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Immunization aganist hepatitis B in children from endemic zone: evaluation of the antibody response against the DNA recombinant vaccine (Engerix B-20 mcg)

Ferreira,C.R.B.; Yoshida,C.F.T.; Mercadante,L.A.C.; Gomes,D.F.; Oliveira,J.M.; França,M.S.; Sidoni,M.; Ennes,I.C.; Baptista,M.L.; Schatzmayr,H.G.; Gaspar,A.M.C.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
A previous seroepidemiological study in the rural zone of Vargem Alta (ES) SouthEast of Brazil, showed a prevalence of up to 9% of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in some areas. One hundred susceptible children aging 1 to 5 years old were selected and immunized with a recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine (Smith-Kline 20 mcg) using the 0-1-6 months vaccination schedule. Blood samples were collected at the time of the first vaccine dose (month 0) in order to confirm susceptible individuals and 1,3,6 and 8 months after the first dose , to evaluate the antibody response. Our results showed that two and five months after the second dose, 79% and 88% of children seroconverted respectively, reaching 97% after the third dose. The levels of anti-HBs were calculated in milli International Units/ml (mIU/ml) and demonstrated the markedly increase of protective levels of antibodies after the third dose. These data showed a good immunogenicity of the DNA recombinant hepatitis B vaccine when administered in children of endemic areas.

HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION PROFILE IN CENTRAL BRAZILIAN HEMODIALYSIS POPULATION

TELES,Sheila A.; MARTINS,Regina M. B; SILVA,Simonne A.; GOMES,Dinalva M. F.; CARDOSO,Divina D. P.; VANDERBORGHT,Bart O. M.; YOSHIDA,Clara F. T.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
Hepatitis B has proved to be a major health hazard in hemodialysis patients. In order to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection profile in the hemodialysis population of Goiânia city - Central Brazil, all dialysis patients (N=282) were studied. The prevalence of any HBV marker (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) was 56.7% (95% CI: 51.1-62.7), ranging from 33.3% to 77.7% depending on dialysis unit. HBV-DNA was detected in 67.6% and 88.2% of the HBsAg-positive serum samples, in 91.3% and 100% of the HBsAg/HBeAg-positive samples, and in 18.2% and 63.6% of the HBsAg/anti-HBe-reactive sera by hybridization and PCR, respectively. The length of time on hemodialysis was significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 10% of the patients reported received hepatitis B vaccination. The findings of a high HBV infection prevalence in this population and the increased risk for HBV infection on long-term hemodialysis suggest the environmental transmission, emphasizing the urgent need to evaluate strategies of control and prevention followed in these units.

Intestinal helminthes and/or Toxocara infection are unrelated to anti-HBs titers in seven-year-old children vaccinated at birth with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine

Monteiro,Marisa B.C.L.; Fragoso,Roberta; Foletto,Silvio; Lemos,Elenice M.; Pereira,Fausto E.L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible effect of nematode infection on anti-HBs antibody levels in the serum of seven-year-old schoolchildren vaccinated at birth with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs and anti HBc antibodies were evaluated in the sera of 100 schoolchildren with at least one intestinal nematode and/or a positive serological reaction for anti-Toxocara antibodies and in 95 schoolchildren without intestinal helminthiasis or serum anti-Toxocara antibodies. Both groups were from public elementary schools located on the urban periphery of Vitória, ES, Brazil. Among these 195 children, the median anti-HBs antibody titer was 31.3IU/ml and the frequency of titers less than 10IU/ml was 33.8% (95% CI: 27.1-40.4%). There were no significant differences between the medians of anti-HBs titers or the frequency of titers less than 10IU/ml between the groups with or without helminthes (29.5 and 32.9IU/ml and 33 and 34.7%, respectively; p>0.05). Even when the children with intestinal nematodes and/or anti-Toxocara antibodies and with blood eosinophil counts over 600/mm³ were compared with children without infection from intestinal nematodes and without anti-Toxocara antibodies, with blood eosinophil counts less than 400 eosinophils/mm³...

