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Hepatitis B genotype G and high frequency of lamivudine-resistance mutations among human immunodeficiencyvirus/hepatitis B virus co-infected patients in Brazil

SILVA, Adriana Cristina da; SPINA, Ângela Maria Miranda; LEMOS, Marcílio Figueiredo; OBA, Isabel Takano; GUASTINI, Cristina de Fátima; GOMES-GOUVÊA, Michele Soares; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; MENDES-CORREA, Maria Cássia Jacintho
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.53%
In this study, we evaluated the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype distribution and HBV genomic mutations among a group of human immunodeficiency virus-HBV co-infected patients from an AIDS outpatient clinic in São Paulo. HBV serological markers were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. HBV DNA was detected using in-house nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by Cobas Amplicor. HBV genotypes and mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP)/pre-core/core regions and surface/polymerase genes were determined by sequencing. Among the 59 patients included in this study, 55 reported prior use of lamivudine (LAM) or tenofovir. HBV DNA was detected in 16/22 patients, with a genotype distribution of A (n = 12,75%), G (n = 2,13%), D (n = 1,6%) and F (n = 1,6%). The sequence data of the two patients infected with genotype G strongly suggested co-infection with genotype A. In 10 patients with viremia, LAM-resistance mutations in the polymerase gene (rtL180M + rtM204V and rtV173L + rtL180M + rtM204V) were found, accompanied by changes in the envelope gene (sI195M, sW196L and sI195M/sE164D). Mutations in the BCP and pre-core regions were identified in four patients. In conclusion, genotype G, which is rarely seen in Brazil...

Molecular characterization of the Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Colombia: A Bayesian inference on the genotype F

MORA, Monica Viviana Alvarado; ROMANO, Camila Malta; GOMES-GOUVEA, Michele Soares; GUTIERREZ, Maria Fernanda; BOTELHO, Livia; CARRILHO, Flair Jose; PINHO, Joao Renato Rebello
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Hepatitis B is a worldwide health problem affecting about 2 billion people and more than 350 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Nine HBV genotypes (A to I) have been described. The geographical distribution of HBV genotypes is not completely understood due to the limited number of samples from some parts of the world. One such example is Colombia, in which few studies have described the HBV genotypes. In this study, we characterized HBV genotypes in 143 HBsAg-positive volunteer blood donors from Colombia. A fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising HBsAg and the DNA polymerase coding regions (S/POL) was amplified and sequenced. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to obtain the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Of all samples, 68 were positive and 52 were successfully sequenced. Genotype F was the most prevalent in this population (77%) - subgenotypes F3 (75%) and Fib (2%). Genotype G (7.7%) and subgenotype A2 (15.3%) were also found. Genotype G sequence analysis suggests distinct introductions of this genotype in the country. Furthermore, we estimated the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for each HBV/F subgenotype and also for Colombian F3 sequences using two different datasets: (i) 77 sequences comprising 1306 bp of S/POL region and (ii) 283 sequences comprising 681 bp of S/POL region. We also used two other previously estimated evolutionary rates: (i) 2.60 x 10(-4) s/s/y and (ii) 1.5 x 10(-5) s/s/y. Here we report the HBV genotypes circulating in Colombia and estimated the TMRCA for the four different subgenotypes of genotype F. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; CNPq; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP[2007/53457-7]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP[2008/50461-6]; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana...

Influência do genótipo, sexo e peso de abate na composição da carcaça e nas características de qualidade da carne suína.; Influence of genotype, sex and slaughter weight in the carcass composition and quality characteristics of pork meat.

