Página 1 dos resultados de 10255 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

A Framework for Housing Policy Reform in Urban Areas in Egypt : Developing a Well Functioning Housing System and Strengthening the National Housing Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
This document builds upon several recent studies and reports carried out in the 2006-2007 period. The first note, entitled analysis of housing supply mechanisms (World Bank), analyzes the situation of housing supply in urban areas in Egypt, including the study of existing formal and informal mechanisms for the delivery of urban housing, the institutions responsible for supply and regulation, the characteristics of the formal and informal stock, and the institutional and regulatory framework governing land use planning and development. The second is a housing demand study in Greater Cairo (USAID TAPRII), which uses household data surveyed in December 2006 and yields results on the housing demand and household characteristics in the Greater Cairo Region. The third is an analysis of subsidized housing programs (USAID TAPRII), which assesses past, existing and pipeline subsidy programs in Egypt. International Best Practices were presented at a high-level workshop held in April 2007 with the intent of assessing different schemes of housing subsidies and reforms used in other emerging markets...

Arab Republic of Egypt : Analysis of Housing Supply Mechanisms, Final Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
The objective of this study, requested by the Minister of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development, is to assist the government of Egypt in: formulating a coherent national affordable housing strategy which puts in place an effective institutional and regulatory framework that creates the necessary conditions for an efficiently functioning housing market, devises the incentive structure needed to promote increased private sector participation in affordable housing supply and the subsidy package to enable limited-income households to access affordable housing, and addresses distortions in factor markets; and designing the foundations and key elements of the national affordable housing program for Egypt, which aims to enable the delivery of 500,000 affordable housing units in the coming six years. This study critically analyzes the existing situation on housing supply in urban areas in Egypt. This includes examining existing formal and informal mechanisms for the supply/ delivery of urban housing in Egypt, institutions responsible for supply and regulation...

Rental Choice and Housing Policy Realignment in Transition : Post-privatization Challenges in the Europe and Central Asia Region

Dübel, Hans-Joachim; Brzeski, W. Jan; Hamilton, Ellen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Massive privatizations of housing in Europe and Central Asia transition countries have significantly reduced rental tenure choice, threatening to impede residential mobility. Policymakers are intensifying their search for adequate policy responses aimed at broadening tenure choice for more household categories through effective rental housing alternatives in the social and private sectors. While the social alternative requires substantial and well-balanced subsidies, the private alternative will not grow unless rent, management, and tax reforms are boldly implemented and housing privatization truly completed.

Assessment of Housing for Low-income Groups in Danang : Phase I Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Danang City is the capital and economic hub of the central region of Vietnam. As in all of the major urban centers of the country, Danang is currently experiencing rapid urbanization fueled by consistent economic growth and the resultant steady increase in population, much through rural-urban migration. For this reason, central and city government has been increasingly concerned with the urban development and housing sectors. The objective of the (LIHAS) Study is to undertake an assessment of the low-income housing sector in Danang with a view to: i) determining effective demand for low-income shelter in Danang; and ii) providing alternative models of housing production, including aspects of housing finance, construction and maintenance. The Study will take account of Government housing policy as it affects low-income households (LIH) in Danang. In this regard there has been a move away from direct Government involvement in house construction for the public sector service which was found to be financiallyunsustainable. The scope of work is based on two phases as follows: Phase I. Data Collection and Analysis: this will involve: i) agreement with the DPC on adefinition low-income households for Danang City to be used as basis for the Study; ii) a literature review of relevant reports and studies; iii) preparation of an inventory of all existing publicly constructed housing developments for low-income groups in Danang built since 1980; iv) a rough assessment of the current size and rate of expansion of informal housing in the City; v) an assessment of the type and level of private sector participation in low income housing provision; vi) a review and assessment of the roles and responsibilities of both DONRE and DOC in respect to the provision and maintenance of publicly sponsored low-income housing; vii) a financial assessment of DONRE and DOC operations withrespect to the provision and maintenance of low-income housing; viii) identification of the binding constraints on the creation of low-income housing generally and in Danang specifically.

