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Conflitualidades em trânsito : discursos jurídicos e de gêneros no G8-Generalizando(SAJU-UFRGS)

Alimena, Carla Marrone
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Observa-se na presente dissertação um conflito social perene nas sociedades: o choque entre discurso legitimado pelo campo jurídico de gênero e o discurso cotidiano de gênero. A partir da experiência etnográfica no grupo de Assessoria Jurídica Universitária G8- Generalizando (SAJU/UFRGS), vivencia-se o contexto em que há uma intersecção jurídica e de gênero, na qual seus significados modificam-se no tempo. Para contextualizar a existência do campo de pesquisa observam-se significados de gênero na história da legislação brasileira (como o Estatuto da Mulher Casada e a Lei Maria da Penha). Da mesma forma, precedentes de tribunais demonstram significados de interpretação das leis (misturam-se a linguagem do direito e a do cotidiano), ressignificando o direito legitimado pelo campo. Por fim, apresentase a vivência no campo de pesquisa, buscando relatar o que acontece com alguns problemas de gênero e jurídicos que chegam ao G8-Generalizando. Busca-se apontar os diferentes significados das conflitualidades de gênero dentro e nas margens do campo jurídico.; The present dissertation observes an enduring social conflict in today society: the clash between the legal understanding of gender and the average person concept of gender. From the ethnographic experience in the group of University Counsel G8-Generalizando (Assessoria Jurídica Universitária G8-Generalizando – SAJU/UFRGS) the context in which there is a legal and gender discourse...

Functional involvement of G8 in the hairpin ribozyme cleavage mechanism

Pinard, Robert; Hampel, Ken J.; Heckman, Joyce E.; Lambert, Dominic; Chan, Philip A.; Major, Francois; Burke, John M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/2001 Português
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The catalytic determinants for the cleavage and ligation reactions mediated by the hairpin ribozyme are integral to the polyribonucleotide chain. We describe experiments that place G8, a critical guanosine, at the active site, and point to an essential role in catalysis. Cross-linking and modeling show that formation of a catalytic complex is accompanied by a conformational change in which N1 and O6 of G8 become closely apposed to the scissile phosphodiester. UV cross-linking, hydroxyl-radical footprinting and native gel electrophoresis indicate that G8 variants inhibit the reaction at a step following domain association, and that the tertiary structure of the inactive complex is not measurably altered. Rate–pH profiles and fluorescence spectroscopy show that protonation at the N1 position of G8 is required for catalysis, and that modification of O6 can inhibit the reaction. Kinetic solvent isotope analysis suggests that two protons are transferred during the rate-limiting step, consistent with rate-limiting cleavage chemistry involving concerted deprotonation of the attacking 2′-OH and protonation of the 5′-O leaving group. We propose mechanistic models that are consistent with these data, including some that invoke a novel keto–enol tautomerization.

Close Relationship between G8-Serotype Bovine and Human Rotaviruses Isolated in Nigeria

Adah, Mohammed I.; Nagashima, Shigeo; Wakuda, Mitsutaka; Taniguchi, Koki
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 Português
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A bovine rotavirus, NGRBg8, isolated from the feces of a calf with diarrhea in Nigeria was characterized by reverse transcription-PCR, nucleotide sequence analysis, and Northern blot hybridization. The nucleotide sequence of the VP7 gene of the strain was most closely related to that of a Nigerian human G8-serotype strain, HMG035 (99.9%). The NSP1 gene of strain NGRBg8 is highly related (99.4%) to that of a Thai G8 bovine strain, A5-10. Northern blot hybridization revealed a high overall genomic relatedness of bovine strain NGRBg8 with human strain HMG035; all 11 RNA segments hybridized to each other. Thus, the results show the close relationship between G8 bovine and human rotaviruses in Nigeria.

Isolation of DNA markers in the direction of the Huntington disease gene from the G8 locus.

