostram a existência de relações entre os diversos mercados bursáteis. Mostram também que: os índices dos países do G7 ajudam na previsibilidade dos valores dos índices do BRIC; que existe uma abertura de troca entre o mercado chinês e os diversos mercados e que o mercado alemão, representado pela bolsa de valores de Frankfurt, através de seu índice DAX30, influencia significativamente os demais mercados de bolsas de valores; Universidade Estadual de Alagoas

The certification of different mass fractions of AV43-6-G7 in potato tuber powder: ERM®-BF431a, ERM®-BF431b, ERM®-BF431c, ERM®-BF431d and ERM®-BF431e

TRAPMANN Stefanie; CONNEELY Patrick; CORBISIER Philippe; KORTEKAAS Anna Maria; MAZOUA Stephane; SEGHERS JOHN
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report describes the production of a set of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) ERM-BF431a, b, c, d and e, matrix materials certified for their AV43-6-G7 mass fractions. The material has been produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. Genetically modified (GM) tubers of the potato event AV43-6-G7 and of a non-GM potato variety were dried and ground to obtain GM and non-GM potato powders. Beside these two pure materials gravimetric mixtures of non-GM and GM potato powder were prepared by dry-mixing. Between unit-heterogeneity has been quantified and stability during dispatch and storage have been assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. The certified value was obtained from the gravimetric preparations, taking into account the purity of the base materials and their water mass fraction. The certified values were confirmed by event-specific real-time PCR as independent verification method (measurements within the scope of accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005). Uncertainties of the certified values were calculated in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and include uncertainties related to possible heterogeneity, instability, and characterisation. The materials are intended for the calibration or quality control of methods. As any reference material...

Productivity, External Balance and Exchange Rates: Evidence on the Transmission Mechanism among G7 Countries

CORSETTI, Giancarlo; DEDOLA, Luca; LEDUC, Sylvain
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1269789 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper investigates the international transmission of productivity shocks in a sample of ve G7 countries. For each country, using long-run restrictions, we identify shocks that increase permanently domestic labor productivity in manufacturing (our measure of tradables) relative to an aggregate of other industrial countries including the rest of the G7. We find that, consistent with standard theory, these shocks raise relative consumption, deteriorate net exports, and raise the relative price of nontradables -in full accord with the Harrod-Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis. Moreover, the deterioration of the external account is fairly persistent, especially for the US. The response of the real exchange rate and (our proxy for) the terms of trade differs across countries: while both relative prices depreciate in Italy and the UK (smaller and more open economies), they appreciate in the US and Japan (the largest and least open economies in our sample); results are however inconclusive for Germany. These findings question a common view in the literature, that a country's terms of trade fall when its output grows, thus providing a mech- anism to contain differences in national wealth when productivity levels do not converge. They enhance our understanding of important episodes such as the strong real appreciation of the dollar as the US productivity growth accelerated in the second half of the 1990s. They also provide an empirical contribution to the current debate on the adjustment of the US current ac- count position. Contrary to widespread presumptions...

International summitry and global governance : the rise of the G7 and the European Council, 1974-1991

Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Livro
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This volume is the first detailed study of the emergence of regular and frequent heads of government meetings (summits), covering the period from the mid-1970s to the early 1990s. Summit meetings of heads of government have become 'banal' in today's world. Yet they are a relatively recent practice that took off only in the mid-1970s. The aim of the book is to explore the origins of this new feature of global governance in its historical context. Why did heads of Western governments decide to regularly meet up in the European Council and the G7? What were they aiming at? How were these meetings run and what consequences did they have? How did other actors of international relations – states as well as non-state and/or transnational actors - react to this transformation? Based on newly released archival material, International Summitry and Global Governance investigates the rise of regular international summitry and its impact on international relations. The volume brings together the best specialists of this new field of historical enquiry in order to explore those features of global governance in their historical context, and open up an interdisciplinary dialogue with social scientists who have studied summits from their own disciplinary perspectives. This book will be of much interest to students of international history...

Road transport energy consumption in the G7 and BRICS: 1973–2010

Gao, Yi-Xuan; Liao, Hua; Burke, Paul J.; Wei, Yi-Ming
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Road transport will account for a large share of developing countries’ future energy demand. This paper reviews the trends in road transport energy consumption in 12 countries (Group of Seven (G7) and BRICS) over the period 1973–2010. We report several stylised facts: road transport energy use and its share in total energy use have been rising; there were large differences in road transport energy use per capita across countries, resulting from differences in country size, resource endowments, fuel prices and other factors; oil accounts for around 95% of road transport energy in the selected countries except Brazil; oil will likely be the dominant road transport energy source in most countries for some years to come but not in the long run; and the use of alternative road transport energy sources is increasing.; We are thankful for financial support from the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA05150600), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71322306, 71273027 and 71020107026) and Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (No. NCET-13-0040).

