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Mapping an intrinsic MR property of gray matter in auditory cortex of living humans: A possible marker for primary cortex and hemispheric differences⋆

Sigalovsky, Irina S.; Fischl, Bruce; Melcher, Jennifer R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recently, magnetic resonance properties of cerebral gray matter have been spatially mapped – in vivo – over the cortical surface. In one of the first neuroscientific applications of this approach, this study explores what can be learned about auditory cortex in living humans by mapping longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), a property related to myelin content. Gray matter R1 (and thickness) showed repeatable trends, including the following: Regions of high R1 were always found overlapping posteromedial Heschl’s gyrus. They also sometimes occurred in planum temporale and never in other parts of the superior temporal lobe. We hypothesize that the high R1 overlapping Heschl’s gyrus (which likely indicates dense gray matter myelination) reflects auditory koniocortex (i.e., primary cortex), a heavily myelinated area that shows comparable overlap with the gyrus. High R1 overlapping Heschl’s gyrus was identified in every instance suggesting that R1 may ultimately provide a marker for koniocortex in individuals. Such a marker would be significant for auditory neuroimaging, which has no standard means (anatomic or physiologic) for localizing cortical areas in individual subjects.Inter-hemispheric comparisons revealed greater R1 on the left on Heschl’s gyrus...

Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing

Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the inter-area connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus, primary and secondary cortices (Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale) and associative areas (BA 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in four epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between two signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed: (i) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex (PAC) from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency (MF), (ii) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, (iii) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones...

The Effect of Temporal Context on the Sustained Pitch Response in Human Auditory Cortex

Gutschalk, Alexander; Patterson, Roy D.; Scherg, Michael; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Rupp, André
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that activity in lateral Heschl’s gyrus covaries specifically with the strength of musical pitch. Pitch strength is important for the perceptual distinctiveness of an acoustic event, but in complex auditory scenes, the distinctiveness of an event also depends on its context. In this magnetoencephalography study, we evaluate how temporal context influences the sustained pitch response (SPR) in lateral Heschl’s gyrus. In 2 sequences of continuously alternating, periodic target intervals and a more irregular baseline interval, the distinctiveness of the target was decreased in 1 of 2 ways—either by increasing the pitch strength of the baseline or by decreasing the pitch strength of the target. The results show that the amplitude of the SPR increases monotonically with the distinctiveness of the target. Moreover, SPR amplitude is greater for the sequence, where the pitch strength of the target is varied, compared with the condition, where the baseline is varied. Two subsequent experiments show that the amplitude of the SPR increases as duty cycle decreases, in a pitch “strength” contrast and in a pitch “value” contrast. These results indicate that the SPR adapts to recent stimulus history...

Developmental increases in effective connectivity to brain regions involved in phonological processing during tasks with orthographic demands

Booth, James R.; Mehdiratta, Nitin; Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Developmental differences (9- to 15-year-olds) in effective connectivity in left hemisphere regions were examined using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children completed spelling tasks in the visual and auditory modalities in which they were asked to determine if two words were spelled the same from the first vowel onwards. Intrinsic (anatomical) connections were strongest from primary cortical regions to unimodal association areas – from Heschl’s gyrus to superior temporal gyrus for the auditory spelling task and from calcarine to fusiform gyrus for the visual spelling task. The modulatory (experimental) effect for the visual spelling task from calcarine to superior temporal gyrus was stronger than all other effects from calcarine and this effect showed a developmental increase, suggesting automatic activation of phonology that increased with age. The modulatory effect from Heschl’s gyrus to dorsal inferior frontal gyrus also showed a developmental increase, suggesting age-related increases in phonological segmentation in verbal working memory. All together, these results suggest that there are developmental increases in automatic access into brain regions involved in phonological processing in tasks that require orthographic processing.

Thought disorder and frontotemporal volumes in pediatric epilepsy

Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Taylor, Janelle; Daley, Melita; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this study was to determine if volumes of frontotemporal regions associated with language were related to thought disorder in 42 children, aged 5–16 years, with cryptogenic epilepsy, all of whom had complex partial seizures (CPS). The children with CPS and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy children underwent brain MRI scans at 1.5 T. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. Thought disorder measures, IQ, and seizure information were collected for each patient. The subjects with CPS had more thought disorder, smaller total gray matter and orbital frontal gray matter volumes, as well as larger temporal lobe white matter volumes than the control group. In the CPS group, thought disorder was significantly related to smaller orbital frontal and inferior frontal gray matter volumes, increased Heschl’s gyrus gray matter volumes, and smaller superior temporal gyrus white matter volumes. However, significantly larger orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and temporal lobe gray matter volumes and decreased Heschl’s gyrus white matter volumes were associated with thought disorder in the control group. These findings suggest that thought disorder might represent a developmental disability involving frontotemporal regions associated with language in pediatric CPS.