Angerami, Camila Nogueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2004 Português
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O experimento consistiu de dezesseis tratamentos distribuídos num esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo 4 genótipos (Excel (E) - Nn, Linha 21 (L21) - nn, Maximus (M) - NN e Optimus (O) - NN), 2 sexos (machos castrados e fêmeas) e 2 pesos (leves – 95 a 100Kg e pesados – 115 a 120Kg) e seis repetições. Foram realizadas medidas de composição da carcaça: Peso da Carcaça Resfriada (PCR), Área de Olho de Lombo (AOL), Comprimento de Olho de Lombo (COL), Profundidade de Toucinho (PT), Porcentagem de Carne Magra (%CM) e medidas de Espessuras de Músculo (EM) e Gordura (EG) e avaliações de qualidade de carne: pH, cor (L*a*b*), Perda por Exsudação (PE) e Capacidade de Retenção de Água (CRA). Os resultados estatísticos da composição da carcaça para o genótipo nn indicaram valor de AOL significativamente superior em relação aos genótipos Nn, NNM e NNO e valor de PT significativamente menor que NNM e NNO, porém, não diferindo de Nn. Quanto à EM, ocorreu uma tendência do NNM apresentar os maiores valores, seguido pelo Nn, nn e NNO. Em relação à EG, NNO mostrou os maiores valores, não diferindo significativamente de NNM e nn, enquanto o genótipo Nn apresentou o menor valor para esta característica. A %CM dos genótipos nn e Nn foi significativamente maior que NNM e NNO...

Interação genótipos-ambientes e parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade para características de crescimento em bovinos de corte compostos no Brasil; Genotype-environmental interactions and adaptability and stability parameters for growth traits in composite beef cattle in Brazil.

Cintra, Daniele Campos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2007 Português
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Dados de 111.101 pesos a desmama ajustado aos 205 dias de idade (PES205), 50.860 pesos ajustados aos 390 dias (PES390) e 47.462 ganhos de peso até 185 dias após a desmama (GP185) foram analisados para avaliar a interação genótipos-ambientes e estimar parâmetros de adaptabilidade para sete combinações genotípicas de bovinos cruzados para corte, criados em três diferentes ambientes do Brasil. A interação genótipos-ambientes foi fonte de variação significativa (P<0,01) para todas as características avaliadas. As decomposições das somas de quadrados das interações genótipos-ambientes, para cada variável estudada, foram realizadas pelo método de regressão. Foram verificados por meios dos coeficientes angulares que, para PES205, os animais de composição genotípica 7 foram considerados como de adaptabilidade ampla. Os genótipos 2, 3 e 6 foram considerados de adaptabilidade específica a ambientes favoráveis e as composições genotípicas 1, 4 e 5 foram classificadas como de adaptabilidades específicas a ambientes desfavoráveis. Para PES390, os animais considerados como de adaptabilidade ampla foram os de composições genotípicas 1 e 3. Os de combinações genotípicas 2, 6 e 7 foram considerados de adaptabilidade específica a ambientes favoráveis e os genótipos 4 e 5 foram classificados como animais com adaptabilidade específica a ambientes desfavoráveis. Para GP185...

Complete replacement of the mitochondrial genotype in a Bos indicus calf reconstructed by nuclear transfer to a bos taurus oocyte

Meirelles, Flávio V.; Bordignon, Vilceu; Watanabe, Yeda; Watanabe, Michelle; Dayan, André; Lôbo, Raysildo B.; Garcia, Joaquim M.; Smith, Lawrence C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 351-356
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Due to the exclusively maternal inheritance of mitochondria, mitochondrial genotypes can be coupled to a particular nuclear genotype by continuous mating of founder females and their female offspring to males of the desired nuclear genotype. However, backcrossing is a gradual procedure that, apart from being lengthy, cannot ascertain that genetic and epigenetic changes will modify the original nuclear genotype. Animal cloning by nuclear transfer using host ooplasm carrying polymorphic mitochondrial genomes allows, among other biotechnology applications, the coupling of nuclear and mitochondrial genotypes of diverse origin within a single generation. Previous attempts to use Bos taurus oocytes as hosts to transfer nuclei from unrelated species led to the development to the blastocyst stage but none supported gestation to term. Our aim in this study was to determine whether B. taurus oocytes support development of nuclei from the closely related B. indicus cattle and to examine the fate of their mitochondrial genotypes throughout development. We show that indicus:taurus reconstructed oocytes develop to the blastocyst stage and produce live offspring after transfer to surrogate cows. We also demonstrate that, in reconstructed embryos...

