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Analysis and simulation of social unrest in Europe: towards understanding social unrest in Europe

Romero, Elisabet Adeva
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 28/02/2014 Português
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Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies; Protest in Europe where analyzed to foster an understanding of the distribution and the behaviour of those during from 2000 to 2010 time frame. The main object of this study is to discover if there is a relation between economic, social and other variables available in Eurostat in order to discover a pattern in the protests in Europe. For this purpose, least squared method and spatial point pattern analysis method were applied in the R Software environment. The final output indicates that variables can’t explain a cause-effect relation of protests due to tis behaviour is complex and Europe is an inhomogeneous area. In the other hand, we saw that protest tend to increase mostly when other protest have happened in the past. Protest location are scattered within the European megalopolis, and reveals attraction to some capitals some hot spots patterns are observed. They are mostly located in urban areas, close to the borders with other European countries. The resulting models discovered that protest/events distributions do not imitate an inhomogeneous Poisson process and thus we tried to model the behaviour describing special interaction between locations of protests. The best interaction model was chosen by computing different distances. We analyzed the whole Europe area and due a strong influence of United Kingdom we computed the same model to Germany...

Tradable permits for greenhouse gas emissions : a primer with particular reference to Europe

Fonte: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Publicador: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change
Formato: 39 p.; 330015 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper is written as part of a two-year study of climate change policy choices facing Sweden, conducted under the auspices of the Center for Business and Policy Studies in Stockholm. As such, it aims to be a primer on emissions trading as an instrument for limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The first section notes general considerations concerning emissions trading, particularly in relation to climate policy. The second section explains the many forms of emissions trading included in the Kyoto Protocol. The third section provides a brief review of emissions trading proposals that have been advanced in Europe as of mid-2000. The fourth section addresses issues in the design and implementation of a national GHG emissions trading system. The brief conclusion is followed by an appendix, which draws applicable lessons concerning the choice and design of a cap and trade system from the U.S. SO2 emissions trading program.; Abstract in HTML and technical report in PDF available on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change website (http://mit.edu/globalchange/www/); Includes bibliographical references (p. 38-39).

15.389 Global Entrepreneurship Lab, Fall 2002; Global Entrepreneurship Lab

Locke, Richard M., 1959-; Murray, Fiona E.; Johnson, Simon; Pentland, Alex Paul
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Enables teams of engineering, science, and management students to work with the top management of international high-tech start-ups and gain hands-on experience in starting and running a new enterprise outside the United States. Lectures expose students to the issues and policies that affect the climate for innovation and start-up success around the world. Subject begins in the second half of the fall semester. Continues for 2-3 weeks during IAP, when students spend time at company sites. Subject concludes in the first half of the spring semester. Students must complete all three components to receive credit. From course home page: A new form of entrepreneurship is developing. Instead of focusing just on one country, today’s innovative startups are increasingly looking globally for ideas, funding, people and markets. This is particularly true for new companies in Latin America, Western Europe and Asia. It is also true for many new companies in the United States. G-Lab has four goals: To familiarize students with the issues and challenges facing global startups. To provide students with the experience of working in a “global” startup. These companies are either based outside the US or are in the US and trying to go global at a very early stage in their development. To allow students to build networks of contacts with entrepreneurs and venture capitalists around the world. We very much hope that this will lead to career opportunities in a wide range of industries and countries. We also hope your experience will help you decide whether...

Beyond Keynesianism : Global Infrastructure Investments in Times of Crisis

Lin, Justin Yifu; Doemeland, Doerte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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As the world recovers only slowly from the 2008 financial crisis and Europe is facing a looming debt crisis, concerns have increased that the "new normal" -- a period of high unemployment, low returns on investment, high risks, and low growth -- may become protracted in advanced economies. If growth remains weak, unemployment rates and debt levels will be slow to recede. Consequently, the global recovery may continue to be fragile for years to come. What the world needs now is a growth-lifting strategy. This strategy could take the form of a global infrastructure initiative. Since debt levels are high, governments in the United States and Europe could increase demand and support growth through investments in bottleneck-releasing infrastructure projects that are self-financing. An infrastructure initiative should, however, go beyond the borders of advanced countries and include developing countries. Economic and social returns to infrastructure investments tend to be high in developing countries, which have become increasingly important drivers of global growth. At the same time...