Smith, B; Skarecky, D; Bengtsson, U; Magenis, R E; Carpenter, N; Wasmuth, J J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1988 Português
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To facilitate identification of additional DNA markers near and on opposite sides of the Huntington disease (HD) gene, we developed a panel of somatic-cell hybrids that allows accurate subregional mapping of DNA fragments in the distal portion of 4p. By means of the hybrid-cell mapping panel and a library of DNA fragments enriched for sequences from the terminal one-third of the short arm of chromosome 4, 105 DNA fragments were mapped to six different physical regions within 4p15-4pter. Four polymorphic DNA fragments of particular interest were identified, at least three of which are distal to the HD-linked D4S10 (G8) locus, a region of 4p previously devoid of DNA markers. Since the HD gene has also recently been shown to be distal to G8, these newly identified DNA markers are in the direction of the HD gene from G8, and one or more of them may be on the opposite side of HD from G8.

Mapping of recombinants near the Huntington disease locus by using G8 (D4S10) and newly isolated markers in the D4S10 region.

Skraastad, M I; Bakker, E; de Lange, L F; Vegter-van der Vlis, M; Klein-Breteler, E G; van Ommen, G J; Pearson, P L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1989 Português
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Genetic linkage between the marker G8 (D4S10) and Huntington disease (HD) was studied in six Dutch pedigrees. The informativeness of the D4S10 locus was increased by isolation of a cosmid, C5.5, with a G8 subclone used as probe. We present a restriction map of 70 kb in the D4S10 region. Two subclones of C5.5, H5.52 and F5.53, detect MspI and SinI RFLPs, respectively. These probes increase the informativeness of D4S10 in the Dutch HD population from 55% to 95%. Seven recombinations were found in 124 informative meioses in which multipoint segregation of D4S10 haplotypes and the HD locus was studied. Two of the recombinations occurred within the D4S10 region. The other five recombinations are highly valuable for the mapping of present and future markers relative to each other and to the HD gene. In addition, several recombinations between markers in meioses from unaffected parents were noted, which will also be useful in ordering new markers. On the basis of our three-point recombination data, the orientation of the D4S10 region relative to HD is HD-H5.52-G8-F5.53, which independently confirms the previously derived polarity for D4S10.

Making G8 leaders deliver: an analysis of compliance and health commitments, 1996–2006

Kirton, John J; Roudev, Nikolai; Sunderland, Laura
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8’s contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8’s performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition...

The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study*s⃞

Junyent, Mireia; Tucker, Katherine L.; Smith, Caren E.; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Mattei, Josiemer; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Ordovas, Jose M.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis, and concentrations are modulated by genetic factors and environmental factors such as smoking. Our objective was to assess whether the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at ABCG5/G8 (i18429G>A, i7892T>C, Gln604GluC>G, 5U145A>C, Tyr54CysA>G, Asp19HisG>C, i14222A>G, and Thr400LysC>A) genes with HDL-C differs according to smoking habit. ABCG5/G8 SNPs were genotyped in 845 participants (243 men and 602 women). ABCG5/G8 (i7892T>C, 5U145A>C, Tyr54CysA>G, Thr400LysC>A) SNPs were significantly associated with HDL-C concentrations (P < 0.001–0.013) by which carriers of the minor alleles at the aforementioned polymorphisms and homozygotes for the Thr400 allele displayed lower HDL-C. A significant gene-smoking interaction was found, in which carriers of the minor alleles at ABCG5/G8 (Gln604GluC>G, Asp19HisG>C, i14222A>G) SNPs displayed lower concentrations of HDL-C only if they were smokers (P = 0.001–0.025). Also, for ABCG8_Thr400LysC>A SNP, smokers, but not nonsmokers, homozygous for the Thr400 allele displayed lower HDL-C (P = 0.004). Further analyses supported a significant haplotype global effect on lowering HDL-C (P = 0.002) among smokers. In conclusion...