Induction pegylated interferon Alfa-2a and high dose ribavirin do not increase SVR in heavy patients with HCV genotype 1 and high viral loads

Reddy, K. Rajender; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Rodrigueztorres, Maribel; Cheinquer, Hugo; Abdurakhmanov, Djamal; Bakulin, Igor; Morozov, Viacheslav; Silva, Giovanni Faria; Geyvandova, Natalia; Stanciu, Carol; Rabbia, Michael; McKenna, Michael; Thommes, James
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1972-1983
Português
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Background & Aims Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, body weight <85 kg, and high baseline viral load respond poorly to standard doses of pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin. We evaluated intensified therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Methods This double-blind randomized trial included HCV genotype 1-infected outpatients from hepatology clinics with body weight <85 kg and HCV RNA titer <400,000 IU/mL. Patients were randomized to 180 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 48 weeks plus 1200 mg/day ribavirin (standard of care) (group A, n = 191) or 1400/1600 mg/day ribavirin (group B, n = 189). Additional groups included 360 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 12 weeks then 180 μg/wk peginterferon alfa-2a for 36 weeks plus 1200 mg/day ribavirin (group C, n = 382) or 1400/1600 mg/day ribavirin (group D, n = 383). Follow-up lasted 24 weeks after treatment. Results Sustained virologic response rates (HCV RNA level <15 IU/mL at end of follow-up) in groups A, B, C, and D were 38%, 43%, 44%, and 41%, respectively. There were no significant differences among the 4 groups or between pooled peginterferon alfa-2a regimens (A + B vs C + D: odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.831.39; P = .584) or pooled ribavirin regimens (A + C vs B + D: OR...

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization by plasma from B or F genotype infected individuals

Bongertz, Vera; Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes Maia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz Gilda Jegerhorn; Pilotto, Jose Henrique da Silva; Santos, Valdil??a Gon??alves Veloso dos; Morgado, Mariza Gon??alves; Bastos, Francisco In??cio Pinkusfeld Monteiro; Reis, Elaine Priscilla O
Fonte: Funda????o Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Funda????o Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ???binding antibodies??? (antibodies capable of binding to synthetic peptides or proteins) occur throughout HIV-1 infection, are high-titered and highly cross-reactive, as confirmed in this study by analyzing plasma from B and F genotype HIV-1 infected individuals. Plasma from individuals infected with clade F HIV-1 displayed the most frequent cross-reactivity, in high titers, while Bbr plasma showed much higher specificity. Similarly, neutralization of a reference HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1 MN) was more frequently observed by plasma from F than B genotype infected individuals. No significant difference was seen in neutralization susceptibility of primary B, Bbr or F clade HIV-1 by plasma from individuals infected with the classical B (GPGR) or F HIV-1, but Bbr (GWGR) plasma were less likely to neutralize the F genotype primary HIV-1 isolates. The data indicate that both B and F genotype derived vaccines would be equally effective against B and F HIV-1 infection, with a slightly more probable effectiveness for F than B genotype. Although the Bbr variant appears to induce a much more specific humoral immune response, the susceptibility in neutralizing the Brazilian HIV-1 B genotype Bbr variant is similar to that observed with the classical B genotype HIV-1.

HCV infection in northeastern Brazil: unexpected high prevalence of genotype 3a and absence of African genotypes

PARANÁ,Raymundo; VITVITSKI,Ludmila; BERBY,Françoise; PORTUGAL,Marcelo; COTRIM,Helma P.; CAVALCANTE,Andrea; LYRA,Luiz; TREPO,Christian
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 Português
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36.58%
The genomic diversity of HCV embraces 6 genotypes and at least 52 subtypes with clinical and epidemiological correlations. There is a paucity of studies assessing HCV genotypes and biomolecular epidemiology in Brazil. We studied genotype distribution and epidemiological aspects in 232 HCV carriers, 133 (57,9%) males and 99 (42,1%) females, followed in the liver disease referral unit in Salvador, BA, northeastern Brazil. All of them were anti-HCV positive by 3rd generation ELISA assay, and HCV-RNA positive by RT-PCR. Genotyping was performed by INNOLIPA. Assessment of risk factors for HCV infection showed that 93 (40%) had past blood transfusion, 14 (6%) intravenous drug use, 19 (8%) inhalation of cocaine, 28 (12%) tattooing, 15 (7%) were health care workers, 5 (2%) had reused disposable syringes, 5 (2%) had multiple risk factors and in 53 (23%) no risk factor was determined. Genotype 1a was observed in 75 (32%), 1b in 72 (31%), 3a in 61 (26%), 2ab in 14 (6%); 5 (2.5%) had mixed genotypes and 5 (2.5%) were undetermined. Patients with genotype 1 had a higher mean age (P <0.05) and no particular risk factors were associated with a specific genotype. Genotype 1 largely predominates in northeast Brazil followed by genotype 3 which, in this population...