Finding a Balance between Growth and Vulnerability Trade-Offs : Lessons from Emerging Europe and the CIS

Ghosh, Swati; Sugawara, Naotaka; Zalduendo, Juan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper examines the growth patterns of emerging Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries prior to the global financial crisis. The aim is to draw lessons on what policies can best position these countries going forward to enjoy growth without a buildup in macro and financial vulnerability. Cluster analysis is used to classify these countries across the growth and vulnerability dimensions; namely, a classification into low or high growth outcomes, each of which may occur with low or high vulnerability features. The vulnerability indicators used are multifaceted, covering both the domestic and the external dimensions that have been identified in previous studies as being good indicators of likelihood of crisis -- itself understood as multidimensional. Based on multinomial logit regressions, the initial conditions and the economic policies that might affect the probabilities of being in each of the four possible cluster combinations are examined. Many (if not most) of the countries in the sample experienced very large capital inflows relative to their gross domestic product prior to the crisis...

Aligning Climate Change Mitigation and Agricultural Policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel; Blankespoor, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Greenhouse gas emissions are largely determined by how energy is created and used, and policies designed to encourage mitigation efforts reflect this reality. However, an unintended consequence of an energy-focused strategy is that the set of policy instruments needed to tap mitigation opportunities in agriculture is incomplete. In particular, market-linked incentives to achieve mitigation targets are disconnected from efforts to better manage carbon sequestered in agricultural land. This is especially important for many countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia where once-productive land has been degraded through poor agricultural practices. Often good agricultural policies and prudent natural resource management can compensate for missing links to mitigation incentives, but only partially. At the same time, two international project-based programs, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, have been used to finance other types of agricultural mitigation efforts worldwide. Even so, a review of projects suggests that few countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia take full advantage of these financing paths. This paper discusses mitigation opportunities in the region, the reach of current mitigation incentives...

Macroeconomic Context and Fiscal Policy Design : Europe and Central Asia during 2000–2012

Islam, Roumeen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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This paper examines the interaction between fiscal policy and the broader macroeconomic context in open economies. It asks two questions. First, what was the relationship between fiscal policy and current account balances in countries in Europe and Central Asia during the past dozen years? Second, how might changes in (a) output composition and (b) financial sector profitability affect revenues and thus, the assessment of the underlying structural fiscal balance? The study finds that, for flexible exchange rate countries, expansionary fiscal policy has been associated with wider current account deficits. Moreover, changes in net exports and in financial sector profitability may have significant impacts on fiscal balances because of changes in revenues from the value-added tax and the corporate profits tax as a share of gross domestic product. These findings suggest that the countries of Europe and Central Asia have reason to be prudent in terms of fiscal policy choices, even as gross domestic product rises.

EU enlargement: meeting the challenges of the global security and trade environment

Downer, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 26531 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Introduction:...European integration has been an extraordinary and visionary enterprise, built on practical steps towards unity. The European Union is not only a complex work in progress, harmonising the internal policies of its members, but a force in world politics. This sixth wave of enlargement is one of the great moments in its evolution. This conference has an ambitious agenda and brings together a body of experts intimately concerned with the engineering of this grand design. And the conference is timely and relevant for Australia, because it is important to our relationship that Australians comprehend the dynamics and changing nature of the EU. My theme today is the opportunity that the imminent expansion of the EU offers for tackling global security and trade challenges. I want to expand particularly on areas where Australia’s interests are strongly engaged.; Speech at the National Europe Centre Conference on EU enlargement, Canberra, Australia; no

The European Union and Global Governance

Cameron, Fraser
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 141637 bytes; 374 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The European Union (EU) faces a new geopolitical situation. The Iraq war and its aftermath plus the failure of the Cancun WTO meeting have triggered a new debate on global governance and international law. Kofi Annnan has warned of the dangers of weakening the authority of the UN and other multilateral institutions. Romano Prodi has openly questioned whether the current multilateral system is up to the challenges facing the world. At the same time, the current US administration has openly scorned the multilateral system in pursuit of its one-dimensional security policy – the war on terrorism – although there are some indications that this approach may be changing as a result of the problems it faces in Iraq. In contrast, the European security strategy paper, presented by Javier Solana to the European Council in December 2003, highlighted the importance of the EU working to strengthen the institutions of global governance. It implicitly called for a more active and effective EU role on the world stage. This paper will assess the prospects for the EU in meetings its ambitious goals in regard to global governance.; no