Molecular Characteristics of German G8P[4] Rotavirus Strain GER1H-09 Suggest that a Genotyping and Subclassification Update Is Required for G8▿

Pietsch, C.; Petersen, L.; Patzer, L.; Liebert, U. G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.36%
A rare G8P[4] rotavirus, designated GER1H-09, was detected in a stool sample from an infant suffering from repeated episodes of emesis for 2 days without diarrhea. Sequencing of all genomic RNA segments was performed, and complete coding sequences were determined. The VP7 amino acid sequence revealed a close phylogenetic relationship to human G8P[6] and G8P[8] isolates from Slovenia and Africa. GER1H-09 shared typical amino acid residues within variable regions VR3 to VR7 with those strains, and their subclassification as lineage G8-II rotaviruses is proposed. The variability in VR3 was identified as the likely reason for the failure in genotyping G8-II rotaviruses by commonly used multiplex PCR. Furthermore, the sequences of associated structural and nonstructural proteins showed high amino acid identities to DS-1-like rotaviruses. The genotype composition of GER1H-09 (G8-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) suggests the occurrence of reassortment events between G8 genotypes and human DS-1-like G2P[4] rotaviruses.

Extensive Molecular Dynamics Simulations Show That Canonical G8 and Protonated A38H+ Forms Are Most Consistent with Crystal Structures of Hairpin Ribozyme

Mlýnský, Vojtěch; Banáš, Pavel; Hollas, Daniel; Réblová, Kamila; Walter, Nils G.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2010 Português
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The hairpin ribozyme is a prominent member of the group of small catalytic RNAs (RNA enzymes or ribozymes) because it does not require metal ions to achieve catalysis. Biochemical and structural data have implicated guanine 8 (G8) and adenine 38 (A38) as catalytic participants in cleavage and ligation catalyzed by the hairpin ribozyme, yet their exact role in catalysis remains disputed. To gain insight into dynamics in the active site of a minimal self-cleaving hairpin ribozyme, we have performed extensive classical, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on timescales of 50-150 ns. Starting from the available X-ray crystal structures, we investigated the structural impact of the protonation states of G8 and A38, and the inactivating A−1(2′-methoxy) substitution employed in crystallography. Our simulations reveal that a canonical G8 agrees well with the crystal structures while a deprotonated G8 profoundly distorts the active site. Thus MD simulations do not support a straightforward participation of the deprotonated G8 in catalysis. By comparison, the G8 enol tautomer is structurally well tolerated, causing only local rearrangements in the active site. Furthermore, a protonated A38H+ is more consistent with the crystallography data than a canonical A38. The simulations thus support the notion that A38H+ is the dominant form in the crystals...

Phytosterol Feeding Causes Toxicity in ABCG5/G8 Knockout Mice

McDaniel, Allison L.; Alger, Heather M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Kock, Nancy D.; Brown, J. Mark; Temel, Ryan E.; Rudel, Lawrence L.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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Plant sterols, or phytosterols, are very similar in structure to cholesterol and are abundant in typical diets. The reason for poor absorption of plant sterols by the body is still unknown. Mutations in the ABC transporters G5 and G8 are known to cause an accumulation of plant sterols in blood and tissues (sitosterolemia). To determine the significance of phytosterol exclusion from the body, we fed wild-type and ABCG5/G8 knockout mice a diet enriched with plant sterols. The high-phytosterol diet was extremely toxic to the ABCG5/G8 knockout mice but had no adverse effects on wild-type mice. ABCG5/G8 knockout mice died prematurely and developed a phenotype that included high levels of plant sterols in many tissues, liver abnormalities, and severe cardiac lesions. This study is the first to report such toxic effects of phytosterol accumulation in ABCG5/G8 knockout mice. We believe these new data support the conclusion that plant sterols are excluded from the body because they are toxic when present at high levels.