Association between histological findings, aminotransferase levels and viral genotype in chronic hepatitis C infection

Fecury,Amanda Alves; Almeida,Marcella Kelly Costa de; Santos,Kemper Nunes dos; Freitas,Andrei da Silva; Dantas,Socorro de Fátima Loureiro; Costa,Carlos Araújo da; Crescente,Ângelo Barlleta; Sousa,Rita Catarina Medeiros de; Brito,Elza Baía de; Nassiri,
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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36.49%
Introduction: The genomic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) influences liver disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes and to investigate the influence of these genotypes on disease progression. Methods: Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected from HCV-seropositive patients for serological analysis, biochemical marker measurements, HCV genotyping and histopathological evaluation. Results: Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was detected in 107 patients (90.6% with genotype 1 and 9.4% with genotype 3). Patients infected with genotype 1 exhibited higher mean necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. Conclusions: HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent and was associated with greater liver dysfunction.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization by plasma from B or F genotype infected individuals

Bongertz,V; Teixeira,SLM; Grinztejn,B; Pilotto,JH; Veloso,VG; Morgado,MG; Bastos,FI; Ouverney,EP
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) "binding antibodies" (antibodies capable of binding to synthetic peptides or proteins) occur throughout HIV-1 infection, are high-titered and highly cross-reactive, as confirmed in this study by analyzing plasma from B and F genotype HIV-1 infected individuals. Plasma from individuals infected with clade F HIV-1 displayed the most frequent cross-reactivity, in high titers, while Bbr plasma showed much higher specificity. Similarly, neutralization of a reference HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1 MN) was more frequently observed by plasma from F than B genotype infected individuals. No significant difference was seen in neutralization susceptibility of primary B, Bbr or F clade HIV-1 by plasma from individuals infected with the classical B (GPGR) or F HIV-1, but Bbr (GWGR) plasma were less likely to neutralize the F genotype primary HIV-1 isolates. The data indicate that both B and F genotype derived vaccines would be equally effective against B and F HIV-1 infection, with a slightly more probable effectiveness for F than B genotype. Although the Bbr variant appears to induce a much more specific humoral immune response, the susceptibility in neutralizing the Brazilian HIV-1 B genotype Bbr variant is similar to that observed with the classical B genotype HIV-1.

Hepatitis B genotype G and high frequency of lamivudine-resistance mutations among human immunodeficiencyvirus/hepatitis B virus co-infected patients in Brazil

Silva,Adriana Cristina da; Spina,Ângela Maria Miranda; Lemos,Marcílio Figueiredo; Oba,Isabel Takano; Guastini,Cristina de Fátima; Gomes-Gouvêa,Michele Soares; Pinho,João Renato Rebello; Mendes-Correa,Maria Cássia Jacintho
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
In this study, we evaluated the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype distribution and HBV genomic mutations among a group of human immunodeficiency virus-HBV co-infected patients from an AIDS outpatient clinic in São Paulo. HBV serological markers were detected by commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. HBV DNA was detected using in-house nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by Cobas Amplicor. HBV genotypes and mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP)/pre-core/core regions and surface/polymerase genes were determined by sequencing. Among the 59 patients included in this study, 55 reported prior use of lamivudine (LAM) or tenofovir. HBV DNA was detected in 16/22 patients, with a genotype distribution of A (n = 12,75%), G (n = 2,13%), D (n = 1,6%) and F (n = 1,6%). The sequence data of the two patients infected with genotype G strongly suggested co-infection with genotype A. In 10 patients with viremia, LAM-resistance mutations in the polymerase gene (rtL180M + rtM204V and rtV173L + rtL180M + rtM204V) were found, accompanied by changes in the envelope gene (sI195M, sW196L and sI195M/sE164D). Mutations in the BCP and pre-core regions were identified in four patients. In conclusion, genotype G, which is rarely seen in Brazil...

