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Mortes por doenças infecciosas em mulheres: ocorrências no ciclo gravídico-puerperal; Deaths due to infectious diseases in women: occurrences in pregnancy and puerperium

LAURENTI, Ruy; JORGE, Maria Helena Prado de Mello; GOTLIEB, Sabina Léa Davidson
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
OBJETIVO: Descrever os óbitos por doenças infecciosas como causa básica ou múltipla, caracterizando os casos de doença infecciosa preexistente ou desenvolvida na gravidez, aqueles que são mortes maternas por causas obstétricas indiretas e os óbitos por Aids ou outras doenças infecciosas, ocorridos no ciclo gravídico puerperal, havendo dúvidas na classificação. MÉTODOS: Adotou-se a metodologia RAMOS (partindo-se da declaração de óbito -DO- original, dados reais são resgatados por entrevista domiciliar, consultas a prontuários hospitalares e laudos de autopsia; elaborando-se uma nova DO, com as reais causas de morte). População foi constituída pelos óbitos femininos de 10 a 49 anos, de residentes nas capitais brasileiras, do 1º semestre de 2002. As causas foram analisadas em básicas e múltiplas. RESULTADOS: Dos 7.332 óbitos, 917 apresentaram uma doença infecciosa como causa básica (Aids e tuberculose, principalmente). Em 37 casos, a falecida estava no ciclo gravídico puerperal ampliado (englobando, inclusive, mortes ocorridas de 43 dias até um ano pós-parto); 10 não foram classificadas como obstétricas indiretas permanecendo como infecciosas e 14 eram obstétricas indiretas. Quanto às causas múltiplas...

Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP

Colombo,Arnaldo L.; Janini,Mario; Salomão,Reinaldo; Medeiros,Eduardo A. S.; Wey,Sergio B.; Pignatari,Antonio C. C.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

Acute kidney injury in a tropical country: a cohort study of 253 patients in an infectious diseases intensive care unit

Daher,Elizabeth De Fransceco; Silva Junior,Geraldo Bezerra da; Vieira,Ana Patrícia Freitas; Souza,Juliana Bonfim de; Falcão,Felipe dos Santos; Costa,Cristiane Rocha da; Fernandes,Anna Allicy Câmara da Silva; Lima,Rafael Siqueira Athayde
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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66.27%
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and potentially fatal complication in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of AKI associated with infectious diseases and the factors associated with mortality. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with AKI who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary infectious diseases hospital from January 2003 to January 2012. The major underlying diseases and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 253 cases were included. The mean age was 46±16 years, and 72% of the patients were male. The main diseases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (30%), tuberculosis (12%), leptospirosis (11%) and dengue (4%). Dialysis was performed in 70 cases (27.6%). The patients were classified as risk (4.4%), injury (63.6%) or failure (32%). The time between AKI diagnosis and dialysis was 3.6±4.7 days. Oliguria was observed in 112 cases (45.7%). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (57±20, p-value=0.01) and dengue (68±11, p-value=0.01). Death occurred in 159 cases (62.8%). Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (76.6%...

Antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia in adults

Cunha,Clovis Arns da; Sader,Helio S.; Nicodemo,Antonio C.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2002 Português
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66.24%
This is part of the series of practice guidelines commissioned by the Brazilian Society for Infectious Diseases through its Practice Guidelines Committee. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide assistance to clinicians in the antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in immunocompetent adults. Panel members and consultants are experts in adult infectious diseases. The guidelines are evidence based where possible. The recommendations included in this document were elaborated based on the most frequently isolated pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. The etiology was based mainly on international studies, since there are very few regional data. On the other hand, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of main bacterial causes of CAP were based on the results of several antimicrobial resistance surveillance studies recently performed in Brazil. Other reference guidelines for the treatment of CAP, such as those elaborated by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society, were also discussed by the group during the elaboration of this document.

Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of bologna, northeastern Italy: An epidemiological and clinical survey

Sabbatani,Sergio; Baldi,Elena; Manfredi,Roberto; Chiodo,Francesco
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
BACKGROUND: The emergency regarding recent immigration waves into Italy makes continued healthcare monitoring of these populations necessary. METHODS: Through a survey of hospital admissions carried out during the last five years at the S. Orsola-Malpighi General Hospital of Bologna (Italy), all causes of admission of these subjects were evaluated, together with their correlates. Subsequently, we focused on admissions due to infectious diseases. All available data regarding foreign citizens admitted as inpatients or in Day-Hospital settings of our teaching hospital from January 1, 1999, to March 31, 2004, were assessed. Diagnosis-related group (DRG) features, and single discharge diagnoses, were also evaluated, and a further assessment of infectious diseases was subsequently made. RESULTS: Within a comprehensive pool of 339,051 hospitalized patients, foreign citizen discharges numbered 7,312 (2.15%), including 2,542 males (34.8%) and 4,769 females (65.2%). Males had a mean age of 36.8±14.7 years, while females were aged 30.8±12.2 years. In the assessment of the areas of origin, 34.6% of hospitalizations were attributed to patients coming from Eastern Europe, 15.3% from Northern Africa, 7.3% (comprehensively) from Western Europe and United States...

Health surveillance, biosafety and emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in Brazil

Cardoso,Telma Abdalla de Oliveira; Navarro,Marli BM de Albuquerque; Costa Neto,Cristina; Moreira,Josino Costa
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
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86.14%
The present paper presents compulsory notification data for infectious diseases and epidemiologic ones recorded at the Center for Strategic Information and Health Surveillance (CIEVS) for the period of March 2006 to April 2007. Data is presented in accordance with geographic distribution, time and risk classification of the etiologic agents found, according to Ministry of Health regulations. The importance of this epidemiologic surveillance system is presented, debating the main topics required for quality improvement and information analysis. It is concluded, from the analysis of epidemiologic events and their relation to risk management, that the compulsory notification system in Brazil is incomplete, irregular, delayed and, in a large percentage of cases, notification cannot be completed and the agent may not be identified. Quality of data varies from one region to another and from county to county within the same region. There is a high proportion of cases in which the etiologic agent is unknown and, in such cases, a high lethality is expected, establishing a high risk exposure condition for those health professionals involved in health surveillance. From these data, the study points out the need to improve the surveillance system and strengthens the idea of building maximum containment laboratories

Frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with infectious diseases using three different ELISA methods

Santiago,Mittermayer Barreto; Martinelli,Reinaldo; Reis,Mitermayer G.; Reis,Eliana Almeida; Ko,Albert; Fontes,Roberto Dias; Silva,Moacir Paranhos; Nascimento,Eliane Goes; Espinola,Ricardo; Harris,Nigel; Gharavi,Azzudin; Pierangeli,Silvia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
OBJECTIVE: The standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies is the most important test for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, the test is also positive in some infectious diseases and other non-related syndromes. It has been suggested that the detection of antibodies to a mixture of phospholipids or to beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GP I) has higher specificity for APS than the standard aCL ELISA. The aim of the present work is to compare the diagnostic specificity of three different antiphospholipid (aPL) assays in patients with infectious diseases. METHODS: Antiphospholipid antibodies were searched by three ELISA techniques, namely standard aCL, APhL® ELISA kit and anti-beta2-GP I, in sera of patients with infectious diseases, including syphilis (69), leptospirosis (33) and visceral leishmaniasis (30). RESULTS: The frequency of positivity of IgG aPL in patients with syphilis, leptospirosis and Kala-azar was 13/69 (19%), 9/33 (27%) and 2/30 (6%), respectively, using standard ELISA, versus only 1/69 (1.4%), 0/33 (0%) and 0/30 (0%) positivity by the APhL® ELISA kit. The positivity of the isotype IgM aPL was 10/69 (14%), 4/33 (12%) and 1/30 (3%), respectively, by the standard ELISA...