G8 rotaviruses with conserved genotype constellations detected in Malawi over 10 years (1997–2007) display frequent gene reassortment among strains co-circulating in humans

Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Dove, Winifred; Ngwira, Bagrey; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Nakagomi, Osamu; Cunliffe, Nigel A.
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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Rotavirus A, the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide, occurs in five major VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotype combinations, comprising G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. However, G8, a common bovine rotavirus genotype, has been reported frequently among children in African countries. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis conducted in a sentinel hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between 1997 and 2007 provided a rare opportunity to examine the whole genotype constellation of G8 strains and their evolution over time. A sample of 27 (9.0 %) of 299 G8 strains was selected to represent each surveillance year and a range of P genotypes, which shifted in predominance from P[6] to P[4] and P[8] during the study period. Following cell culture adaptation, whole genome sequencing demonstrated that the genetic background of 26 strains possessed the DS-1 genotype constellation. A single G8P[6] strain was a reassortant in which both NSP2 and NSP5 genes from strains with the Wa genotype constellation had been inserted into a strain with the DS-1 genotype background. Phylogenetic analysis suggested frequent reassortment among co-circulating strains with the DS-1 genotype constellation. Little evidence was identified to suggest the introduction of contemporary bovine rotavirus genes into any of the 27 G8 strains examined. In conclusion...

ABCG5/G8 Deficiency in Mice Reduces Dietary Triacylglycerol and Cholesterol Transport into the Lymph

Zhang, Linda S.; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Lou, Danwen; Howles, Philip N.; Tso, Patrick
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5/G8 is critical in protecting the body from accumulating dietary plant sterols. Expressed in the liver and small intestine, it transports plant sterols into the biliary and intestinal lumens, thus promoting their excretion. The extent to which G5/G8 regulates cholesterol absorption remains unclear. G5/G8 is also implicated in reducing the absorption of dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that G5/G8 suppresses the production of chylomicrons, and its deficiency would enhance the absorption of both dietary TAG and cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of G5/G8 deficiency on lipid uptake and secretion into the lymph under steady-state conditions. Surprisingly, compared with wild-type mice (WT) (n = 9), G5/G8 KO (n = 13) lymph fistula mice given a continuous intraduodenal infusion of [3H]-TAG and [14C]-cholesterol showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in lymphatic transport of both [3H]-TAG and [14C]-cholesterol, concomitant with a significant (P < 0.05) increase of [3H]-TAG and [14C]-cholesterol accumulated in the intestinal lumen. There was no difference in the total amount of radiolabeled lipids retained in the intestinal mucosa between the two groups. G5/G8 KO mice given a bolus of TAG showed reduced intestinal TAG secretion compared with WT...

The EU in the G8 System: Assessing EU Member States’ Involvement

NASRA, Skander; LESAGE, Dries; ORBIE, Jan; VAN DE GRAAF, Thijs
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Even though the role of the European Union (EU) in international organizations has generated increasing academic and political interest, scant attention has been devoted to the EU’s participation in the Group of Eight (G8). The launch of the renewed Group of Twenty (G20), however, has sparked intense debate among member states about the way in which the EU is represented in the G8 system. The central issue covered in this paper is the participation of the EU in the G8 system. In particular, we focus on the involvement of the 23 non-G8 EU members (EU23) and the role of the European Commission and the Council Presidency. The focus lies on the internal EU level, rather than on the question of the EU’s bargaining power at the international level. The paper draws on insights of Moravcsik’s liberal intergovernmentalism to explain the variation of the EU23’s involvement in the following policy domains: development aid, energy, finance and monetary affairs and trade. The paper finds a pattern of differing involvement that varies along the lines of the three forums within the G8 system: low involvement in the G8, medium involvement in the G20 and high involvement in the Group of Seven (G7). Four factors are suggested that explain the involvement of the EU23 in the internal EU coordination process: internal competences...

A Group’s Architecture in Flux: The G8 and the Heiligendamm Process

GNATH, Katharina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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37.36%
The G8 summit in Heiligendamm/Germany in June 2007 established a topic-centred dialogue with China, India, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico. The so-called “Heiligendamm Process” was an attempt by the G8 member to respond to the Group’s perceived lack of representativeness and effectiveness, while avoiding a change in the G8’s central proceedings through formal enlargement. The Process was reviewed at the 2009 summit in L’Aquila/Italy, and it was agreed to continue the dialogue until mid- 2011. In the context of the current debate on how global economic institutions and fora adapt to systemic change, the analysis touches on important issues of global governance that go beyond the G8’s new initiative. With the establishment of a regular G20 at leaders’ level in the wake of the financial crisis, the G8 finds itself at a crucial juncture, its future being more uncertain than ever.