Altered volume and hemispheric asymmetry of the superficial cortical layers in the schizophrenia planum temporale

Smiley, John F.; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Mancevski, Branislav; Mann, J. John; Dwork, Andrew J.; Javitt, Daniel C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In vivo structural MRI studies in schizophrenia auditory cerebral cortex have reported smaller volumes, and less consistently have reported altered hemispheric asymmetry of volumes. We used autopsy brains from 19 schizophrenia and 18 nonpsychiatric male subjects to measure the volume asymmetry of the planum temporal (PT). We then used the most recently autopsied 11 schizophrenia and 10 non-psychiatric brains to measure the widths and fractional volumes of the upper (I–III) and lower (IV–VI) layers. Measurements of whole PT gray matter volumes did not show significant changes in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, laminar volume measurements revealed that the upper layers of the PT comprise a smaller fraction of the total cortex in schizophrenia than in nonpsychiatric brains. Subdivision of the PT showed that this change was especially prominent caudally, beyond Heschl’s gyrus, whereas similar but less pronounced changes were found in the rostral PT and Heschl’s gyrus. Complementary measures of laminar widths showed that the altered fractional volume in the caudal left PT was due mainly to about 8% thinner upper layers. However, the caudal right PT had a different profile, with thicker lower layers and comparatively unchanged upper layers. Thus...

Volume of Left Heschl’s Gyrus and Linguistic Pitch Learning

Wong, Patrick C.M.; Warrier, Catherine M.; Penhune, Virginia B.; Roy, Anil K.; Sadehh, Abdulmalek; Parrish, Todd B.; Zatorre, Robert J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Research on the contributions of the human nervous system to language processing and learning has generally been focused on the association regions of the brain without considering the possible contribution of primary and adjacent sensory areas. We report a study examining the relationship between the anatomy of Heschl’s Gyrus (HG), which includes predominately primary auditory areas and is often found to be associated with nonlinguistic pitch processing and language learning. Unlike English, most languages of the world use pitch patterns to signal word meaning. In the present study, native English-speaking adult subjects learned to incorporate foreign pitch patterns in word identification. Subjects who were less successful in learning showed a smaller HG volume on the left (especially gray matter volume), but not on the right, relative to learners who were successful. These results suggest that HG, typically shown to be associated with the processing of acoustic cues in nonspeech processing, is also involved in speech learning. These results also suggest that primary auditory regions may be important for encoding basic acoustic cues during the course of spoken language learning.

Relating structure to function: Heschl’s Gyrus and acoustic processing

Warrier, Catherine; Wong, Patrick; Penhune, Virginia; Zatorre, Robert; Parrish, Todd; Abrams, Daniel; Kraus, Nina
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2009 Português
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The way in which normal variations in human neuroanatomy relate to brain function remains largely uninvestigated. This study addresses the question by relating anatomical measurements of Heschl’s gyrus (HG), the structure containing human primary auditory cortex, to how this region processes temporal and spectral acoustic information. In this study, subjects’ right and left HG were identified and manually indicated on anatomical MRI scans. Volumes of gray matter, white matter and total gyrus were recorded, and asymmetry indices were calculated. Additionally, cortical auditory activity in response to noise stimuli varying orthogonally in temporal and spectral dimensions was assessed and related to the volumetric measurements. A high degree of anatomical variability was seen, consistent with other reports in the literature. The auditory cortical responses showed the expected leftward lateralization to varying rates of stimulus change and rightward lateralization of increasing spectral information. However, the present data are the first to explicitly link anatomical variability of auditory cortex to individual differences in the way that cortex processes acoustic information. Specifically, larger volumes of left HG were associated with larger extents of rate-related cortex on the left...