Rental Housing : Lessons from International Experience and Policies for Emerging Markets

Peppercorn, Ira Gary; Taffin, Claude
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This book rental housing lessons from international experience and policies for emerging market is an effort to bring rental housing to the forefront of the housing agenda of countries around the world and to provide general guidance for policy makers whose actions can have an effect on where and how people live. It warns of the challenges they face and provides guidelines on how to develop or redevelop a sound rental sector. it can enable key players in housing markets be they government officials, private rental property owners, financiers, or nongovernmental organizations to add rental housing as a critical housing option and to have an informed discussion on how best to stimulate this sector. The housing policy of most nations focused on increasing home ownership. There had been very little discussion about rental housing, less about social housing, and virtually none about public housing. This book includes totally five chapters: chapter one is introduction; chapter two is the rental market and its players; chapter three is legal...

Housing Policy in Developing Countries : Conjectures and Refutations

Buckley, Robert M.; Kalarickal, Jerry
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
This housing policy in developing countries, conjectures and refutations article discusses housing policy in developing economies. It examines recent research findings in light of earlier arguments as to the benefits of more market-oriented approaches. It also looks at whether the recommendations of earlier work have been refuted or developed in subsequent analyses and policy measures. In particular, it reviews the empirical analysis of the effects of policy on housing supply, the richer understanding of the effects that land market regulations have on housing affordability and the functioning of urban areas, and the alleged mysterious effects that researchers claim effective property rights have on housing policy and on development more generally. It also examines the effects of the increased emphasis on community participation, showing how it helps to more fully reconcile the incentives faced by beneficiaries of housing policy and donors. Finally, it examines recent literature on the welfare effects of rent control. The article shows that some of the conjectures as to the likely benefits of more market-based policy have been refuted...

Housing Matters

Hammam, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Housing matters to the livability of cities and to the productivity of their economies. The failure of cities to accommodate the housing needs of growing urban populations can be seen in the proliferation of poorly serviced, high-density informal settlements. Such settlements are not new in the history of rapidly growing cities, their persistence results as much from policies as from economics and demographic transition. Slums have attracted most of the attention on urban housing in developing countries, and the Millennium Development Goals have given prominence to their reduction. However, urban housing issues transcend conditions in slums and are linked closely to economic activity. City economies influence housing demand, and in turn the flexibility of housing supply affects economic activity and city growth. This paper provides an overview of the policy and institutional building blocks that determine housing sector performance, drawing on studies from both developed and developing countries. It focuses on property rights...

Housing Matters

Hammam, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Housing matters to the livability of cities and to the productivity of their economies. The failure of cities to accommodate the housing needs of growing urban populations can be seen in the proliferation of poorly serviced, high-density informal settlements. Such settlements are not new in the history of rapidly growing cities, their persistence results as much from policies as from economics and demographic transition. Slums have attracted most of the attention on urban housing in developing countries, and the Millennium Development Goals have given prominence to their reduction. However, urban housing issues transcend conditions in slums and are linked closely to economic activity. City economies influence housing demand, and in turn the flexibility of housing supply affects economic activity and city growth. This paper provides an overview of the policy and institutional building blocks that determine housing sector performance, drawing on studies from both developed and developing countries. It focuses on property rights...

Access to Affordable and Low-Income Housing in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Across the world, the housing sector plays a key role in local and national economies, and expanding access to housing can encourage more equitably shared economic growth. This report surveys current policy interventions designed to encourage affordable housing in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The purpose of this report is to provide a general overview of the recent trends in urbanization and development in EAP and to consider different forms of government, market, and nonprofit actions that support housing affordability. It will also highlight key constraints and barriers that restrict the provision of low-cost housing in urban areas. Housing is important because it represents a significant household expenditure. The report assesses the strengths and limitations of affordable housing strategies used by different countries throughout EAP. This report offers broad conclusions that account for the broad social, political, and institutional variation among EAP countries; as such, these conclusions may well be applicable to more than one country context. The report also provides specific recommendations for improvement where existing interventions are new or have proven less successful. The report is divided into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two examines trends in urbanization rates...

Green Cities : Sustainable Low-Income Housing in Brazil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Housing development has direct and indirect impacts on the environment. Through its design, construction, and operation, housing represents a significant point of direct consumption of natural materials, water, and energy. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions embodied in housing can be very significant. Moreover, in Brazil, civil construction is responsible for the largest percentage of solid waste volume generated in cities, resulting in additional environmental impacts. The housing sector also has substantial indirect environmental impacts associated with extended commuting distances from residents of housing developments and their resulting greenhouse gas emissions.The housing sector in Brazil offers substantial opportunities to improve enviromental performance. Housing developments, particularly large-scale low-cost programs, provide opportunities to minimize local and global environmental impacts through the use of energy efficient materials, design and construction guidelines, as well as performance standards. Many of these technologies and practices are appropriate to Brazilian conditions...

Urban Land and Housing Markets in the Punjab, Pakistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This note provides a short overview of urban land and housing market performance in Punjab Province of Pakistan. It describes the characteristics of well-functioning urban land and housing markets and argues that, at present, the Punjab's urban land and housing markets are not performing well. The paper identifies a range of structural and institutional shortcomings that impede urban land market performance, and then concludes by offering recommendations for making land and housing markets functions better. The Punjab Province in Pakistan is in the midst of a profound urban transition, driven by structural economic change. The Punjab is transforming from an agriculturally-based economy to a manufacturing and service based economy, which is leading to massive urbanization. This background paper reviews and assesses how well the Punjab's urban land and housing markets are functioning. The evidence suggests that urban land and housing markets are not performing as well as they could. Urban land-use planning and development controls are impeding urban development, while land titling and registration systems hamper real estate development. Systems of local resource mobilization and taxation do not generate sufficient revenues to fund key urban infrastructure. The paper notes the several critical negative consequences of poor urban land market performance...

Islamic Republic of Iran : Strategies for the Housing Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
The objective of this Housing Sector Strategy Report is to assist the Government of Iran in aligning its housing policy with its overall national policy of growth-led distribution. The study opens with an overview of Iran's macroeconomic circumstances and the effect its volatile oil-dependent economy has had on the housing sector. It discusses the principal challenges posed by the housing sector, with particular reference to demographic pressures, centralized and supply-oriented housing policies, and segmented markets along income. The remainder of the report examines policies and identifies bottlenecks affecting major sectors: the performance of land markets since the 1979 Revolution; housing subsidies; housing finance including the size of the mortgage market, accessibility to housing loans, and the state's approach; and the construction industry, it's organization and the related regulatory and institutional frameworks. In each area policy recommendations are given. Three overall recommendations are to sever the links between Government and financial institutions and construction companies; develop the private sector's role in the construction sector and reduce the relative dominance of quasi-public companies; and revise and simplify building codes and regulations to balance safety requirements with demand for housing and Iran's available pool of skills and materials.

Housing and Urbanization in Africa : Unleashing a Formal Market Process

Collier, Paul; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its environs affect identity and self-respect. Commentary on the emergence of an African middle class has become common, but it is being defined in terms of discretionary spending and potential for consumer markets. A politically more salient definition of a middle class will be in terms of home ownership and the consequent stake in economic stability. This paper examines why such a process has not happened in Africa. The hypothesis is that the peculiarity of housing exposes it to multiple points of vulnerability not found together either in private consumer goods or in other capital goods. Each point of vulnerability can be addressed by appropriate government policies...

Shelter from the Storm--but Disconnected from Jobs : Lessons from Urban South Africa on the Importance of Coordinating Housing and Transport Policies

Lall, Somik V.; van den Brink, Rogier; Dasgupta, Basab; Muir Leresche, Kay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Informal settlements are a permanent feature of South Africa's cities. Estimates from the General Household Survey by Statistics South Africa show that more than 26 percent of all households in the country's six metropolitan areas live in informal dwellings. The government's policy efforts have focused on provision of subsidized housing, first introduced as part of the Reconstruction and Development Program. Through the lens of new urbanism and coordination in planning this paper explores the possible impact of the program using data from the General Household Survey. The analysis of the program's beneficiaries relative to non-beneficiaries does not show that public housing provision has multiplier effects in terms of complementary private investments in housing maintenance or in upgrading. This is likely because Reconstruction and Development Program housing is often far from employment centers, with the houses built in the "old" apartheid locations that are disconnected from employment centers. In addition...

Mexico - Low Income Housing : Issues and Options, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
This report evaluates the shortcomings of current housing policies, and provides a framework for analysis of alternative policies. Its message is threefold: First, housing has a significant role in terms of basic social support, where the housing unit is a source of capital accumulation, thus a key to expanding Mexico's middle class, from a minority to a majority. Second, the country is facing a two-tiered housing market, those that can afford formal housing, and the near majority who are not served by current federal programs. Third, the housing finance system has amalgamated into multiple institutions, with unclear accountability, and divergent criteria for subsidized credit. The report further reviews the significant challenges facing housing demand, supply, and government intervention, stating that in the absence of viable alternatives, many Mexicans households are under-housed, and suffer from insecure tenure, crowding, and poor quality of housing. This weakness exacerbates poverty, by limiting capital formation...