Consumption-Wealth Ratio and Expected Stock Returns: Evidence from Panel Data on G7 Countries

Castro, Andressa Monteiro de; Issler, João Victor
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
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Using the theoretical framework of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001), we perform an empirical investigation on how widespread is the predictability of cay { a modi ed consumption-wealth ratio { once we consider a set of important countries from a global perspective. We chose to work with the set of G7 countries, which represent more than 64% of net global wealth and 46% of global GDP at market exchange rates. We evaluate the forecasting performance of cay using a panel-data approach, since applying cointegration and other time-series techniques is now standard prac- tice in the panel-data literature. Hence, we generalize Lettau and Ludvigson's tests for a panel of important countries. We employ macroeconomic and nancial quarterly data for the group of G7 countries, forming an unbalanced panel. For most countries, data is available from the early 1990s until 2014Q1, but for the U.S. economy it is available from 1981Q1 through 2014Q1. Results of an exhaustive empirical investigation are overwhelmingly in favor of the predictive power of cay in forecasting future stock returns and excess returns.

Echinococcus canadensis G7 (Pig Strain): An Underestimated Cause of Cystic Echinococcosis in Austria

Schneider, Renate; Gollackner, Bernd; Schindl, Martin; Tucek, Gerhard; Auer, Herbert
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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Anamnesis data of 104 patients with Cystic Echinococcosis were correlated retrospectively with the detected species/strain of Echinococcus. Ninety-two percent (N = 23) of autochthonous Austrian and 33% (N = 9) of patients with former Yugoslavian (YU) origin were infected with E. canadensis G7, the pig strain. All patients originating from Turkey harbored E. granulosus G1, the sheep strain. All E. canadensis G7-infected patients showed small liver cysts (ø 5.9 cm), only one of them an additional lung cyst. The median age at the time of operation of the Austrian patients was 55 years, of the Turkish patients 30 years, and of the former YU patients 23 years in the E. canadensis and 42 years in the E. granulosus-infected patients, respectively. The unexpected high number of E. canadensis G7-infected patients and the immigrants' young age show the importance of E. canadensis as a cause of human Cystic Echinococcosis in Central Europe and accordingly this new species has to be included into future echinococcosis control programs.

An examination of financial integration for the group of seven (G7) industrialized countries using an I(2) conintegration model

Tahai, A; Rutledge, Robert; Karim, Khondkar
Fonte: Taylor and Francis. The definitive copy can be found at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp. Publicador: Taylor and Francis. The definitive copy can be found at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study investigates financial cointegration of G7 equity markets. The term 'international stock market integration' refers to an area of research in financial economics that covers many different aspects of the interrelationships across equity markets. The cointegration of order tow model, 1(2), that was developed by Johansen is used to specify potential cointegration structure. The empirical validity of this economic model is investigated by employing monthly stock indexes of the Group of Seven (G7) from March 1978 through December 1997 on Morgan Stanley's Capital International (MSCI) indices. This monthly time series data is used to estimate the vector error correction model of order two (VECM(2)). The joint cointegration tests show that (at p < 0.05) there is one common l(2) trend and two I(i) trends in the financial equity market returns of G7 countries. Potential explanations of these results and implications for portfolio diversification strategies are discussed.

Potências médias emergentes e reforma da arquitetura financeira mundial? Uma análise do BRICS no G20

Ramos, Leonardo; Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas)
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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A partir de 2000, na cúpula de Okinawa, o sistema G7/8 começou um movimento de outreach, ou seja, tanto de "alcançar" aqueles que se encontravam fora quanto de "expandir" o sistema G7/8. Neste sentido, pela primeira vez países não-participantes do G8 foram envolvidos tanto em encontros do G8 quanto em consultas pré-cúpula. Neste processo a cúpula de Gleneagles, em 2005, foi um marco, pois nesta pela primeira vez há um documento conjunto emitido por Brasil, Índia, China, África do Sul e México (BICSAM) - Outreach Five ou Grupo dos Cinco (+5). Tal articulação entre tais países tendo como foco o sistema G7/8 vai ocorrer até a cúpula de L’Aquila, em 2009. Não obstante, como desde 2008 o G20 vem lidando com tais questões como um fórum de líderes e a partir de 2009 o BRIC passa a se reunir como coalizão, tal articulação paralela ao G8 perde sua relevância. Neste contexto, uma questão que surge diz respeito à relação entre BRICS e G20. Como se dá a ação de tal bloco emergente neste fórum? Qual seu impacto para as decisões tomadas no âmbito de tal fórum? Qual a importância da China neste processo? Questões deste tipo são relevantes uma vez que muitas abordagens sobre o G20 e sobre as potências médias emergentes falam a respeito da legitimidade e da representatividade do G20 sem...