A propósito de la Cumbre del G8

Instituto de Estudios Geoestratégicos y Asuntos Políticos
Fonte: Universidade Militar Nueva Granada Publicador: Universidade Militar Nueva Granada
Formato: pdf
Português
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El G8 nace en 1975 como una reunión informal de los mandatarios de los seis paises más poderosos del mundo, que en ese entonces fueron convocados por el presidente de Francia Valéry Giscard d´Estaing y por el canciller alemán Helmut Schmidt a una Conferencia de Economía Global, con el propósito de concretar acciones para hacer frentee a la grave crisis económica de principios de los setenta.; .

Comparative analysis of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine strains and G8 rotaviruses identified during vaccine trial in Africa

Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Ciarlet, Max; Lawrence, Jody; Steele, Duncan; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/10/2015 Português
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27.44%
RotaTeqTM is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine based on a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone in vitro reassorted with human outer capsid genes. During clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vaccine efficacy over a 2-year follow-up was lower against the genotypes contained in the vaccine than against the heterotypic G8P[6] and G8P[1] rotavirus strains of which the former is highly prevalent in Africa. Complete genome analyses of 43 complete rotavirus genomes collected during phase III clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, were conducted to gain insight into the high level of cross-protection afforded by RotaTeqTM against these G8 strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a high number of bovine rotavirus gene segments in these human G8 strains. In addition, we performed an in depth analysis on the individual amino acid level which showed that G8 rotaviruses were more similar to the RotaTeqTM vaccine than non-G8 strains. Because RotaTeqTM possesses a bovine genetic backbone, the high vaccine efficacy against G8 strains might be partially explained by the fact that all these strains contain a complete or partial bovine-like backbone. Altogether, this study supports the hypothesis that gene segments other than VP7 and VP4 play a role in vaccine-induced immunity.

Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant G8.7-0.1

Collaboration, The Fermi-LAT
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.5%
We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the \emph{Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV--100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 $\pm$ 0.6 (stat) $\pm$ 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 $\pm$ 0.06 (stat) $\pm$ 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 $\pm$ 0.12 (stat) $\pm$ 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7$-$0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of $\pi^{0}$s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804$-$216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7$-$0.1 with molecular clouds...

Triggered star formation around mid-infrared bubbles in G8.14+0.23 H II region

Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ghosh, S. K.; Chakraborti, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2012 Português
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27.36%
Mid-infrared (MIR) shells or bubbles around expanding H II regions have received much attention due to their ability to initiate a new generation of star formation. We present multi-wavelength observations around two bubbles associated with a southern massive star-forming (MSF) region G8.14+0.23, to investigate the triggered star formation signature on the edges of the bubbles by the expansion of the H II region. We have found observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material along the bubbles and the 12CO(J=3-2) velocity map reveals that the molecular gas in the bubbles is physically associated around the G8.14+0.23 region. We have detected 244 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region and about 37% of these YSOs occur in clusters. Interestingly, these YSO clusters are associated with the collected material on the edges of the bubbles. We have found good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the kinematical time scale of bubbles (from the 12CO(J=3-2) line data) with the fragmentation time of the accumulated molecular materials to explain possible "collect-and-collapse" process around the G8.14+0.23 region. However, one can not entirely rule out the possibility of triggered star formation by compression of the pre-existing dense clumps by the shock wave. We have also found two massive embedded YSOs (about 10 and 22 Msolar) which are associated with the dense fragmented clump at the interface of the bubbles. We conclude that the expansion of the H II region is also leading to the formation of these two young massive embedded YSOs in the G8.14+0.23 region.; Comment: 11 pages...

Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health

Labonte,Ronald; Schrecker,Ted
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 Português
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27.36%
The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some polities are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders.

Making G8 leaders deliver: an analysis of compliance and health commitments, 1996-2006

Kirton,John J; Roudev,Nikolai; Sunderland,Laura
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8's contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8's performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition...