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Markets-as-networks theory: a review

Sousa, Filipe Jorge Moreira de
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This paper exposes the development of markets-as-networks theory from formal inception in the mid-1970s until 2010 state-of-the-art, en route presenting its historical roots. This largely European-based theory challenges the conventional, dichotomous view of the business world as including firms and markets, arguing for the existence of relational governance structures (the so-called ‘‘interfirm cooperation’’) in addition to hierarchical and transactional ones.

Regions as networks: towards a conceptual framework of territorial dynamics

Brito, Carlos Henrique; Correia, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia Publicador: Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
Regions interact with multiple actors and industrial companies are one of the most important players in this interaction. By their strategic actions and relationships, companies are simultaneously present in different regions and influence a territory’s dynamics and structure. Moreover, territorial characteristics are also a condition that can shape a company’s action. This reciprocal influence is recognized by an emerging theoretical background of relational geography. Within the industrial network approach interest in this phenomenon is also increasing. However, the interactions between companies and regions have not been sufficiently explained. Thus, the main objective of this working paper is to produce new knowledge about the dynamics and interactions between regions and industrial networks. More precisely, the authors want to explain how companies’ strategic action is reflected in territorial dynamics and structure and how such factors affect the companies’ strategic action. Based on extensive research of the interactive relations between companies and regions, a model aimed at providing a better understanding of this mutual influence was developed.

Remote control of CNC machines using the CyberOPC communication system over public networks

TORRISI, Nunzio M.; OLIVEIRA, Joao F. G.
Fonte: SPRINGER LONDON LTD Publicador: SPRINGER LONDON LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
During the last few years, the evolution of fieldbus and computers networks allowed the integration of different communication systems involving both production single cells and production cells, as well as other systems for business intelligence, supervision and control. Several well-adopted communication technologies exist today for public and non-public networks. Since most of the industrial applications are time-critical, the requirements of communication systems for remote control differ from common applications for computer networks accessing the Internet, such as Web, e-mail and file transfer. The solution proposed and outlined in this work is called CyberOPC. It includes the study and the implementation of a new open communication system for remote control of industrial CNC machines, making the transmission delay for time-critical control data shorter than other OPC-based solutions, and fulfilling cyber security requirements.; FAPESP; ZEMA Industrial Grinders; GE Fanuc

Identificação remota de plantas industriais utilizando tecnologias OPC e CyberOPC; Remote identification of industrial plants using OPC and CyberOPC technology

Fernandes Júnior, Renato Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
A identificação de sistemas industriais tem aplicação industrial principalmente na sintonia de malhas de controle. A sintonia freqüente das malhas de controle possibilita a manutenção das características de desempenho do processo industrial durante o ciclo de vida da produção. O fato de ser remota, neste trabalho realizada via as interfaces OPC e CyberOPC, possibilita inúmeras aplicações práticas como a terceirização do serviço por empresas especializadas ou a centralização da otimização nas empresas constituídas por áreas distribuídas. Este trabalho propõe e testa experimentalmente, em sistemas lineares de primeira ordem com tempo morto, uma ferramenta computacional de identificação e sintonia remota de malhas de controle em malha aberta ou fechada utilizando controladores PID em ambiente industrial, que preenche os requisitos acima citados em uma plataforma única, e desta forma tem aplicação no ambiente industrial para ajustar as malhas de controle e em ambiente acadêmico como ferramenta de estudo de aplicações de controle e de redes industriais.; The identification of industrial systems has industrial application mainly in control loop tuning. The frequent tuning of the control loop allows the maintenance of performance characteristics for industrial process during the production life cycle. Remote tuning...

Análise de desempenho de redes de comunicação industrial em acionamentos de motores elétricos trifásicos; Performance analysis of industrial communication networks in electrical motors drives

Dias, André Luís
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Este trabalho propõe analisar o desempenho de redes de comunicação industrial em aplicações de acionamentos de motores elétricos trifásicos. Compara-se o desempenho da tecnologia Profibus DP em relação à Profinet. O desempenho é verificado a partir de especificações técnicas de ambos protocolos e experimentos práticos para coleta de dados e análise dos seguintes indicadores de desempenho: tempo de ciclo, jitter e ocupação de largura de banda. Adicionalmente, é verificado o desempenho de uma aplicação de controle de posição, utilizando estes protocolos na malha de controle, através do tempo de acomodação do sistema. Conclusões mostram que a rede Profibus DPV0 é a mais rápida quando possui menos dispositivos, porém o Profinet RT consegue manter baixos valores de tempo de ciclo mesmo com grande quantidade de dispositivos e possui maior determinismo na topologia em barramento. No que diz respeito ao controle de posição estudado, as tecnologias apresentam desempenho similar para tempo de acomodação do sistema, porém o Profinet IRT foi o mais determinístico.; This work proposes a performance analysis of industrial communication networks in applications of electric AC motor drives. It compares the performance of Profibus DP technology in relation to Profinet. Performance is verified from technical specifications of both protocols and practical experiments for data collection and analysis of the following performance indicators: cycle time...

Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia baseada em redes neurais artificiais para a identificação de anomalias em redes de comunicação Profinet; Development of a methodology based on artificial neural networks to identify abnormalities in Profinet communication networks

Turcato, Afonso Celso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Este trabalho propôs o desenvolvimento e a avaliação de uma metodologia com o propósito de identificar anomalias em redes de comunicação Profinet, muito utilizadas na automação de plantas industriais. A metodologia desenvolvida está fundamentada na análise das características de comunicação do protocolo Profinet e na identificação e classificação de padrões, sendo esta, uma das principais aplicações do uso de Redes Neurais Artificiais (RNA). As anomalias são identificadas por meio da análise do tráfego de rede Profinet em sua fase de operação. Tais anomalias podem ser desde defeitos comuns apresentados pelos equipamentos da rede e/ou tentativas de ataques a esta, que por sua vez, podem gerar instabilidade e mau funcionamento da unidade industrial que fazem parte. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho foram apresentados: o detalhamento do protocolo Profinet, os mecanismos de segurança mais utilizados atualmente, os tipos de sistemas de detecção de anomalias existentes e os principais tipos de ataques em redes de comunicação conhecidos na literatura. Alguns ensaios para a validação da metodologia foram realizados, utilizando-se uma infraestrutura de rede instalada em laboratório. Ensaios com diferentes tipos de equipamentos interligados em rede foram realizados e os resultados apresentados. Como resultado final...

Enforcing the timing behavior of real-time stations in legacy bus-based industrial Ethernet networks

Moraes, Ricardo; Carreiro, Francisco Borges; Bartolomeu, Paulo; Silva, Valter; Fonseca, José; Vasques, Francisco
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This paper proposes a virtual token-passing mechanism, which allows the coexistence of legacy industrial Ethernet devices with enhanced (real-time) devices in the same bus network. The VTPE mechanism allows the implementation of real-time (RT) applications upon legacy bus-based industrial networks, enforcing the adequate timing behavior of the supported applications. It enables the traffic separation between legacy Ethernet stations and enhanced (RT) stations. A set of experiments has been performed, which allowed to measure the message access delay and the token rotation time. The achieved results clearly demonstrate that the VTPE architecture enables the support of RT communication upon legacy bus-based industrial Ethernet networks, even when the communication medium is shared with uncontrolled traffic sources.

Industrial networks: are they a new and alternative way to conduct business or just a logical consequence of a globalising economy?

Siebler, Vanessa
Fonte: IET Publicador: IET
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Based on a report for the seminar Industrial Networks, at Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main Dozent: Prof. Dr. Blättel-Mink, Prof. Dr. António Moniz SS 2011; Networks have been a hot topic in recent years, not only in mainstream media but also in academic literature. The sociological interest in industrial networks is one of multiple levels and surely stems from the question if networks can benefit society. It was the purpose of this paper to research the emergence of the study of networks or industrial networks and validate, using articles concerned with the matter, if they are in fact a new concept in business or not. Considering the review of literature, one can conclude that by no means are networks in business a novelty but a logical consequence of human relationships in general and also that network structures have been present long before their discovery through academia, only not identified as such. It was found that the previous definition of market structures in business, while maneuvering between the two extremes of hierarchy and a free market, may have been too rigid and networks provided an excellent alternative term. It can further be suggested that the study of networks should focus on exchange mechanisms, cultural differences and emotional involvement as industrial networks may differ in their degrees of freedom...

Uma arquitetura baseada em agentes para configuração dinâmica de aplicações inteligentes em ambiente foundation fieldbus

Machado, Vinicius Ponte
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
The industrial automation is directly linked to the development of information tecnology. Better hardware solutions, as well as improvements in software development methodologies make possible the rapid growth of the productive process control. In this thesis, we propose an architecture that will allow the joining of two technologies in hardware (industrial network) and software field (multiagent systems). The objective of this proposal is to join those technologies in a multiagent architecture to allow control strategies implementations in to field devices. With this, we intend develop an agents architecture to detect and solve problems which may occur in the industrial network environment. Our work ally machine learning with industrial context, become proposed multiagent architecture adaptable to unfamiliar or unexpected production environment. We used neural networks and presented an allocation strategies of these networks in industrial network field devices. With this we intend to improve decision support at plant level and allow operations human intervention independent; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; A automação industrial está diretamente ligada ao crescimento da tecnologia da informação. Tanto as melhorias em soluções de hardware quanto o aprimoramento em metodologias de desenvolvimento de software propiciaram o crescimento do controle do processo produtivo ao longo dos anos. Nesta tese...

Uma metodologia para modelagem e avaliação da dependabilidade de redes industriais sem fio

Silva, Ivanovitch Medeiros Dantas da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Ensuring the dependability requirements is essential for the industrial applications since faults may cause failures whose consequences result in economic losses, environmental damage or hurting people. Therefore, faced from the relevance of topic, this thesis proposes a methodology for the dependability evaluation of industrial wireless networks (WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA) on early design phase. However, the proposal can be easily adapted to maintenance and expansion stages of network. The proposal uses graph theory and fault tree formalism to create automatically an analytical model from a given wireless industrial network topology, where the dependability can be evaluated. The evaluation metrics supported are the reliability, availability, MTTF (mean time to failure), importance measures of devices, redundancy aspects and common cause failures. It must be emphasized that the proposal is independent of any tool to evaluate quantitatively the target metrics. However, due to validation issues it was used a tool widely accepted on academy for this purpose (SHARPE). In addition, an algorithm to generate the minimal cut sets, originally applied on graph theory, was adapted to fault tree formalism to guarantee the scalability of methodology in wireless industrial network environments (< 100 devices). Finally...

Arquitetura de controladores fuzzy em redes foundation fieldbus

Martins, Daniel Lopes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Elétrica; Automação e Sistemas; Engenharia de Computação; Telecomunicações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Foundation Fieldbus Industrial networks are the high standard technology which allows users to create complex control logic and totally decentralized. Although being so advanced, they still have some limitations imposed by their own technology. Attempting to solve one of these limitations, this paper describes how to design a Fuzzy controller in a Foundation Fieldbus network using their basic elements of programming, the functional blocks, so that the network remains fully independent of other devices other than the same instruments that constitute it. Moreover, in this work was developed a tool that aids this process of building the Fuzzy controller, setting the internal parameters of functional blocks and informing how many and which blocks should be used for a given structure. The biggest challenge in creating this controller is exactly the choice of blocks and how to arrange them in order to effectuate the same functions of a Fuzzy controller implemented in other kind of environment. The methodology adopted was to divide each one of the phases of a traditional Fuzzy controller and then create simple structures with the functional blocks to implement them. At the end of the work, the developed controller is compared with a Fuzzy controller implemented in a mathematical program that it has a proper tool for the development and implementation of Fuzzy controllers...

A new fault tolerant architecture for time sensitive automation networks

Kleineberg, Oliver
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
peer-reviewed; Networked control systems have been widely used in Industrial Automation since the latter part of the 20st century. Such networks have evolved from small systems with proprietary and slow Fieldbus technology to a much larger scope. Today, Ethernet-based automation systems encompass whole factories and carry large amounts of data traffic with differing latency requirements. Proprietary real-time Ethernet technologies such as Profinet IRT (Isochronous Real-Time) have demonstrated the feasibility of real-time Ethernet for even the most demanding applications such as functional safety and motion control. The drawback of these vendor-specific solutions is their dependence on proprietary ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) and their very limited compatibility to standard Ethernet and Bridging as defined by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.3 and IEEE 802.1. Up to the present day, this has limited the widespread success of Ethernet as a real-time network solution. With the emerging AVB (Audio- and Video Bridging) technology, IEEE 802.1 has defined the first vendor-neutral real-time Ethernet, enabling the possibility of a standardised solution for Industrial Automation. However...