Hepatitis B and C prevalences among blood donors in the south region of Brazil

Vasconcelos,H. C. F. F.; Yoshida,C. F. T.; Vanderborght,B. O. M.; Schatzmayr,H. G.
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection has been determined in a seroepidemiological survey among blood donors from the south of Brazil (Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina). These markers has also been correlated with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a surrogate marker to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Sera from 5000 donors were randomly collected in the period of April to November 1991. The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were respectively 0.78, 7.02 and 13.98. The anti-HCV prevalence after confirmation testing with line immunoassay (LIA), was 1.14. Normal values of ALT ( < = 32 U/ml) were found in 59.78, values slightly above the mean (ALT between 32-70 U/ml) in 37.74 and high values of ALT ( > = 70 U/ml) in 2.48. The positivity of anti-HCV antibodies increased with the elevation of ALT levels. This correlation was not observed in relation to HBsAg. There exists a diversity in the recognition of HCV epitopes among HCV positive donors. Via the confirmation test used, we could observe that 94.7 of donors recognize the structural core antigen. Besides that, we observed that 5.26 of the HCV reactive sera recognized only epitopes located in the NS4 and/or NS5 region, indicating the importance of these epitopes for the improvement of assays.

The emergence of YMDD mutants precedes biochemical flare by 19 weeks in lamivudine-treated chronic hepatitis B patients: an opportunity for therapy reevaluation

França,P.H.C.; Coelho,H.S.M.; Brandão,C.E.; Segadas,J.A.; Quintaes,R.F.; Carrilho,F.J.; Ono-Nita,S.; Mattos,A.A.; Tovo,C.; Gouvea,V.S.; Sablon,E.; Vanderborght,B.O.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Given the loss of therapeutic efficacy associated with the development of resistance to lamivudine (LMV) and the availability of new alternative treatments for chronic hepatitis B patients, early detection of viral genotypic resistance could allow the clinician to consider therapy modification before viral breakthrough and biochemical relapse occur. To this end, 28 LMV-treated patients (44 ± 12 years; 24 men), on their first therapy schedule, were monitored monthly at four Brazilian centers for the emergence of drug resistance using the reverse hybridization-based INNO-LiPA HBV DR assay and occasionally sequencing (two cases). Positive viral responses (HBV DNA clearance) after 6, 12, and 18 months of therapy were achieved by 57, 68, and 53% of patients, while biochemical responses (serum alanine aminotransferase normalization) were observed in 82, 82, and 53% of cases. All viral breakthrough cases (N = 8) were related to the emergence of YMDD variants observed in 7, 21, and 35% of patients at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The emergence of these variants was not associated with viral genotype, HBeAg expression status, or pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase levels. The detection of resistance-associated mutations was observed before the corresponding biochemical flare (41 ± 14 and 60 ± 15 weeks) in the same individuals. Then...

Compliance with and response to hepatitis B vaccination in remaining quilombo communities in Central Brazil

Motta-Castro,Ana Rita C.; Gomes,Selma A.; Yoshida,Clara F. T.; Miguel,Juliana C.; Teles,Sheila A.; Martins,Regina M. B.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Compliance with and responses to the hepatitis B vaccine were evaluated in remaining quilombo communities in Central Brazil. A total of 708 individuals who were susceptible to hepatitis B virus infection were invited to participate in the hepatitis B vaccination program in eight communities. Although 567 (80%) individuals received the first dose, only 198 (28%) complied with the full vaccination scheme. Of 148 subjects who agreed to be tested for anti-HBs, 123 (83.1%; 95%CI: 75.9-88.6) responded to the vaccine. A geometric mean titer of 512mIU/mL (95%CI: 342.5-765.3) was found. Male sex and older age were independently associated with non-response. Additional health education programs and alternative hepatitis B vaccine schedules are needed to improve the vaccination coverage in these communities in Central Brazil.

Leprosy and hepatitis B coinfection in southern Brazil

Leitao,Cleverson; Ueda,Denis; Braga,Anna Carolina de Moraes; Boldt,Angelica B.W.; Messias-Reason,Iara J.T.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
To investigate the association of leprosy with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as yet unknown for South Brazil, we assessed hepatitis B virus coinfection in 199 South Brazilian leprosy patients (119 lepromatous, 15 tuberculoid, 30 borderline, 12 undetermined and 23 unspecified) and in 681 matched blood donors by screening for the hepatitis B virus markers HBSAg and anti-HBc, using ELISA. Positive samples were retested and anti-HBc+ only samples were tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). There was a strong association between leprosy and hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 6.4–14.7; p = 0.004·E−30), as well as an association between HBV infection and lepromatous leprosy, compared to other forms (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.8; p = 0.017). We also found that confinement due to leprosy was associated with hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.1–7.4; p = 0.015·E−3). Leprosy patients are susceptible to develop hepatitis B virus infection, especially lepromatous. Institutionalized patients, who probably present a stronger Th2 response, have higher risk of being exposed to hepatitis B virus. This clearly emphasizes the need for special care to leprosy patients in preventing hepatitis B virus coinfection in South Brazil.

Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in infected hepatocytes by in situ cytohybridisation

Gowans, E.J.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.; Marmion, B.P.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Plasmid pHBV 114 DNA, which contains 73% of the genome of hepatitis B virus (HBV), was radiolabelled with tritium to 1-2 X 10(8) dpm/microgram by nick translation and used as a radioactive probe to detect HBV DNA present in sections of infected liver tissue by in situ hybridisation followed by autoradiography. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the reaction were examined, including different methods of fixation, hybridisation time, temperature, and buffers. The specificity of the reaction for detecting viral DNA was carefully established by the use of unrelated DNA probes, pretreatment of sections with DNAase, and comparing the stability of the binding of DNA probe at different temperatures, with the melting curve of double-stranded DNA in solution. In the one liver studied in detail, cells containing large amounts of viral DNA were distributed in foci corresponding to areas containing morphologically damaged hepatocytes. This observation suggested a relationship between active viral replication and cell damage. Viral DNA was found mainly in the cytoplasm, although a minority of nuclei in these foci were also positive.; E. J. Gowans, C. J. Burrell, A. R. Jilbert and B. P. Marmion

Does anti-hepatitis B virus vaccine make any difference in long-term number of liver transplantation?

Chaib, E.; Coimbra, B. G. M. M.; Galvao, F. H. F.; Tatebe, E. R.; Shinzato, M. S.; D'Albuquerque, L. A. C.; Massad, E.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B infection is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our aim is to analyze, through a mathematical model, the potential impact of anti-HBV vaccine in the long-term (that is, decades after vaccination) number of LT. Methods: The model simulated that the prevalence of HBV infection was 0.5% and that approximately 20% of all the liver transplantation carried out in the state of Sao Paulo are due to HBV infection. Results: The theoretical model suggests that a vaccination program that would cover 80% of the target population would reach a maximum of about 14% reduction in the LT program. Conclusion: Increasing the vaccination coverage against HBV in the state of Sao Paulo would have a relatively low impact on the number of liver transplantation. In addition, this impact would take several decades to materialize due to the long incubation period of liver failure due to HBV.

Situación actual de la hepatitis B en Chile

Vera, Lilian; Valenzuela B., M. Teresa; Mora, Judith; Pereira S., Ana
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
Hepatitis B virus infection generates carriers and 8% will evolve to a chronic phase. Aim: To perform a compilation of studies on hepatitis B in Chile and other sources of information to estimate the impact of this disease in our country. Material and methods: Published and unpublished evidence about the infection, in the general population and risk groups in our country, was compiled and reviewed critically. Informal interviews to experts, revision of the mandatory notification book of the Ministry of Health and collection of data from laboratories that study hepatitis B virus, were also carried out. Results: The seroprevalence of chronic carriers in blood donors is nearly 0.3%. Among risk groups such as health care personnel, the figure is 0.7%, among homosexuals 29%, among HIV positive patients 30%, among sexual workers 2% and among children with chronic hemodialysis, 9%. Prevalence rate according to notified cases in 2004 was 1.8 x 100,000 habitants. Detection of viral hepatitis B surface antigen in laboratories occurs in 0.2% of donors and 1.3% of non donors. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, the lack of notification, and the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine to our Regular Program of Immunizations...