Hepatitis B virus genotype E detected in Brazil in an African patient who is a frequent traveler

Sitnik,R; Sette Jr,H; Santana,R.A.F; Menezes,L.C; Graça,C.H.N; Dastoli,G.T.F; Silbert,S; Pinho,J.R.R
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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36.53%
Genotype E of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been described in Brazil and is found mainly in Africa. Genotype A is the most prevalent in Brazil, and genotypes B, C, D, and F have already been reported. We report here an HBV genotype E-infected patient and some characterization of surface (S) protein, DNA polymerase (P) and precore/core (preC/C) coding regions based on the viral genome. The patient is a 31-year-old black man with chronic hepatitis B who was born and raised in Angola. He has been followed by a hepatologist in São Paulo, Brazil, since November 2003, and he is a frequent traveler to Latin America, Africa, and Europe. In 2003, he was diagnosed with HBV infection and started treatment with lamivudine with the later addition of adefovir dipivoxil. No known risk factor was identified. Serologically, he is HBsAg and anti-HBe positive, but HBeAg and anti-HBs negative. DNA sequence analysis of the S/P region confirmed that this patient is infected with genotype E, subtype ayw4. The preC/C region showed G1896A and G1899A mutations but no mutations in the basal core promoter. Nucleotide substitutions common in genotype E were also observed (C1772, T1858 and A1757). Although this is not an autochthonous case and there is no evidence of further spread...

Molecular epidemiology of measles virus infection in Shanghai in 2000–2012: the first appearance of genotype D8

Li,Shuhua; Qian,Xiaohua; Yuan,Zhengan; Sun,Xiaodong; Li,Chongshan; Tang,Xian; Yang,Yanji; Gong,Xiangzhen; Cao,Guangwen
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify measles virus in Shanghai in 2012 and study the genotype trend of measles virus epidemic strains during 2000–2012. Methods: Nose and throat swab specimens were collected from 34 suspected measles cases in Shanghai. Measles virus was isolated using Vero-SLAM cells (African green monkey kidney cells/lymphoid signal activating factor-transfected African green monkey kidney cells). The 450 bp of C terminus of the N gene and the entire hemagglutinin gene sequence was amplified using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the seven measles strains in Shanghai with the reference strains for H1a, H1b and D8 genotypes, as well as the Chinese measles virus vaccine strain. Results: Seven measles viruses strains were isolated from the 34 throat swap specimens. Six strains were genotype H1a, which is the predominant strain in China and one strain was genotype D8, which is the first imported strain since 2000. All these seven strains maintained most of the glycosylation sites except subtype H1a, which lost one glycosylation site. Conclusion: Since 2000, measles virus strains in Shanghai are consistent with measles virus from other provinces in China with H1a being the predominant genotype. This study is also the first report of genotype D8 strain in Shanghai. All strains maintained their glycosylation sites except H1a that lost one glycosylation site. These strains could still be neutralized by the Chinese measles vaccine. We suggest that Shanghai Center for Disease Control laboratories should strengthen their approaches to monitor measles cases to prevent further spread of imported strains.

Proteinuria in cystic fibrosis: a possible correlation between genotype and renal phenotype

Cemlyn-Jones,Jessica; Gamboa,Fernanda
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 Português
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36.55%
OBJECTIVE: To assess proteinuria in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and to correlate proteinuria with genotype, CF-related diabetes and disease severity. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out over a six-month period and involving 22 CF patients. After the collection and analysis of 24-h urine samples, the patients were divided into two subgroups: protein excretion < 150 mg/day (low-proteinuria); and protein excretion > 150 mg/day (highproteinuria). Patient charts were reviewed to obtain data on genotype and CF-related diabetes. Disease severity was assessed based on acute exacerbations in the last six months and FEV1 measured during the study period. To assess the correlation between genotype and proteinuria, the two main mutations (ΔF508 and R334W) were evaluated. Due to the existence of genotype ΔF508/R334W, two categories were created to enable statistical analysis, ΔF508 being evaluated in category 1 and R334W being evaluated in category 2. RESULTS: The ΔF508 mutation tended to be associated with normal protein excretion: 100% of the low-proteinuria subgroup patients were considered ΔF508 in category 1, compared with 86.7% in category 2. Protein excretion tended to be higher in patients with the R334W mutation: 60.0% of the high-proteinuria subgroup patients were considered R334W in category 1...