Longitudinal Heschl’s gyrus growth during childhood and adolescence in typical development and autism

Prigge, Molly D; Bigler, Erin D; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Anderson, Jeffrey; Froehlich, Alyson; Abildskov, Tracy; Papadopolous, Evangelia; Maasberg, Kathryn; Nielsen, Jared A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Heightened auditory sensitivity and atypical processing of sounds by the brain are common in autism. Functional studies that measure brain activity suggest abnormal neural response to sounds, yet the development underlying atypical sound processing in autism is unknown. We examined the growth of the first cortical area of the brain to process sound, the primary auditory cortex, also known as Heschl’s gyrus. Volume of Heschl’s gyrus gray and white matter was measured using structural MRI in 40 children and adolescents with autism and 17 typically developing participants. Up to three time points of volumetric brain data, collected on average every 2.5 years, were examined from individuals 3-12 years of age at their first scan. Our study is the first to examine volumetric changes during childhood and adolescence in Heschl’s gyrus longitudinally, or in the same individuals over time. Consistent with previous studies using only one time point of data, no differences between the participant groups were found in Heschl’s gyrus gray matter volume. However, reduced longitudinal growth of Heschl’s gyrus gray matter volume was found in the right hemisphere in autism. Reduced longitudinal white matter growth in the left hemisphere was found in the right-handed autism participants. Atypical growth of Heschl’s gyrus white matter volume was found bilaterally in the autism individuals with a history of delayed onset of spoken language. Heightened reported sensitivity to sounds...

Hemispheric asymmetry of primary auditory cortex and Heschl’s gyrus in schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric brains

Smiley, John F.; Hackett, Troy A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Figarsky, Khadija; Mann, J. John; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Javitt, Daniel C.; Dwork, Andrew J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Heschl’s gyrus (HG) is reported to have a normal left>right hemispheric volume asymmetry, and reduced asymmetry in schizophrenia. Primary auditory cortex (A1) occupies the caudal-medial surface of HG, but it is unclear if A1 has normal asymmetry, or whether its asymmetry is altered in schizophrenia. To address these issues, we compared bilateral gray matter volumes of HG and A1, and neuron density and number in A1, in autopsy brains from male subjects with or without schizophrenia. Comparison of diagnostic groups did not reveal altered gray matter volumes, neuron density, neuron number or hemispheric asymmetries in schizophrenia. With respect to hemispheric differences, HG displayed a clear left>right asymmetry of gray matter volume. Area A1 occupied nearly half of HG, but had less consistent volume asymmetry, that was clearly present only in a subgroup of archival brains from elderly subjects. Neuron counts, in layers IIIb-c and V-VI, showed that the A1 volume asymmetry reflected differences in neuron number, and was not caused simply by changes in neuron density. Our findings confirm previous reports of striking hemispheric asymmetry of HG, and additionally show evidence that A1 has a corresponding asymmetry, although less consistent than that of HG.

Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

Reinke, Britta; van de Ven, Vincent; Matura, Silke; Linden, David E. J.; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2013 Português
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Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD), and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT]) and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

Descriptive anatomy of Heschl’s gyri in 430 healthy volunteers, including 198 left-handers

Marie, D.; Jobard, G.; Crivello, F.; Perchey, G.; Petit, L.; Mellet, E.; Joliot, M.; Zago, L.; Mazoyer, B.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study describes the gyrification patterns and surface areas of Heschl’s gyrus (HG) in 430 healthy volunteers mapped with magnetic resonance imaging. Among the 232 right-handers, we found a large occurrence of duplication (64 %), especially on the right (49 vs. 37 % on the left). Partial duplication was twice more frequent on the left than complete duplication. On the opposite, in the right hemisphere, complete duplication was 10 % more frequent than partial duplication. The most frequent inter-hemispheric gyrification patterns were bilateral single HG (36 %) and left single-right duplication (27 %). The least common patterns were left duplication-right single (22 %) and bilateral duplication (15 %). Duplication was associated with decreased anterior HG surface area on the corresponding side, independently of the type of duplication, and increased total HG surface area (including the second gyrus). Inter-hemispheric gyrification patterns strongly influenced both anterior and total HG surface area asymmetries, leftward asymmetry of the anterior HG surface was observed in all patterns except double left HG, and total HG surface asymmetry favored the side of duplication. Compared to right-handers, the 198 left-handers exhibited lower occurrence of duplication...

Quantification of Inter-subject Variability in Human Brain and Its Impact on Analysis of fMRI Data

Tahmasebi , Amir
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, inter-subject anatomical variability of the human brain has been a major challenge in finding reliable functional/anatomical correspondences. Assessment of brain-behavior relations involves a series of geometrical/statistical operations on brain images to minimize such inter-subject variability, so that group maps of brain activity relative to brain anatomy can be developed. Various methods of image registration, segmentation, and analysis have been proposed for mapping functional activity on to anatomical atlases of the brain. The two most common techniques that have been widely accepted and used by neuroimaging scientists are volume-based (VB) analysis using group registration methods and region-of-interest (ROI)-based methods using automated segmentation algorithms or macro/microanatomical probabilistic atlases for labeling. Nevertheless, the analysis results based on these techniques are significantly affected by the accuracy of the selected segmentation and/or registration methods. Furthermore, conventional fMRI data analysis techniques (VB, and ROI-based methods) mainly rely on the assumption that brain processes are common and universal among individual humans; however...

Coding of Repetitive Transients by Auditory Cortex on Heschl's Gyrus

Brugge, John F.; Nourski, Kirill V.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Reale, Richard A.; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Howard, Matthew A.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The capacity of auditory cortex on Heschl's gyrus (HG) to encode repetitive transients was studied in human patients undergoing surgical evaluation for medically intractable epilepsy. Multicontact depth electrodes were chronically implanted in gray matter of HG. Bilaterally presented stimuli were click trains varying in rate from 4 to 200 Hz. Averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) and event-related band power (ERBP), computed from responses at each of 14 recording sites, identified two auditory fields. A core field, which occupies posteromedial HG, was characterized by a robust polyphasic AEP on which could be superimposed a frequency following response (FFR). The FFR was prominent at click rates below ∼50 Hz, decreased rapidly as click rate was increased, but could reliably be detected at click rates as high as 200 Hz. These data are strikingly similar to those obtained by others in the monkey under essentially the same stimulus conditions, indicating that mechanisms underlying temporal processing in the auditory core may be highly conserved across primate species. ERBP, which reflects increases or decreases of both phase-locked and non–phase-locked power within given frequency bands, showed stimulus-related increases in gamma band frequencies as high as 250 Hz. The AEPs recorded in a belt field anterolateral to the core were typically of low amplitude...

Auditory cortex asymmetry, altered minicolumn spacing and absence of ageing effects in schizophrenia

Chance, Steven A.; Casanova, Manuel F.; Switala, Andy E.; Crow, Timothy J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.38%
The superior temporal gyrus, which contains the auditory cortex, including the planum temporale, is the most consistently altered neocortical structure in schizophrenia (Shenton ME, Dickey CC, Frumin M, McCarley RW. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2001; 49: 1–52). Auditory hallucinations are associated with abnormalities in this region and activation in Heschl's gyrus. Our review of 34 MRI and 5 post-mortem studies of planum temporale reveals that half of those measuring region size reported a change in schizophrenia, usually consistent with a reduction in the left hemisphere and a relative increase in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, female subjects are under-represented in the literature and insight from sex differences may be lost. Here we present evidence from post-mortem brain (N = 21 patients, compared with 17 previously reported controls) that normal age-associated changes in planum temporale are not found in schizophrenia. These age-associated differences are reported in an adult population (age range 29–90 years) and were not found in the primary auditory cortex of Heschl's gyrus, indicating that they are selective to the more plastic regions of association cortex involved in cognition. Areas and volumes of Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale and the separation of the minicolumns that are held to be the structural units of the cerebral cortex were assessed in patients. Minicolumn distribution in planum temporale and Heschl's gyrus was assessed on Nissl-stained sections by semi-automated microscope image analysis. The cortical surface area of planum temporale in the left hemisphere (usually asymmetrically larger) was positively correlated with its constituent minicolumn spacing in patients and controls. Surface area asymmetry of planum temporale was reduced in patients with schizophrenia by a reduction in the left hemisphere (F = 7.7...

Simple Method for Evaluation of Planum Temporale Pyramidal Neurons Shrinkage in Postmortem Tissue of Alzheimer Disease Patients

Kutová, Martina; Mrzílková, Jana; Kirdajová, Denisa; Řípová, Daniela; Zach, Petr
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.99%
We measured the length of the pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III in four subregions of the planum temporale (transitions into superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, insular cortex, and Sylvian fissure) in control group and Alzheimer disease patients. Our hypothesis was that overall length of the pyramidal neurons would be smaller in the Alzheimer disease group compared to controls and also there would be right-left asymmetry in both the control and Alzheimer disease groups. We found pyramidal neuron length asymmetry only in controls—in the transition into the Sylvian fissure—and the rest of the subregions in the control group and Alzheimer disease patients did not show size difference. However, control-Alzheimer disease group pyramidal neuron length comparison revealed (a) no length difference in superior temporal gyrus transition area, (b) reversal of asymmetry in the insular transition area with left insular transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, (c) both right and left Heschl's gyrus transitions significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group, and (d) right Sylvian fissure transition significantly shorter in the Alzheimer disease group compared to the control group. This neuronal length measurement method could supplement already existing neuropathological criteria for postmortem Alzheimer disease diagnostics.

Morphometric Differences in the Heschl's Gyrus of Hearing Impaired and Normal Hearing Infants

Smith, Kristen M.; Mecoli, Marc D.; Altaye, Mekibib; Komlos, Marcia; Maitra, Raka; Eaton, Ken P.; Egelhoff, John C.; Holland, Scott K.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.08%
This study investigates the morphometry of Heschl's gyrus and its included primary auditory cortex (PAC) in hearing impaired (HI) and normal hearing (NH) infants. Fourty-two infants, age 8–19 months, with NH (n = 26) or hearing impairment (n = 16) were studied using high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were obtained using software for automatic brain imaging segmentation to estimate the volume of each tissue within manually defined regions for the anterior portion of Heschl's gyrus (aHG) in each individual subject, transformed to an infant brain template space. Interactions among group (HI, NH), tissue type (GM, WM), and hemisphere (left, right) were examined using analysis of variance. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was utilized to explore volume differences between groups across the entire brain. The HI group showed increased GM and decreased WM in aHG compared with the NH group; likely effects of auditory deprivation. The HI group did not exhibit their typical L > R asymmetry pattern that the NH group showed. Increased GM in aHG in HI infants may represent abnormal cortical development in PAC as seen in animal models of sensory deprivation. Lower WM volume is consistent with studies with deaf adults.

Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex

Scott, Gregory D.; Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2014 Português
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27.08%
Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11–15° vs. 2–7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex...

Altered Cross-Modal Processing in the Primary Auditory Cortex of Congenitally Deaf Adults: A Visual-Somatosensory fMRI Study with a Double-Flash Illusion

Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Neville, Helen J.
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/2012 Português
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27.35%
The developing brain responds to the environment by using statistical correlations in input to guide functional and structural changes—that is, the brain displays neuroplasticity. Experience shapes brain development throughout life, but neuroplasticity is variable from one brain system to another. How does the early loss of a sensory modality affect this complex process? We examined cross-modal neuroplasticity in anatomically defined subregions of Heschl's gyrus, the site of human primary auditory cortex, in congenitally deaf humans by measuring the fMRI signal change in response to spatially coregistered visual, somatosensory, and bimodal stimuli. In the deaf Heschl's gyrus, signal change was greater for somatosensory and bimodal stimuli than that of hearing participants. Visual responses in Heschl's gyrus, larger in deaf than hearing, were smaller than those elicited by somatosensory stimulation. In contrast to Heschl's gyrus, in the superior-temporal cortex visual signal was comparable to somatosensory signal. In addition, deaf adults perceived bimodal stimuli differently; in contrast to hearing adults, they were susceptible to a double-flash visual illusion induced by two touches to the face. Somatosensory and bimodal signal change in rostrolateral Heschl's gyrus predicted the strength of the visual illusion in the deaf adults in line with the interpretation that the illusion is a functional consequence of the altered cross-modal organization observed in deaf auditory cortex. Our results demonstrate that congenital and profound deafness alters how vision and somatosensation are processed in primary auditory cortex.

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Applied to Heschl's Gyrus Modulates Pitch Discrimination

Mathys, Christoph; Loui, Psyche; Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
The neural basis of the human brain's ability to discriminate pitch has been investigated by functional neuroimaging and the study of lesioned brains, indicating the critical importance of right and left Heschl's gyrus (HG) in pitch perception. Nonetheless, there remains some uncertainty with regard to localization and lateralization of pitch discrimination, partly because neuroimaging results do not allow us to draw inferences about the causality. To address the problem of causality in pitch discrimination functions, we used transcranial direct current stimulation to downregulate (via cathodal stimulation) and upregulate (via anodal stimulation) excitability in either left or right auditory cortex and measured the effect on performance in a pitch discrimination task in comparison with sham stimulation. Cathodal stimulation of HG on the left and on the right hemispheres adversely affected pitch discrimination in comparison to sham stimulation, with the effect on the right being significantly stronger than on the left. Anodal stimulation on either side had no effect on performance in comparison to sham. Our results indicate that both left and right HG are causally involved in pitch discrimination, although the right auditory cortex might be a stronger contributor.