Imunização contra Hepatite B em crianças de zona endêmica: avaliação da resposta de anticorpo à vacina HB recombinante (Engerix B-20mcg); Immunization aganist hepatitis B in children from endemic zone: evaluation of the antibody response against the DNA recombinant vaccine (Engerix B-20 mcg)

Ferreira, C.R.B.; Yoshida, C.F.T.; Mercadante, L.A.C.; Gomes, D.F.; Oliveira, J.M.; França, M.S.; Sidoni, M.; Ennes, I.C.; Baptista, M.L.; Schatzmayr, H.G.; Gaspar, A.M.C.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Um estudo soroepidemiológico prévio na zona rural de Vargem Alta (ES) - Sudeste do Brasil, mostrou uma predominância de até 9% do antígeno de superfície da Hepatite B (HBsAg). Foram selecionadas 100 crianças com faixa etária entre 1 e 5 anos de idade, as quais foram imunizadas com vacina contra Hepatite B -DNA recombinante (Smith-Kline,20 mcg) nos meses 0,1 e 6. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue antes da primeira dose da vacina (mês 0) para confirmação dos susceptíveis, e nos meses 1,3,6 e 8 após a vacinação para avaliação da resposta vacinai. Os resultados mostraram que 79 e 88% das crianças apresentaram soroconversão dois e cinco meses após a segunda dose respectivamente, atingindo 97% de soroconversão, após a 3a.dose. Os níveis de anti-HBs foram calculados em miliunidades internacionais/ml (mUI/ml), demonstrando um considerável aumento dos níveis de anticorpos protetores após a 3a. dose. Os resultados demonstraram uma boa imunogenicidade da vacina de DNA recombinante contra hepatite B, quando administradas em crianças de áreas endêmicas.; A previous seroepidemiological study in the rural zone of Vargem Alta (ES) SouthEast of Brazil, showed a prevalence of up to 9% of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in some areas. One hundred susceptible children aging 1 to 5 years old were selected and immunized with a recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine (Smith-Kline 20 mcg) using the 0-1-6 months vaccination schedule. Blood samples were collected at the time of the first vaccine dose (month 0) in order to confirm susceptible individuals and 1...

Situación actual de la hepatitis B en Chile

Pereira S,Ana; Valenzuela B,María Teresa; Mora,Judith; Vera,Lilian
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection generates carriers and 8% will evolve to a chronic phase. Aim: To perform a compilation of studies on hepatitis B in Chile and other sources of information to estímate the impact of this disease in our country. Material and methods: Published and unpublished evidence about the infection, in the general population and risk groups in our country, was compiled and reviewed critically. Informal interviews to experts, revisión of the mandatory notification book of the Ministry of Health and collection of data from ¡aboratories that study hepatitis B virus, were also carried out. Results: The seroprevalence of chronic carriers in blood donors is nearly O.3%. Among risk groups such as health care personnel, the figure is O.7%, among homosexuals 29%, among HIV positive patients 30%, among sexual workers 2% and among children with chronic hemodialysis, 9%. Prevalence rate according to notified cases in 2004 was 1.8 x 100,000 habitants. Detection of viral hepatitis B surface antigen in ¡aboratories occurs in 0.2% of donors and 1.396 of non donors. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, the lack of notification, and the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine to our Regular Program of Immunizations...

Coinfecciones por virus hepatitis B, virus hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum y Toxoplasma gondii en la cohorte de pacientes VIH positivos en control en la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Pérez C,Carlos; Cerón A,Inés; Fuentes L,Gino; Zañartu S,Cristian; Balcells M,M Elvira; Ajenjo H,Cristina; Rabagliati B,Ricardo; Labarca L,Jaime; Acuña L,Guillermo
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Background: Some infections share common modes of transmission with HIV and have the potential to change the course of the latter. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis C virus (HCV), Treponema palladium and Toxoplasmosis gondii co-infections in HIV-1 infected patients followed at a university hospital. Material and methods: Clinical records of HIV-positive individuals were reviewed. The analysis included: demographical data, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM and IgG anti-HBc, antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, RPR or VDRL test and IgG anti Tgondii antibodies. Results: Three hundred ninety five patients (aged 16 to 89years, 359 males) were included in the review. Seventy nine percent had been tested for HBV status with HBsAg, and the global HIV-HBV co-infection prevalence was 6.1%. A subgroup of190 individuals were tested for HBV infection with HBsAg and IgM/IgG anti-HBc markers. Of these, 46% fulfilled co-infection criteria: eight with acute hepatitis B, 11 with chronic hepatitis B and 69 with inactive HBV infection. The frequency of HIV-HBV co-infection was 48% and 22% among men and women respectively (NS). HCV-HN co-infection was detected in 3%, syphilis-HIV co-infection in 21% and T gondii-HIV co-infection in 26%. Conclusions: In this cohort...