EU preferential trade agreements : commerce, foreign policy and development aspects

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This e-book compiles the written contributions prepared by the speakers of an EUI conference titled ‘Global Europe: The New Generation of EU Preferential Trade Agreements’. The conference took place on May 14-15, 2012, on the EUI premises in San Domenico di Fiesole. It was organized by the EUI Working Group on EU External Relations Law, under the auspices of Professor Marise Cremona and Professor Petros Mavroidis, with generous support provided by the EUI’s Global Governance Programme and the Academy of European Law. The e-book is divided into four parts. In the introductory part, David Kleimann provides a perspective on the European Commission’s efforts to implement the ‘Global Europe’ strategy and outlines the domestic and external challenges that EU leaders face in this process. Part II is devoted to crosscutting issues that generally apply to contemporary PTAs. Against the background of the most recent wave of regional and inter-regional economic integration, Petros Mavroidis argues that the relevance of the WTO for international trade liberalization and rule making is fading. Patrick Messerlin, secondly, considers the various domestic motives for the negotiation of PTAs and identifies the actors that play important roles in the political economy processes associated with the negotiation and conclusion of PTAs. Jean-Pierre Chauffour and David Kleimann...

Spatial Information Systems in Crop Monitoring: Developing New Global Models and Sharing the Data

REMBOLD FELIX; DELINCE JACQUES; BOOGARD Hendrik; BURGER ARMIN
Fonte: Military Geographic Institute of Chile (IGM), Global Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) Publicador: Military Geographic Institute of Chile (IGM), Global Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI)
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
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The AGRIFISH unit of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has now nearly 20 years of experience with crop monitoring in and outside Europe. During this period, a number of research and development activities have been carried out, leading to several operational systems which are all based on spatial information. One of the best known is the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (MCYFS) for Europe, which is providing independent quantitative crop statistics at EU and national levels, in near real time. Similar tools have been developed in the last 5 years at a global scale and with the main aim of providing crop status information and yield forecasts in many areas of frequent food insecurity around the world. The most recent example of global crop monitoring system is the Global Water Satisfaction Index (GWSI) currently under development by a JRC project. The models are run directly by JRC or by its contractors, and the output data are disseminated directly or in form of crop monitoring bulletins to food security analysts and food security policy makers everywhere in the world. To make this possible, a huge spatial data distribution structure has been set up and both spatial data and analyzed data are made available to the broad public. Millions of maps are accessible online since the MARSOP website was first launched at the beginning of 2001 and thousands of satellite images and meteorological records both at the European and the global scale have become available to the users thanks to the recently setup AGRIFISH image portal. Finally...

Asia-European Union Cooperation and the Asia-Europe Meeting Summit (ASEM)

Mossot, Benjamin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report has attempted to review the development of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) dialogue forum and the future of Asia-Europe relations more generally. This area of studies is well underdeveloped, making both the research and the writing of this paper challenging and rewarding. As Asia and Europe are becoming key players in the new multipolar world order, ASEM will undoubtedly emerge as a major organisation. Indeed, ASEM is the only inter-regional forum of its kind. Its broad agenda includes global political and economical issues as well as social development and cultural understanding between the two regions. Discussion between the 4 7 members however remains informal and non-binding. Nevertheless, after 14 years of informal dialogue, the ASEM framework is at a turning point. Demands for concrete projects and cooperation are on the rise. Future developments of the process should consider the following recommendations. • Evolution to a trans-regional architecture in order to preserve each member states' sovereignty and national interests. In this framework, nations would be more likely to find a compromise and to cooperate with one another. • Institutionalisation of the ASEM process with the establishment of 'small secretariats'. These institutions are essential for agenda-setting and coordination of discussion during summits. It would also give ASEM a physical representation and help member states to move toward community-building. • Development of a comprehensive communication campaign to increase ASEM's visibility. On a global level...