Cost-Effectiveness of Genotype Testing for Primary Resistance in Brazil

Luz, Paula M.; Morris, Bethany L.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Nakamura, Yoriko M.; Girouard, Michael P.; Sax, Paul E.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Paltiel, A. David
Fonte: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Publicador: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.66%
Objective: HIV genotype-resistance testing can help identify more effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens for patients, substantially increasing the likelihood of viral suppression and immune recovery. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of genotype-resistance testing before first-line ART initiation in Brazil. Design: We used a previously published microsimulation model of HIV disease (CEPAC-International) and data from Brazil to compare the clinical impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of initial genotype testing (Genotype) with no initial genotype testing (No genotype). Methods: Model parameters were derived from the HIV Clinical Cohort at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute and from published data, using Brazilian sources whenever possible. Baseline patient characteristics included 69% male, mean age of 36 years (SD, 10 years), mean CD4 count of 347 per microliter (SD, 300/µL) at ART initiation, annual ART costs from 2012 US $1400 to US $13,400, genotype test cost of US $230, and primary resistance prevalence of 4.4%. Life expectancy and costs were discounted 3% per year. Genotype was defined as “cost-effective” compared with No Genotype if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than 3 times the 2012 Brazilian per capita GDP of US $12...

Caractérisation de la réponse immunitaire cellulaire dirigée contre ARFP et cartographie des épitopes du génotype 3a lors de l’infection au virus de l’hépatite C

Drouin, Christian
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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36.64%
L’interféron-α pegylé en combinaison avec la ribavirin est le seul traitement approuvé pour le traitement de l’infection au virus de l’hépatite C (VHC). L’efficacité est de 50-75%, la thérapie est coûteuse et induit beaucoup d’effets secondaires. Il est impératif d’avoir une meilleure compréhension de la pathogenèse du VHC afin de développer des traitements plus efficaces ou un vaccin. À cette fin, notre approche est de caractériser la réponse immunitaire cellulaire induite par ARFP, un antigène nouveau et conservé chez le VHC, et de cartographier les épitopes de la réponse immunitaire cellulaire d’un patient infecté au génotype 3a ayant résolu spontanément. Le génotype 3a, étant prévalant chez les utilisateurs de drogues intraveineuses (IDUs) constitue 60% des nouvelles infections. Peu d’épitopes furent identifiés auparavant pour ce génotype, ce qui rend l’étude de la réponse immunitaire difficile chez cette population. Dans cette étude, pour la réponse immunitaire cellulaire dirigée contre ARFP, nous n’avons pas observé de différence significative entre les patients ayant résolu spontanément comparativement avec ceux ayant développé une infection persistante. Ceci suggère fortement que ARFP ne joue pas un rôle majeur lors de la résolution de l’infection aigue au VHC. Pour la caractérisation de la réponse immunitaire cellulaire chez un des patients infectés au génotype 3a...

Association between apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebral palsy is not confirmed in a caucasian population

McMichael, G.; Gibson, C.; Goldwater, P.; Haan, E.; Priest, K.; Dekker, G.; MacLennan, A.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in the growth and repair of injured neurons. Two small studies have suggested an association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy. We investigated if APOE genotype is associated with an increased risk for cerebral palsy, influences the type of cerebral palsy or interacts with prenatal viral infection to influence risk of cerebral palsy. The population-based case-control study comprised newborn screening cards of 443 Caucasian patients with cerebral palsy and 883 Caucasian matched controls. APOE genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spots. Allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ between cases and controls and combined frequencies were 0.10 (ε2), 0.76 (ε3), 0.14 (ε4), 0.03 (ε2/ε2), 0.10 (ε2/ε3), 0.03 (ε2/ε4), 0.02 (ε4/ε4), 0.21 (ε3/ε4), 0.61 (ε3/ε3). APOE genotype was correlated with cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy, gestation at birth and the presence of viral nucleic acids detected in previous work. Analysis by gestational age (all gestational ages, ≥37, 32–36 and <32 weeks) and type of cerebral palsy (all types, diplegia, hemiplegia and quadriplegia) showed no association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy in this Caucasian population. An association between prenatal viral infection...