The Case for Industrial Policy : A Critical Survey

Pack, Howard; Saggi, Kamal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
What are the underlying rationales for industrial policy? Does empirical evidence support the use of industrial policy for correcting market failures that plague the process of industrialization? To address these questions, the authors provide a critical survey of the analytical literature on industrial policy. They also review some recent industry successes and argue that only a limited role was played by public interventions. Moreover, the recent ascendance of international industrial networks, which dominate the sectors in which less developed countries have in the past had considerable success, implies a further limitation on the potential role of industrial policies as traditionally understood. Overall, there appears to be little empirical support for an activist government policy even though market failures exist that can, in principle, justify the use of industrial policy.

How Do Special Economic Zones and Industrial Clusters Drive China’s Rapid Development?

Zeng, Douglas Zhihua
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
In the past 30 years, China has achieved phenomenal economic growth, an unprecedented development "miracle" in human history. How did China achieve this rapid growth? What have been its key drivers? And, most important, what can be learned from China's success? Policy makers, business people, and scholars all over the world continue to debate these topics, but one thing is clear: the numerous special economic zones and industrial clusters that emerged after the country's reforms are without doubt two important engines of China's remarkable development. The special economic zones and industrial clusters have made crucial contributions to China's economic success. Foremost, the special economic zones (especially the first several) successfully tested the market economy and new institutions and became role models for the rest of the country to follow. Together with the numerous industrial clusters, the special economic zones have contributed significantly to gross domestic product, employment, exports, and attraction of foreign investment. The special economic zones have also played important roles in bringing new technologies to China and in adopting modern management practices. This study briefly summarizes the development experiences of China's special economic zones and industrial clusters (their formation...

The Design and Development of an IPv6-Enabled Wireless Sensor Network and Industrial Machine Monitoring Application

Rendall, Thomas J
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Wireless sensor networks are becoming more and more popular in a widespread number of applications related to monitoring environments, structures, and machinery. Wired monitoring systems are currently widely adopted in industrial settings due to their reputation and history in performing to established standards. In order to explore the field of low-power wireless industrial sensor network monitoring applications, experimental work has to be done in numerous environments. In this thesis, there is a focus on the design and development of hardware and software for such a purpose. Network coordinator devices capable of Internet connectivity over Ethernet, battery-powered sensor nodes equipped to measure acceleration and temperature, and accelerometer boards were designed and produced for the application. The software on the devices was developed as an adaptation of an open-source operating system, Contiki, and explores Internet version 6 connectivity. The goal of the work on this system is to develop a wireless sensor network platform for future research in the areas of sensor testing and industrial monitoring. Two test networks were created with the aforementioned devices to demonstrate their functionality. One network was formed in a laboratory environment where network performance could be judged and tests could be run efficiently. The network contained nine end-nodes and one gateway...

Territorial marketing: interaction between industrial and regional networks

Correia, Ricardo
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The research deals with the reciprocal influence between firms and regional dynamics. The study puts in evidence that the relationship between firms and regions is specific and dependent upon particular features, thus, impossible to replicate in other contexts. It also suggests that regional dynamics are mostly reliant upon intangible factors and networks interactions taking place at various scales, and not on circumscribed material components. Such specificity renders fragile the literature associated to the traditional stand of economic geography and clusters' theory. These results provide regional administrations with a new perspective for the territorial promotion.

Asymmetry in in-degree and out-degree distributions of large-scale industrial networks

Luo, Jianxi; Whitney, Daniel E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Many natural, physical and social networks commonly exhibit power-law degree distributions. In this paper, we discover previously unreported asymmetrical patterns in the degree distributions of incoming and outgoing links in the investigation of large-scale industrial networks, and provide interpretations. In industrial networks, nodes are firms and links are directed supplier-customer relationships. While both in- and out-degree distributions have "power law" regimes, out-degree distribution decays faster than in-degree distribution and crosses it at a consistent nodal degree. It implies that, as link degree increases, the constraints to the capacity for designing, producing and transmitting artifacts out to others grow faster than and surpasses those for acquiring, absorbing and synthesizing artifacts provided from others. We further discover that this asymmetry in decaying rates of in-degree and out-degree distributions is smaller in networks that process and transmit more decomposable artifacts, e.g. informational artifacts in contrast with physical artifacts. This asymmetry in in-degree and out-degree distributions is likely to hold for other directed networks, but to different degrees, depending on the decomposability of the processed and transmitted artifacts.; Comment: in Structure and Dynamics...