From Disintegration to Reintegration : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in International Trade

Broadman, Harry G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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As the world marketplace becomes ever more globalized, much is at stake for the prosperity of hundreds of millions of people in Europe and Central Asia as the region's transition process continues through its second decade. Understanding the underlying dynamics shaping the contours and most salient impacts of international integration that have emerged-and likely to emerge prospectively-in the region is thus a crucial challenge for the medium term economic development agenda, not only for policymakers in the countries on themselves, but also for their trading partners, the international financial institutions, the donor community and the future of the world trading system as a whole.

Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia : Lessons from Recent Experiences and Suggested Future Directions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Like other regions, Eastern Europe and Central Asia is vulnerable to climate change and its potential socioeconomic impacts. While all countries are facing warmer temperatures, a changing hydrology, and more extreme events (for example, floods and droughts) and are concerned about the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, they differ in their financial and institutional capacities to respond. Therefore, especially for the most vulnerable countries in the region (for example, those in Central Asia and southern Europe), adapting to climate risk adds a new dimension to the challenges of development, but also provides an opportunity to revisit priorities and accelerate reforms. The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region of the World Bank has been actively working on climate-related projects and has advanced a number of initiatives in response to climate change since the 1990s. Nevertheless, up until a few years ago the region's focus was mainly on emissions reduction (mitigation), rather than on helping countries respond to existing or expected impacts from climate change through adjustments in natural or human systems. But more recently...

Unleashing Prosperity : Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Alam, Asad; Anós Casero, Paloma; Khan, Faruk; Udomsaph, Charles
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The analysis presented in this report assembles, for the first time, evidence from a variety of sources in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to show that policy and institutional reforms are important in achieving higher productivity growth. However, significant challenges remain in sustaining that growth. Many countries that started the reform process early, such as the new member states of the European Union, have come to resemble advanced market economies and face challenges in competing successfully in the global economy that are similar to the challenges faced by other European countries. For these new European Union members, the report argues, policies that facilitate innovation and firm expansion will be a key. But for other countries that started the reform process later, such as the countries of Southeastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, there is still a need to address the legacy of transition. For these countries, policies that accelerate restructuring and ease the entry and exit of firms will continue to be essential. This report - part of a series of regional studies of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia region that has already covered poverty and inequality...

Three essays on metamorphoses of social capital and associational culture in Eastern Europe

Valkov, Nikolay
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Ce triptyque d’essais présente le caractère versatile et évasif du concept moderne de capital social à plusieurs niveaux – global, national et régional, ainsi que dans le présent et dans le passé. Le premier article conteste l’hypothèse prédominante selon laquelle il y a une cohabitation entre l’engagement civique et la démocratie. Malgré sa validité au niveau général, la relation n’est pas confirmée si les catégories hétérogènes sont désagrégées. Pour les pays post-communistes de l'Europe, la relation entre le type de régime et la tendance de s'associer ressemble à celle des démocraties latines consolidées si la participation dans les associations volontaires est choisie comme mesure de la vitalité du capital social. Par conséquent, la vie civique moins intense ne prédit pas de difficultés pour la démocratie. Le deuxième article est une compilation originale de plus de 100 organisations classifiées selon les standards contemporains et une collection de présentations d'une douzaine d'organisations bulgares, les plus populaires depuis le XIXème siècle. Cette contribution importante à l’historiographie de la vie associative bulgare jusqu’à 1944 est le résultat d'un travail qui combine des entrevues avec des historiens et une recherche dans les archives. Le panoptique organisationnel sert de réfutation empirique de l’hypothèse qui attribue la faiblesse organisationnelle présente du poste-communisme à la pénurie de vie organisationnelle développée par le passé. ii Les mérites du troisième article sont doubles. Au niveau empirique on démontre que l’organisation culturelle la plus importante en Bulgarie a apparu comme une institution nationaliste imitant les organisations similaires des autres pays Européens. Elle s’est développée graduellement par une adaptation des expériences étrangères aux conditions locales. La collection des références bulgares est unique et représente le produit d’un travail méticuleux sur les documents et les entrevues. Au niveau abstrait...