Host Genomics in Infectious Diseases

Loeb, Mark
Fonte: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy Publicador: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Understanding mechanisms by which genetic variants predispose to complications of infectious diseases can lead to important benefits including the development of biomarkers to prioritize vaccination or prophylactic therapy. Family studies, candidate genes in animal models, and the absence of well-defined risks where the complications are rare all can point to genetic predisposition. The most common approach to assessing genetic risk is to conduct an association study, which is a case control study using either a candidate gene approach or a genome wide approach. Although candidate gene variants may focus on potentially causal variants, because other variants across the genome are not tested these studies frequently cannot be replicated. Genome wide association studies need a sizable sample and usually do not identify causal variants but variants which may be in linkage disequilibrium to the actual causal variant. There are many pitfalls that can lead to bias in such studies, including misclassification of cases and controls, use of improper phenotypes, and genotyping errors. These studies have been limited to common genes and rare variants may not be detected. As the use of next generation sequencing becomes more common, it can be anticipated that more variants will be confirmed. The purpose of this review article is to address the issue of genomics in infectious diseases with an emphasis on the host. Although there are a plentitude of studies that focus on the molecular characteristics of pathogens...

Sex Differences in Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J. R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
The success of the immune response is finely balanced between, on the one hand, the need to engage vigorously with, and clear, certain pathogens; and, on the other, the requirement to minimize immunopathology and autoimmunity. Distinct immune strategies to achieve this balance have evolved in females and males and also in infancy through to adulthood. Sex differences in outcome from a range of infectious diseases can be identified from as early as fetal life, such as in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The impact of sex hormones on the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 cytokine balance has been proposed to explain the higher severity of most infectious diseases in males. In the minority where greater morbidity and mortality is observed in females, this is hypothesized to arise because of greater immunopathology and/or autoimmunity. However, a number of unexplained exceptions to this rule are described. Studies that have actually measured the sex differences in children in the immune responses to infectious diseases and that would further test these hypotheses, are relatively scarce.

A Common Immunopathogenesis Mechanism for Infectious Diseases: The Protein-Homeostasis-System Hypothesis

Lee, Kyung-Yil
Fonte: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy Publicador: The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
It was once believed that host cell injury in various infectious diseases is caused solely by pathogens themselves; however, it is now known that host immune reactions to the substances from the infectious agents and/or from the injured host cells by infectious insults are also involved. All biological phenomena in living organisms, including biochemical, physiological and pathological processes, are performed by the proteins that have various sizes and shapes, which in turn are controlled by an interacting network within the living organisms. The author proposes that this network is controlled by the protein homeostasis system (PHS), and that the immune system is one part of the PHS of the host. Each immune cell in the host may recognize and respond to substances, including pathogenic proteins (PPs) that are toxic to target cells of the host, in ways that depend on the size and property of the PPs. Every infectious disease has its own set of toxic substances, including PPs, associated with disease onset, and the PPs and the corresponding immune cells may be responsible for the inflammatory processes that develop in those infectious diseases.

Framing Infectious Diseases and U.S. Public Opinion

Saksena, Mita
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The United States has been increasingly concerned with the transnational threat posed by infectious diseases. Effective policy implementation to contain the spread of these diseases requires active engagement and support of the American public. To influence American public opinion and enlist support for related domestic and foreign policies, both domestic agencies and international organizations have framed infectious diseases as security threats, human rights disasters, economic risks, and as medical dangers. This study investigates whether American attitudes and opinions about infectious diseases are influenced by how the issue is framed. It also asks which issue frame has been most influential in shaping public opinion about global infectious diseases when people are exposed to multiple frames. The impact of media frames on public perception of infectious diseases is examined through content analysis of newspaper reports. Stories on SARS, avian flu, and HIV/AIDS were sampled from coverage in The New York Times and The Washington Post between 1999 and 2007. Surveys of public opinion on infectious diseases in the same time period were also drawn from databases like Health Poll Search and iPoll. Statistical analysis tests the relationship between media framing of diseases and changes in public opinion. Results indicate that no one frame was persuasive across all diseases. The economic frame had a significant effect on public opinion about SARS...