El Turismo industrial como elemento de revalorización del territorio : un análisis desde las relaciones sociales presentes en los destinos : análisis de casos en Cataluña, Escocia y Alsacia

Prat Forga, José Mª
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
En el actual mundo globalizado, con un uso masivo de las nuevas tecnologías informáticas y de las telecomunicaciones, los turistas son cada vez más experimentados y exigentes, con una mayor necesidad de consumir productos culturales y demandando una cierta personalización en la oferta. En este nuevo contexto, el turismo industrial es una actividad turístico-cultural emergente, que sirve para que muchos destinos, poseedores de un significativo patrimonio industrial, puedan adecuarlo y reconvertirlo en una atracción turística que ayude al desarrollo del territorio o que sirva como complemento a otro tipo de turismo ya existente, más consolidado y mayoritario. Sin embargo, se trata de un turismo bastante minoritario, alrededor del cual se están creado unas redes sociales de turistas y de agentes, cuyas relaciones están generando una dinámica relacional y un capital social, que ayudan al desarrollo de dicho turismo. Por ello, en esta Tesis, a partir de una metodología basada en el análisis cualitativo mediante encuestas, con entrevistas y cuestionarios, con el apoyo de datos estadísticos cuantitativos, se analiza y mide la dinámica relacional y el capital social generados por las relaciones establecidas en estos dos grandes grupos de redes sociales...

Governance and Innovation in Industrial Networks: a study of the productive sector of bags and shoes; Governança e Inovação em Redes Industriais: um estudo do setor produtivo de bolsas e calçados

de Jesus Alves, Simone Tiêssa; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; CEPEAD/UFMG; Pardini, Daniel Jardim; Universidade FUMEC
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Estudo de caso; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
This paper presents a study of the production network configuration determined from the actions of government policies, market players and this innovation in enterprises cluster network. To this end, we applied 21 questionnaires and 26 interviews with network owners of enterprises and organizations support, and made it a documentary research on the history of cluster. Data on types of innovations occurring in companies between 2009 and 2013, and its influence factors were analyzed and categorized by descriptive statistics. The influence of agents in innovations was examined with indicators of social networks. Thus, we proceeded to the analysis and triangulation of data sources to make the case. It was found that the practices of firms are influenced by leading companies in the market. Have the support entities, responsible for the actions of public governance, not assume prominence as the centrality, closeness and intermediation of innovation network.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p11Este artigo apresenta um estudo da configuração de determinada rede produtiva a partir das ações de políticas governamentais, agentes de mercado e da inovação presente nas empresas da rede APL. Para tanto, aplicou-se 21 questionários de rede e 26 entrevistas com proprietários das empresas e entidades de apoio...

Regional clustering through internet networks: the case of web-enabled entrepreneurial cluster in China

Li, Boyi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
This research examines the rationale of geographic co-location of entrepreneurs who do business on internet platforms. Prior research has shown that entrepreneurs gain valuable synergy benefits from being embedded in industrial networks. Nevertheless, the advantages of geographic clustering when business is conducted via the internet are still to be understood. This research aims to understand how internet-based economic activity interacts with local social relations and structures, thus seeking to explain the phenomenon of industrial clustering of internet-enabled entrepreneurial activity. Guided by theories of relational and institutional embeddedness, we examine the way social relations are formed online, trace the rationale of local social relations while business is conducted online, and study the role of major institutional actors that support the economic activities of the entrepreneurs. Empirically, this thesis examines two regional clusters of Chinese microentrepreneurs who conduct their business on an e-commerce platform and form dynamic interpersonal ties with business partners and customers both online and offline. The method of ethnographic case study is adopted to gain in depth understanding of the ways various internet networking tools have been appropriated in business practice in these two cases and the ways local microentrepreneurs build up collaborative networks in geographic place as well as cyberspace. The study of Chinese micro-entrepreneurs reveals and substantiates the formation of a hybrid sociality...