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Chasing the money story: an evaluation of the Tangentyere Bank Pilot Project and its relevance to Indigenous communities in central Australia

McDonnell, Siobhan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 842655 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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A study of the Tangentyere Bank Pilot Project is important, as it is often cited as a ‘best practice’ model of financial service provision and financial literacy training (see McDonnell and Westbury 2002). For this reason, this report focuses on aspects of the Tangentyere project that may be applied to other Aboriginal communities in central Australia. Banking and financial services offered by the Tangentyere Council There are three major banking and financial services offered by the Tangentyere Council. First, the delivery of face-to-face, over the counter banking services to Westpac clients. Second, an extensive financial literacy program designed to facilitate the transition of individuals from cheque-based to electronic banking. Third, a strategy to overcome the fortnightly feast-and-famine cycle in the Tangentyere town camps. These aspects are discussed in terms of their relevance to remote Indigenous communities in central Australia. The Tangentyere bank branch offers a range of face-to-face services for town camp clientele. As of October 2002, the Tangentyere agency had operative bank accounts for 888 customers. The financial structure of the agency means that it costs Tangentyere approximately $190 per annum to provide services to a customer. This is not taking into account the costs that have been subsidised by Westpac...

Governance for sustainable development: strategic issues and principles for Indigenous Australian communities

Dodson, Mick; Smith, Diane E.
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); www.anu.edu.au/caepr/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); www.anu.edu.au/caepr/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 35 pages
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This Discussion Paper examines the concepts of ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘sustainable development’ in the context of Australian Indigenous communities and regions. It explores the hypothesis that there is vital link between governance and sustainable development. The first half of the paper defines the key concepts and reviews the existing barriers facing Indigenous communities and their organisations in securing sustainable socioeconomic development. It identifies the key ingredients of successful development and then those over which Indigenous Australians actually have some local control. On the premise that it is best to make a start in areas where local control can be exercised, building ‘good governance’ is identified as the key ingredient—the foundation stone—for building sustainable development in communities and regions. The second half of the paper then proposes a set of key ingredients and core principles which Indigenous communities might use to build more effective governance. These draw on the professional and field experience of the authors and other Australian research, the international findings of the Harvard Project in the USA, and the Gitxsan leader Neil Sterritt’s applied research on governance with Canadian First Nations.

The realities of Indigenous adult literacy acquisition and practice: implications for capacity development in remote communities

Kral, Inge; Schwab, Robert G.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 2553363 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The future sustainability of remote communities is being questioned with increasing frequency. The current state of welfare dependency is fragile. Significant work is being undertaken to develop the capacity of Indigenous communities to govern their own services and adult literacy is clearly seen as a major factor in the participation of Indigenous people in community development and the capacity building processes. Yet little research on adult literacy practices and competence in remote Indigenous communities has taken place in Australia. This paper reports on findings from a collaborative study involving two remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, one in the Top End and the other in the Central Desert. The project, involving a collaboration between the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research and Central Australian Remote Health Development Services, used an ethnographic approach, drawing on ideas developed internationally by anthropologists and linguists associated with the New Literacy Studies to explore the social context of literacy acquisition and use in these communities. In this paper we analyse the findings and explore the implications for training, employment and capacity development in remote Indigenous communities.; no

Interactions between local/indigenous communities and the natural environment in Far North Queensland and Southern New Guinea

Filer, Colin; Haberle, Simon; Hide, Robin; Lawrence, David; Smith, Ben; Hitchcock, Garrick
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 430639 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This document has been compiled with inputs from a number of scholars at the Australian National University (ANU) who have specific experience and expertise on this subject and an ongoing research interest in this region. It is intended to complement Dorte Hansen’s ‘Report on Biological Resources Shared between Australia and New Guinea’, by outlining the current state of scientific knowledge on interactions between local and indigenous communities and the natural environment within this the parts of this ecoregion which fall within the jursidictions of Australia and PNG. A subsequent version will include a review of the literature on the part which falls within the jursidiction of Indonesia.; no

Swimming pools in remote indigenous communities : some basic information for planning a pool

Audera, Carmen; Peart, Andrew; Szoeke, Cassandra; Duddles, Jonathan; Vivian, Nigel
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 663444 bytes; application/pdf
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"The four reports included here provide the basic information any community considering building a pool should have at its fingertips. In the first report, epidemiologist and medical practitioner, Dr Carmen Audera reviews the potential health benefits and risks of providing swimming pools in remote communities. A CRC-funded summer student project allowed Andrew Peart and Cassandra Szoeke to systematically gather information from Indigenous communities with pools about the benefits, risks, logistics and costs of installing and maintaining a swimming pool. They also gathered information from communities without pools about where people swim, how this is managed and whether there are associated risks. Centre for Appropriate Technology staff member and engineer, Jonathan Duddles, compiled the necessary information about construction and maintenance options and finally another CRC-funded summer student, Nigel Vivian, worked with CAT engineer, Bob Lloyd, to examine the feasibility of monitoring pool water for chemical and microbiological hazards." (Foreword); no

Philanthropy, non-government organisations and Indigenous development

Schwab, Robert G.; Sutherland, D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 279745 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper is an exploration of the potential opportunities and costs of linkages between philanthropic bodies, non-government organisations (NGOs), Indigenous organisations and the academy. Following an overview of the evolution of the ‘Literacy for Life’ project, provided as a case study of the development of the type of collaboration we want to explore, the paper provides a discussion of the nature of philanthropy in Australia today and major changes afoot in the sector internationally. We then provide some examples of where philanthropic funding has been used to support initiatives in Indigenous communities and organisations. Next, we turn to an examination of Australian development focused NGOs and suggest reasons for why they have remained largely unengaged with Indigenous issues and communities in Australia. Partnerships between philanthropic foundations, development-oriented NGOs and Indigenous organisations represent an exciting and important approach that addresses some of the seemingly intractable problems of Indigenous communities. These partnerships may also enable skill transfer and capacity development that has been difficult if not impossible for many Indigenous communities to achieve. In addition, they may allow long-term engagements and high-risk...

Knowledge foundations for the development of sustainable wildlife enterprises in remote Indigenous communities of Australia

Fordham, Adrian; Fogarty, William; Corey, Ben; Fordham, Damien
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 59 pages
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Sustainable wildlife enterprises in remote Indigenous communities are an important source of economic development and employment whilst providing people with opportunities to continue their close connection with country and to maintain customary wildlife harvesting practices. Critical to the success of wildlife enterprises is recognition of the importance of both Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science in their design and implementation. This paper analyses the Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science underpinning the northern long-necked turtle and fledgling tarantula spider industries that have been established by the Djelk Rangers in the remote township of Maningrida in central Arnhem Land. The paper addresses issues of complementarity and conflict across both knowledge systems. The paper also examines the formal transmission of knowledge through education and training institutions as a means of developing employment pathways for young Indigenous people to work in wildlife enterprises.; "This paper was written as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage grant (LP0562060) entitled ‘Custom-based land and resource management and the educational and social re-engagement of Indigenous youth in the Northern Territory’...

Indigenous language education in remote communities

Fogarty, William; Kral, Inge
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 12 pages
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This Topical Issue is based upon a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities, and has a specific focus on lessons the authors have learnt from working with Indigenous peoples in remote regions as both educators and researchers. The focus is on the role of Indigenous languages in emergent development activity in remote Australia and the out-of-school language and literacy needs of Indigenous adolescents and young adults, with a focus on the digital economy.; "A version of this Topical Issue was provided as a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities ... Submissions to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities can be viewed at

Conflicting world views: disjuncture between climate change knowledge, land use planning and disaster resilience in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia

Wensing, Ed; Harwood, Sharon; Bird, Deanne; Haynes, Katharine
Fonte: Ben-gurion University of the Negev Press Publicador: Ben-gurion University of the Negev Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 17 pages
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This paper examines the links between emergency management and land use planning in four remote Indigenous communities in tropical northern Australia and the extent to which such linkages produced better disaster resilience in these communities. The case study communities were chosen because they are in locations likely to experience increased frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, both slow (sea level rise, drought) and rapid onset (storm surges, cyclones, floods) as a consequence of climate change. We compared land use planning legislation, state level planning policies, statutory planning schemes, property registration systems and emergency management systems. We found a clear disjuncture between understanding the likely impacts of climate change and the collection of emergency management data and the consideration of hazards and risks in land use planning systems. We conclude that the land use planning systems in tropical northern Australia are still geared toward promoting and facilitating development and have not evolved sufficiently to take account of climate change impacts, including sea level rise. This disjuncture is particularly evident in the context of remote Indigenous communities in Australia and reforms to land use planning systems are urgently required to address this disjuncture.

Potential benefits of repatriating cultural materials for Aboriginal and Torres Strait l·slander communities

Pecquet, Clotilde
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This report thoroughly investigates the available research on the benefits of repatriating cultural materials to Indigenous communities in Australia and abroad. Additionally, it presents significant real-life examples of repatriation and local heritage management projects. A number of suggestions are drawn from the research and examples in the form of research and policy recommendations. There is an international tendency that encourages collecting institutions to repatriate to Indigenous populations human remains, sacred/secret materials, and cultural materials. These materials have been collected either through unethical or illegal ways, but also through more benign ways such as consensual research. Today, many physical and digital repatriation projects are led by many collecting agencies, assisted in their efforts by different kinds of legislations. However, getting access to cultural materials is still difficult for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Collecting agencies as AIA TSIS are promoting projects that could facilitate this access. In this context, the project of a National Indigenous Knowledge Centre Network (NIKCN) is currently studied and is going to be submitted by the end of the year 2010 to the Government. This could be a key in the resolution of this issue and in the reconciliation process. AIA TSIS encourages the creation of this network jointly with its projects of digitisation of archives resources. Several examples of repatriation and local heritage management in Australia and other parts of the world are discussed here. These cases are used to show the benefits of such projects...

Association of natural fluoride in community water supplies with dental health of children in remote Indigenous communities - implications for policy

Bailie, R.; Stevens, M.; Armfield, J.; Ehsani, J.; Beneforti, M.; Spencer, L.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To map the geographic distribution of fluoride in water supplies and child dental caries in remote Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory (NT). To examine the association between fluoride levels, household and community factors, access to services and child dental caries in these communities and to model the impact on the caries experience of children of introducing water fluoridation. METHODS: Fluoride testing was conducted in 80 locations across the NT in 2001. Measures of mean caries experience for six-year-olds and 12-year-olds and community and housing-related infrastructure were obtained from records of the NT School Dental Service. Associations between community fluoride levels, community level variables and childhood caries experience and potential impact of water fluoridation were assessed using linear regression modeling. RESULTS: Mean caries experience for six- and 12-year-olds tended to be higher in northern and eastern areas of the NT, corresponding to the distribution of low levels of natural fluoride. Several-fold more children in remote NT communities are exposed to the risks of inadequate fluoride than are exposed to excessive fluoride. Mean reticulated fluoride level was the only variable significantly associated (p<0.05) with caries experience in both age groups. The potential reduction of caries through introducing water fluoridation is expected to be about 28% for children living in communities with the lowest levels of fluoride (<0.3 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Introduction of fluoridation of water supplies into communities with inadequate natural fluoride is a vital measure for improving the dental health of children living in remote NT communities.; Ross S. Bailie...

The Strong Teeth Study; background, rationale and feasibility of fluoridating remote Indigenous communities

Spencer, A.; Bailie, R.; Jamieson, L.
Fonte: F D I World Dental Press Ltd Publicador: F D I World Dental Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The caries experience of Australian Indigenous children has deteriorated at the same time as that of non-Indigenous children has greatly improved. Fluoridating the water supplies of Indigenous communities emerged as a policy direction at the beginning of the 2000s. However, remote Indigenous communities are small, highly dispersed and isolated. This paper describes the Strong Teeth Study, a series of projects for the fluoridation of remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. The background and rationale for two demonstration fluoridation projects are presented and the feasibility of operating small-scale fluoridation plant and measuring the impact on caries experience described. The demonstration fluoridation projects were commenced, but not sustained. The lessons learnt about environmental enablers and essential service requirements are highlighted. Fluoridation has the potential to improve oral health so as to contribute positively to child development as part of the broader mission of closing the gap in health between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.; A. J. Spencer, R. Bailie, L. Jamieson

Indigenous housing: a fair approach to basic needs. Response to 'Living in the Sunburnt Country- Indigenous housing: findings of the review of the community housing and infrastructure programme

Upward, Reka
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Indigenous people in Australian typically endure markedly lower standards of housing than non-indigenous Australians. This is reflected in high rates of homelessness, overcrowding, and affordability stress which disproportionately affect Indigenous people living in urban, regional and remote areas. The delivery of what are commonly considered 'essential services', such as water, electricity, sewerage, and medical care, is impeded by economic and logistical barriers particular to remote Indigenous communities. Adequate housing is strongly linked to better outcomes in health, education, and community safety, making it fundamental to strategies aimed at improving the wellbeing of Indigenous people. Questions of appropriateness, effectiveness, and accountability in Indigenous housing are therefore significant public policy concerns. However, a number of persistent conditions affecting both policy and debate in Indigenous affairs have hindered the achievement of improved housing outcomes over recent years. These include inadequate Commonwealth and State funding for the management, construction, and maintenance of housing stock, and a failure to address the large backlog of housing need. Furthermore, mainstream debate has consistently failed to engage Indigenous people in decisions affecting housing and development. The absence of a national representative body for Indigenous people...

A new model of inclusion? Centrelink's development of income support service delivery for remote Indigenous communities

Sanders, W
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1198330 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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When Centrelink was established in 1997, it inherited from the Department of Social Security a model of service delivery for Indigenous communities in remote areas built around relatively large social security offices based in urban centres and agents based in Indigenous communities. Some dissatisfaction with this model has led Centrelink to experiment with additional ways of delivering services to remote Indigenous communities. In particular, it has piloted the development of some very small Centrelink offices, or Customer Service Centres (CSCs), located in some of the larger Indigenous communities. This paper reports on a consultancy undertaken in 2002 which provided a formative evaluation of the first two such small CSCs. It outlines plans, originating in the 2001 budget, for the establishment over the next four years of another 12 such small CSCs servicing Indigenous people in remote areas. I argue that these small CSCs are a significant development in the way in which Indigenous people in remote areas have been included in the social security system over the last 40 years. While perhaps not an entirely new model of inclusion of Indigenous people in the social security system per se, they are a significant development in the service delivery model through which...

The transition from welfare to work: a qualitative study based on four remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory

Bridier, Eleonore
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This research report utilises debate surrounding the future of the Community Development and Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme to unravel the concept of 'welfare dependency,' its many definitions, and thus policy implications for remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory. It underscores the importance of acknowledging socio-cultural features of life in these communities in order for a policy-setting that stresses economic integration to be effective but also properly balanced in its emphasis. The political reality is of a growing and frustrated working age population in relation to traditional governance structures, and eventual, overall limits and inappropriateness of direct government transfers, which includes CDEP. Moving these communities towards more economic autonomy must begin at some point and the abolition and consequent reforms to CDEP reflect these imperatives for change. However, socio-cultural considerations suggest limits to punitive measures, when the people targeted by such policy are highly embedded in a domestic moral economy that both levels consumer dependency and private gain, while conferring a great deal of individual autonomy for action. Moreover, when different socio-cultural forms of economic engagement collide...

Tourism and Indigenous Peoples - Lessons from Recent Experiences in Eco and Ethno Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The trend toward new tourism niches in Latin America and the Caribbean (hereafter, LAC) has brought benefits, but also costs to the region's indigenous peoples. As the World Bank social and environmental portfolios in LAC reveal, work with indigenous groups has frequently favored tourism as a strategy for empowerment. At the same time, urban, rural development and infrastructure projects have also increased tourism opportunities, including visits to indigenous communities. Bank experience indicates the increasing need for dialogue and greater understanding of the issues involved in these cases. This En Breve offers an overview of the concerns generated by 'ethno-tourism' and, through consultation with three experts who have worked with indigenous groups in Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia, proposes approaches recommended reducing negative impacts.

Tourism and Indigenous Peoples : Lessons from Recent Experiences in Eco and Ethno Tourism in Latin America and the Caribbean

Verner, Dorte; Maria Solo, Tova
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The trend toward new tourism niches in Latin America and the Caribbean (hereafter, LAC) has brought benefits, but also costs to the region's indigenous peoples. As the World Bank social and environmental portfolios in LAC reveal, work with indigenous groups has frequently favored tourism as a strategy for empowerment. At the same time, urban, rural development and infrastructure projects have also increased tourism opportunities, including visits to indigenous communities. Bank experience indicates the increasing need for dialogue and greater understanding of the issues involved in these cases. This en breve offers an overview of the concerns generated by 'ethno-tourism' and, through consultation with three experts who have worked with indigenous groups in Argentina, Brazil and Colombia, proposes approaches recommended to reduce negative impacts.

Diagnóstico socio-jurídico de las operaciones militares en territorios indígenas; Diagnosis socio-legal military operations in indigenous territories in Colombia

Cristancho Niño, José Andrés; Veloza, Carlos Kennedy
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Derecho Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Derecho
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
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La presente obra es el resultado de un proyecto de investigación surgido de la necesidad de establecer parámetros mínimos a las problemáticas en las comunidades indígenas colombianas ocasionados por la presencia de grupos armados - legales e ilegales- en sus territorios, esta propuesta pretende presentar un balance para ponderar los derechos de los indígenas a través de su jurisdicción y autonomía y demás derechos presentes en el ámbito jurídico, en el debate con las obligaciones constitucionales del gobierno Colombiano, representadas en el Ministerio de Defensa teniendo su deber de garantizar la paz como argumento para desarrollar labores en territorio de las comunidades indígenas.; This work comes as a result of a research project stemmed from the need of establishing minimum parameters regarding the troublesome conditions suffered by Colombian indigenous communities, and caused by the presence of legal and illegal armed groups in their territories. This work aims at presenting a balance to ponder the rights of the natives through their jurisdiction and autonomy, as well as their other legal rights, amid the debate generated by the constitutional obligations of the Colombian government, represented by the Ministry of National Defense...

The political economy of conflict between indigenous communities and dominant societies: adivasis, Maoist insurgents and the state in the central Indian tribal belt

Kennedy, Jonathan
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Sociology Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Sociology
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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This thesis aims to understand the political sociology of Maoist insurgency in India using a combination of disaggregated statistics and qualitative data. The vast majority of insurgent leaders are from dominant or upper caste, middle class backgrounds. Their participation in the insurgency can be understood in terms of ideology and short-term processes of mobilization. The Maoist insurgents provide a unified organizational structure for two separate sections of society. On the one hand, are untouchable or dalit landless laborers who suffer economic exploitation at the hands of higher caste landowners. On the hand are tribal or adivasi landowning cultivators whose relative autonomy has come under increasing pressure over the past two centuries as the state has established control over natural resources in their area. Their support for the insurgents does not just manifest itself from exploited untouchables? and oppressed tribals? positions in the social structure as structural theories would assume. Rather, the insurgents provide them with collective incentives in order to encourage their support. The actors at the macro and micro levels have very different reasons for participating in the insurgency. The insurgent leaders aim to capture state power through a Protracted People?s War...

Intestinal parasitism prevalence amongst children from six indigenous communities residing in Cali, Colombia

Salcedo-Cifuentes,Mercedes; Florez,Ofelia; Bermúdez,Amparo; Hernández,Luzmila; Araujo,Cristina; Bolaños,María V.
Fonte: Instituto de Salud Publica, Faculdad de Medicina -Universidad Nacional de Colombia Publicador: Instituto de Salud Publica, Faculdad de Medicina -Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
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Objective Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali. Methodology A cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali; it consisted of making a direct serial and concentration coproparasitological examination of a randomly selected sample of fifty-seven 5 to 14 year-old children. Results Of the 57 samples obtained, 84 % of the children were infected with parasites; protozoa (98 %) predominated over helminths (16.7 %) and mixed parasitemia was found in 14.6 % of the samples. Monoparasitism appeared in children over 10 years of age and biparasitism (10.4 %) and polyparasitism (52.1 %) in children under 10 years of age. Regarding occult blood determination, 6 % were observed to be positive in all the samples analysed; 4 % of these results were associated with E. histolyticaldispar. The simple parasitism index (SPI) reflected a high degree of infestation amongst the children included in the study. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in indigenous infants was higher than that reported nationally in the overall adolescent and school-aged children population in the same age group. Mono- and polyparasitism prevailed in the positive samples. The infestation load was not randomly distributed amongst the communities.