Global time scale and regional stratigraphic reference scales of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China, and North America as used in the Devonian-Carboniferous-Permian Correlation Chart 2003 (DCP 2003)

Menning, M; Alekseev, A.S.; Chuvashov, B; Davydov, V.I.; Devuyst, F-X; Forke, H C; Grunt, T.A.; Hance, L.; Heckel, P.H.; Izokh, N.G.; Jin, Y-G; Jones, Peter; Kotlyar, G.V.; Kozur, H.W.; Nemyrovska, T I; Schneider, J.W.; Wang, X-D; Weddige, K; Weyer, D; Wo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The boundaries of the Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian stages of the Global Stratigraphic Reference Scale (abbreviated to Global Stratigraphic Scale-GSS) are described in relation to the biostratigraphic and/or lithostratigraphic units of the Regional

Developing competency - based accreditation for health promotion in Europe; Desenvolvimento de competências – credenciamento baseado em promoção da saúde na Europa

Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Barry, Margaret M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2013 Português
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RESUMO: Introdução: Em abril de 2013, a reunião inaugural do Conselho de Administração e Comitês do Sistemade Acreditação de Promoção da Saúde Europeu da União Internacional de Promoção e Educação em Saúde (UIPES) foi realizada em Paris. A reunião anunciou a implementação de um sistema inovador para a promoção da saúde na Europa, baseado em competências. O sistema tem como objetivo promover a garantiade qualidade e competência na promoção da saúde através de um sistema de acreditação a nível europeu, que foi projetado para ser flexível e sensível a diferentes contextos, mantendo critérios robustos e validados. O sistema baseia-se na literatura internacional sobre as abordagens baseadas em competências para a promoção da saúde e em iniciativas de desenvolvimento de capacidades globais, tais como a Declaração consensuada da Conferência de Galway (“Toward Domains of Core Competence for Building Global Capacity in Health Promotion”)1. O Sistema é projetado para fornecer mecanismos validados que garantam a qualidade às práticas da promoção, da educação em saúde bem como da formação e do desenvolvimento de capacidades na Europa, basedo em conceitos compartilhados e em um sistema formalizado de reconhecimento profissional. As competências e os padrões profissionais que sustentam o Sistema têm como premissa os principais conceitos e princípios da promoção da saúde definidosna Carta de Ottawa2 e sucessivas cartas e declarações(3-8) da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Atualmente...

Promoting democracy in the Western Balkans after the global economic crisis

Fagan, Adam; Sircar, Indraneel
Fonte: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe Publicador: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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Donor assistance for the Western Balkans, which began two decades ago in response to violent conflict and complex transitions during the collapse of Yugoslavia, has engendered harsh criticism from academics, commentators and domestic elites and publics. Although much of the aid has been targeted towards civil society development, international donors have become heavily involved in attempts to consolidate as well as induce change, and to also spread western values and facilitate the integration of the region within European and global structures. In so doing they have had to navigate a far more difficult set of hurdles than in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, in political climates often hostile or ambivalent to external intervention. With donor activities now increasingly directed to other parts of the world (in particular, the Middle East and North Africa), and the global financial crisis triggering the most profound rationalization of donor funding and priorities, democracy promotion and the development of civil society in the Western Balkans is under immense pressure. At this critical time, as never before, "it is important: to take stock of the past and current strategies; to review the practices and priorities of international donors; to identify what has worked and what has failed; and to offer recommendations for effective leadership and deployment in the (long) period leading up to EU enlargement. Donors...

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe

Bartlett, Will; Prica, Ivana
Fonte: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe Publicador: LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the post-communist countries of South East Europe and Turkey. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced in the former group of countries during the transition period have improved their ability to cope with external shocks. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. The analysis shows that institutional progress (EU integration, transition, governance) had a negative relationship to economic growth in SEE during the crisis period. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis on the countries of the region can be explained mainly by their different degrees of integration into the EU and global economy. Institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom period only made countries more internationally integrated and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis and the more recent crisis of the euro zone. Thus, institutional reforms and improvements in competitiveness appear to be insufficient on their own to insulate such small open economies from negative influences emanating from the external environment.