Spread of infectious diseases : Impact on demography, and the eradication effort in models with backward bifurcation; Die Ausbreitung von Infektionskrankheiten : der Einfluss auf die Demographie, und der Eradikationsaufwand in Modellen mit rückwärtsgerichteter Bifurkation

Safan, Muntaser
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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66.26%
Despite the great progress in medicine which lead to the discovery of safe and effective drugs and vaccines, infectious diseases are still a major cause of death, disability and social and economic burden for millions of people around the world. Every year, about 20% of all deaths worldwide are caused by infectious diseases. As examples we mention malaria, HIV/AIDS, measles, tuberculosis, and influenza. Therefore, we need to know about the impact of these infections on demography and about the minimum efforts required to eliminate them. The World Health Organization pays much attention to control such infections. However, to control an infection we need to know the factors that affect the dynamics of the infection and how much effort is necessary to achieve a given reduction in incidence. Since it is not possible to perform randomized trials with whole populations, we need mathematical models to explore different control strategies. Modeling infectious diseases has a long history in mathematical biology. However, recently it has had an increasing influence on the theory and practice of disease management and control [49]. Readers who are interested in the history of the mathematical theory of infectious diseases are referred to the book by Bailey [6]. The models differ from one infection to another. For instance...

What do infectious diseases physicians do? A 2-week snapshot of inpatient consultative activities across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore

Ingram, P.R.; Cheng, A.C.; Murray, R.J.; Blyth, C.C.; Walls, T.; Fisher, D.A.; Davis, J.S.; Abbott, I.; Kanapathipillai, R.; Madigan, V.; McLellan, D.; Briggs, S.; King, C.; Hurley, J.; Lim, L.L.; Kennedy, K.; Wilson, H.; Evans, T.; Maze, M.; Pithie, A.;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
The practice of an infectious diseases (ID) physician is evolving. A contemporary understanding of the frequency and variety of patients and syndromes seen by ID services has implications for training, service development and setting research priorities. We performed a 2-week prospective survey of formal ID physician activities related to direct inpatient care, encompassing 53 hospitals throughout Australia, New Zealand and Singapore, and documented 1722 inpatient interactions. Infections involving the skin and soft tissue, respiratory tract and bone/joints together accounted for 49% of all consultations. Suspected/confirmed pathogens were primarily bacterial (60%), rather than viral (6%), fungal (4%), mycobacterial (2%) or parasitic (1%). Staphylococcus aureus was implicated in 409 (24%) episodes, approximately four times more frequently than the next most common pathogen. The frequency of healthcare-related infections (35%), immunosuppression (21%), diabetes mellitus (19%), prosthesis-related infections (13%), multiresistant pathogens (13%) and non-infectious diagnoses (9%) was high, although consultation characteristics varied between geographical settings and hospital types. Our study highlights the diversity of inpatient-related ID activities and should direct future teaching and research. ID physicians' ability to offer beneficial consultative advice requires broad understanding of...

The Economic Control of Infectious Diseases

Gersovitz, Mark; Hammer, Jeffrey S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Despite interesting work on infectious diseases by such economists as Peter Francis, Michael Kremer, and Tomas Philipson, the literature does not set out the general structure of externalities involved in the prevention, and care of such diseases. The authors identify two kinds of externality. First, infectious people can infect other people, who in turn can infect others, and so on, in what the authors call the pure infection externality. In controlling their own infection, people do not take into account the social consequence of their infection. Second, in the pure prevention externality, one individual's preventive actions (such as killing mosquitoes) may directly affect the probability of others becoming infected, whether or not the preventive action succeeds for the individual undertaking it. The authors provide a general framework for discussing these externalities, and the role of government interventions to offset them. They move the discussion away from its focus on HIV (a fatal infection for which there are few interventions)...