The association of C-reactive protein and CRP genotype with coronary heart disease: findings from five studies with 4610 cases amongst 18637 participants

Lawlor, D.; Harbord, R.; Timpson, N.; Lowe, G.; Rumley, A.; Gaunt, T.; Baker, I.; Yarnell, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Norman, P.; Jamrozik, K.; Hankey, G.; Almeida, O.; Flicker, L.; Warrington, N.; Marmot, M.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Palmer, L.; Day, I.; et al
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Background It is unclear whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD). Genetic variants that are known to be associated with CRP levels can be used to provide causal inference of the effect of CRP on CHD. Our objective was to examine the association between CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864) and CHD risk in the largest study to date of this association. Methods and Results We estimated the association of CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864) with CRP levels and with CHD in five studies and then pooled these analyses (N = 18,637 participants amongst whom there were 4,610 cases). CRP was associated with potential confounding factors (socioeconomic position, physical activity, smoking and body mass) whereas genotype (rs1130864) was not associated with these confounders. The pooled odds ratio of CHD per doubling of circulating CRP level after adjustment for age and sex was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.21), and after further adjustment for confounding factors it was 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.13). Genotype (rs1130864) was associated with circulating CRP; the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level among individuals with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT/CC genotype was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.15...

Analysis of sequences of hepatitis C virus NS5A genotype 1 in HIV-coinfected patients with a null response to nitazoxanide or peg-interferon plus ribavirin

Sede, Mariano Miguel; Laufer, Natalia Lorna; Ojeda, Diego Sebastian; Gun, A.; Cahn, P.; Quarleri, Jorge Fabian
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Even though new drugs have been approved for HCV treatment, the risk for drug-drug interactions and the concern over overlapping toxicities has hindered the development of studies in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. Traditional treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (peg-IFN+RBV) is highly expensive and has low rates of sustained virological response in co-infected patients especially if infected with HCV genotype 1. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a drug that is being evaluated for the treatment of chronic HCV infection both in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients. To understand NTZ resistance mechanism could allow minimizing the development of resistance and expanding the treatment options mainly in special populations such as HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Similarly to IFN, NTZ increases the activity of the cellular protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA (PKR), a key kinase in the innate antiviral response. In order to elucidate whether sequence heterogeneity in the PKR-binding domain of the HCV genotype 1 NS5A protein could influence the antiviral activity of either NTZ monotherapy or, peg-IFN+RBV, baseline and end-of-therapy plasma samples from two groups of eleven non-responder HIV/HCV coinfected patients that received NTZ or peg-IFN+RBV were studied. Most of the HCV NS5A sequences examined at end-of-therapy did not change from baseline...

Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Cordoba, Argentina unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2

Re,V.; Lampe,E; Fumiko Yoshida,C; Mendes de Oliveira,J; Lewis Ximenez,L; Spinsanti,L; Elbarcha,O; Contigiani,M
Fonte: Medicina (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
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To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in the central region of Argentina, 96 consecutive anti-HCV positive subjects were studied. The presence of HCV RNA was detected in 60 samples by RT-nested PCR of the 5' noncoding region (5' NCR). Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 5' NCR region combined with PCR using type-specific primers of the core region. The groups of individuals in this study included hemophilia and hemodialysis patients, injecting drug users, screened blood donors, and patients with acute or chronic liver disease, all from Córdoba, Argentina. Overall, genotype 2 was the most prevalent (55.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (38.3 %), and 3 (5.0%). Within genotype 1, subtype 1b was the most prevalent. An unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2 (61.9%) was found among patients with acute or chronic HCV infection (without known risk factors). These figures differ from other cohorts from East-Argentina where genotype 1 has been found as the most prevalent. This indicates that regional differences of genotype distribution might exist between Central and East Argentina.