Egypt - Next Step Recommendations for Affordable Housing Policy and the National Housing Program : Mortgaged-Linked Subsidies and Housing Supply considerations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
At the request of the Government of Egypt (GOE), the objective of this brief note is to provide concise recommendations on next steps for the National Housing Program (NHP). These recommendations and policy analysis are an elaboration of the framework for housing policy reform in urban areas in Egypt, a draft of which was endorsed by the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development (MHUUD) and the Ministry of Investment (MOI) in the high-level policy workshop held in September 2007. The Framework, an evolving strategy building blocks document, proposed a set of comprehensive housing sector reforms and improvements to the NHP consisting of five action channels - unlocking the vacant housing stock, creating a fluid rental market, enhancing affordability through improved access to housing finance and reduction of formal housing supply cost, improved targeting of subsidies, and transforming the government's role into an enabler of the housing market. During the Ministerial workshop in September 2007, it was agreed that the four priority actions were: (i) the design and implementation of a housing information system; (ii) mainstreaming the use of demand-based mortgage-linked subsidy instruments; (iii) set up of a high-level housing policymaking body to coordinate and rationalize the interventions of the different concerned stakeholders; and (iv) expansion of the Housing Demand Study to other areas of Egypt. United States Agency for International Development or USAID Second Technical Assistance for Policy Reform...

Housing Consumption and Urbanization

Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Young, Cheryl
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Rapid urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa places immense pressure on urban services to meet the needs of the burgeoning urban population. Although several country- or city-level reports offer insight into the housing challenges of specific places, little is known about regional patterns affecting housing markets. This lack of clear knowledge on the relative importance of the factors influencing households' housing demand in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa inhibits policy makers, researchers, the private sector, and development partners from making informed decisions when addressing affordable housing provision and the rapid increase in and growth of informal settlements. To shed light on the contours of housing patterns and impediments impacting the region's households, this paper provides a systematic review of housing conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. By drilling down into the housing issues in the region from the perspective of the household, the paper analyses the trade-offs households make in allocating their budgets over time to housing and other amenities and provides a first approximation at understanding the differences in households' expenditure patterns and housing decisions across countries. The findings suggest that rather than emphasizing policies that purport to increase expenditures on housing at this stage of development...

Brazil - Progressive Low-Income Housing : Alternatives for the Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
This report aims to analyze key aspects of the low-income housing sector in Brazil, and to provide an analytical framework for reviewing alternatives to addressing the lack of adequate formal housing and urban services for the poor. It addresses four fundamental questions for policymakers in the housing sector in Brazil: First, should the government be involved in policy interventions in the low-income segment of the housing market? Second, if policy action is appropriate, what roles should policymakers at the federal, state, and municipal levels play? Third, should the government's key interventions in the market be focused on the supply, or demand side of the market? Finally, how can the government structure a comprehensive policy to deal with the failure of the housing market to provide adequate shelter for the poor? The report begins with a brief outline of the nature, and extent of the low-income housing problem, describes the policies in place to address the lack of housing, suggests a methodological framework for assessing the paucity of low-income housing in light of international experiences...

Housing and Urbanization in Africa : Unleashing a Formal Market Process

Collier, Paul; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its environs affect identity and self-respect. Commentary on the emergence of an African middle class has become common, but it is being defined in terms of discretionary spending and potential for consumer markets. A politically more salient definition of a middle class will be in terms of home ownership and the consequent stake in economic stability. This paper examines why such a process has not happened in Africa. Our hypothesis is that the peculiarity of housing exposes it to multiple points of vulnerability not found together either in private consumer goods or in other capital goods. Each point of vulnerability can be addressed by appropriate government policies...

An Assessment of Housing for Low-income Groups in Danang : Phase II Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
In August 2004, in response to a request from the Government of Vietnam (GOV), the WB/ IDA launched preparatory activities for the Priority Infrastructure Investment Project (PIIP) in Danang. The PIIP is a multi-sectoral infrastructure investment initiative aimed at poverty reduction and the promotion of economic growth. The Project reflects the national goals set out in the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS), and is in line with the overall development priorities of the City's Five-Year (2006-200) Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP). The (PIIP) Project objectives are to: i) improve the living conditions and productivity of low income residents through better access to basic services; ii) promote economic growth through strategic investments that enhance mobility and increase private sector participation in the City's economic development; and iii) improve city and district level management through institutional and human resource development and capacity building. During the course of (PIIP) Project preparation activities...