Decrease in viral load at weeks 12 and 24 in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with lamivudine or adefovir predicts virological response at week 48

Llop,E.; Revilla,J. de la; Pons,F.; Peñas,B.; Martínez,J. L.; Abreu,L.; Calleja,J. L.
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Aim: the aim of our study was to evaluate the decrease in viral load (VL) that is able to predict antiviral treatment response at one year in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: the clinical records of 66 patients, 31 treated with lamivudine (LAM) and 35 treated with adefovir (ADF), were retrospectively reviewed. We measured viral DNA at months 1, 3 and 6. Results: the LAM group showed virological response (VR) in 51.6% of patients. Baseline VL was higher in non responders (5.37 ± 1.16 vs. 7.01 ± 1.05; p < 0.001). Responders showed a higher percentage of VL decrease at month 3 from baseline (49.2 vs. 38.3%; p = 0.03). We designed a ROC curve and established a cutoff point for decrease of 30% that had 80% of negative predictive value (NPV). The ADF group showed VR in 57.1% of patients. Baseline VL was higher in nonresponders (4.67 ± 1.22 vs. 5.78 ± 1.34; p = 0.01). We observed a significant decrease in VL (log) at months 3 (2.6 ± 1.1 vs. 1.3 ± 1.3; p = 0.03) and 6 (2.6 ± 1.2 vs. 1.3 ± 1.2; p = 0.006). The percentage of decrease of VL from baseline was also statistically significant. We created ROC curves at months 3 and 6, and established the best cutoff points. At month 6 a decrease of 1 log in VL had a NPV of 80%...

Hepatitis B reactivation and current clinical impact

Álvarez Suárez,B.; Revilla Negro,J. de la; Ruiz-Antorán,B.; Calleja Panero,J. L.
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation results from increased viral replication in inactive carriers or patients with prior infection with HBV. Reactivation may occur spontaneously or secondary to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Reactivation may manifest with no symptoms but on occasion results in acute or even severe acute hepatitis. Prevention is the best management approach, hence HBV screening using serology should be performed for all patients undergoing any immunomodulating, immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic treatment. Antiviral prophylaxis has proven effective in inactive carriers and in some patients with former infection with HBV undergoing selected immunosuppressive therapies.

Elevada circulación del genotipo F del virus de la hepatitis B en población infectada urbana no migratoria y migratoria de Venezuela

Machado,I; Fortes,MP; Vargas-Lovelle,B; López,D; León,R; Senior,M; Bacalao,R; López,CE; Pestana,E; Dagher,L; Piñero,R; Rojas,B; Garassini,ME; Vetencourt,M; Lizarzábal,M; Fernández,S; Silva,E; Balabú,M
Fonte: Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología Publicador: Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Introducción: Se ha demostrado ampliamente que el genotipo F del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) es dominante en nuestra población Amerindia. Recientemente, nosotros identificamos que en los pacientes infectados por VHB habitantes no migratorios de áreas urbanas venezolanas prevalece también el genotipo F. Objetivo: Determinar los genotipos del VHB en portadores crónicos urbanos migratorios y compararlos con el grupo no migratorio. Material y Métodos: Se investigaron 136 portadores crónicos del VHB, 110 no inmigrantes y 26 inmigrantes de origen asiático. Se evaluaron antígeno eHB y anti-eHB y los genotipos del VHB, este último mediante PCR. Resultados: En los 110 pacientes urbanos venezolanos persistió la elevada frecuencia del genotipo F (95%) con 3 casos coinfectados, 2 por genotipos A+F y 1 caso con genotipos E+F. Interesantemente, 2 casos demostraron genotipo D del VHB. Hepatitis crónica B (HCB) antígeno-e positivo fue diagnosticada en 83 pacientes (80,6%) mientras 20 casos (19,4%) presentaron HCB antígeno-e negativo. En los pacientes asiáticos infectados con un solo genotipo se identificó el C en 11 casos, el B en 4 pacientes, el F en 3 y, en 1 caso, genotipo D. Se demostró coinfección entre estos diferentes genotipos...

Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan

Khan,Aamir J.; Luby,Stephen P.; Fikree,Fariyal; Karim,Anita; Obaid,Saima; Dellawala,Salima; Mirza,Shaper; Malik,Tariq; Fisher-Hoch,Sue; McCormick,Joseph B.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were interviewed as they left each of the 18 area clinics. Practitioners were interviewed and three consecutive injections were observed at each clinic. Eighty-one per cent of patients received an injection on the day of the interview. Of the 135 patients who provided a serum sample, 59 (44%) had antibodies against hepatitis C virus and 26 (19%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus. Patients who received more injections were more likely to be infected with hepatitis C. If oral and injected medications were equally effective, 44% of patients preferred injected medication. None of the practitioners knew that hepatitis C could be transmitted by injections. Non-sterile syringes and needles that had been used earlier in the day on other patients were used for 94% of the observed injections. Interventions to limit injections to those which are safe and clinically indicated are needed to prevent injection-associated infections in Pakistan and other low-income countries.

Improving birth dose coverage of hepatitis B vaccine

Hipgrave,David B; Maynard,James E; Biggs,Beverley-Ann
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
Administration of a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB vaccine) to neonates is recommended to prevent mother-to-infant transmission and chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Although manufacturers recommend HepB vaccine distribution and storage at 2-8 °C, recognition of the heat stability of hepatitis B surface antigen stimulated research into its use after storage at, or exposure to, ambient or high temperatures. Storage of HepB vaccine at ambient temperatures would enable birth dosing for neonates delivered at home in remote areas or at health posts lacking refrigeration. This article reviews the current evidence on the thermostability of HepB vaccine when stored outside the cold chain (OCC). The reports reviewed show that the vaccines studied were safe and effective whether stored cold or OCC. Field and laboratory data also verifies the retained potency of the vaccine after exposure to heat. The attachment of a highly stable variety of a vaccine vial monitor (measuring cumulative exposure to heat) on many HepB vaccines strongly supports policies allowing their storage OCC, when this will benefit birth dose coverage. We recommend that this strategy be introduced to improve birth dose coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. Concurrent monitoring and evaluation should be undertaken to affirm the safe implementation of this strategy...

Universal immunization of infants with low doses of a low-cost, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in South Africa

Schoub,B.D.; Matai,U.; Singh,B.; Blackburn,N.K.; Levin,J.B.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 Português
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76.13%
OBJETIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of universal vaccination against viral hepatitis B in South Africa among 18-month-old rural children. METHODS: Children were immunized with a course of low-dose (1.5 mug), plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and blood samples from the children were tested for three hepatitis B markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-HBc. FINDINGS: One year after vaccination, a protective anti-HBs antibody titre of at least 10 IU/l was present in 669/769 (87.0%) of blood serum samples tested. Only 3/756 children (0.4%) were HBsAg positive and a fourth child was anti-HBc positive (HBsAg negative). This is a marked decrease compared to the hepatitis B prevalences reported in previous studies. Among rural migrant mine-workers, for example, HBsAg prevalence was 9.9%, and was 10.1% among children 0-6 years of age in the Eastern Cape Province. CONCLUSION: The low-dose, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine, which is affordable to most developing countries, was very successful in controlling endemic hepatitis B infection, where the virus is predominantly spread by horizontal transmission among infants and young children.

Compliance with and response to hepatitis B vaccination in remaining quilombo communities in Central Brazil

Motta-Castro,Ana Rita C.; Gomes,Selma A.; Yoshida,Clara F. T.; Miguel,Juliana C.; Teles,Sheila A.; Martins,Regina M. B.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
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Compliance with and responses to the hepatitis B vaccine were evaluated in remaining quilombo communities in Central Brazil. A total of 708 individuals who were susceptible to hepatitis B virus infection were invited to participate in the hepatitis B vaccination program in eight communities. Although 567 (80%) individuals received the first dose, only 198 (28%) complied with the full vaccination scheme. Of 148 subjects who agreed to be tested for anti-HBs, 123 (83.1%; 95%CI: 75.9-88.6) responded to the vaccine. A geometric mean titer of 512mIU/mL (95%CI: 342.5-765.3) was found. Male sex and older age were independently associated with non-response. Additional health education programs and alternative hepatitis B vaccine schedules are needed to improve the vaccination coverage in these communities in Central Brazil.