Is the thymus a target organ in infectious diseases?

Savino,Wilson; Moraes,Maria do Carmo Leite de; Barbosa,Suse Dayse Silva; Fonseca,Eliene de Carvalho da; Almeida,Vinicius Cotta de; Hontebeyrie-Joscowicz,Mireille
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in wich T cell precursors differentiale and generate most of the so-called T cell reprtoire. Along with a variety of acute infectious diseases, we and others determined important changes in both microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments of the organ. For example, one major and common feature observed in acute viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, is a depletion of cortical thymocytes, mostly those bearing the CD4-CD8 double positive phenotype. This occurs simmultaneously to the relative enrichment in medullary CD4 or CD8 single positive cells, expressing high densities of the CD3 complex. Additionally we noticed a variety of changes in the thymic microenvironment (and particularly is epithelial component), comprising abnormal location of thymic epithelial cell subsets as well has a denser Ia-bearing cellular network. Moreover, the extracellular matrix network was altered with an intralobular increase of basement membrane proteins that positively correlated with the degree of thymocyte death. Lastly, anti-thymic cell antibodies were detected in both human and animal models of infectious diseases, and in some of them a phenomenon of molecular mimicry could be evidenced. Taken together, the data receiwed herein clearly show that the thymus should be regarded as a target in infectious diseases.

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks

Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Le Strat, Yann; Hartley, David M.; Nelson, Noele P.; Mawudeku, Abla; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Astagneau, Pascal
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Background: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. Method and Findings Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources): Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR), crude sensitivity rates (C-Se) and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se) were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems’ performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard) 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports) related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001). I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p = 0001) whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p = 020; C-Se...

Emerging and reemerging diseases in Brazil: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties

Cardoso,Telma Abdalla de Oliveira; Navarro,Marli B.M. de Albuquerque
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 Português
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76.1%
This article discusses the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases on the basis of a review of the literature. It shows the critical situations faced worldwide and in special Brazil's susceptible position due to its complexity, mostly represented by the mega-biodiversity of the country and its socio-economic problems directly affecting public health. It approaches the discussions around the issue with emphasis to the recommended investments in the health sector, directed to surveillance and to strengthening the epidemiological, laboratorial and clinical bases and centered on preventive and control measures in the affected areas including Biosafety.

Immunogenetics and infectious diseases: special reference to the mayor histocompatibility complex

Alves,Crésio; Souza,Thaisa; Meyer,Isadora; Toralles,Maria Betânia P.; Brites,Carlos
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.22%
Many studies have tried to identify genetic markers for infectious diseases, some of them have focused on human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The products of HLA genes interact with surface-specific receptors of T lymphocytes, resulting in activation of the host's immune response. Association of bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections with the host's HLA has been widely investigated. The type and strength of this association differs among distinct populations, as well as among racial and/or ethnic groups. The new molecular methods for the identification of the HLA alleles, and the resulting new nomenclature, have contributed to a better understanding of this system. Unfortunately, this information has not been adequately transmitted to clinicians, which hampers the understanding of the association between the HLA system and diseases. We revised relevant studies on the association of HLA genes with infectious diseases, demonstrating their importance in the pathogenic mechanisms, through increased susceptibility or protection against infections and their complications.

All hands on deck: transdisciplinary approaches to emerging infectious diseases

Parkes, Margot W; Bienan, Leslie; Breilh, Jaimie; Hsu, Lee-Nah; McDonald, Marian; Patz, Jonathan A; Rosenthal, Joshua P; Sahani, Mazrura; Sleigh, Adrian; Waltner-Toews, David; Yassi, Annalee
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
The increasing burden of emerging infectious diseases worldwide confronts us with numerous challenges, including the imperative to design research and responses that are commensurate to understanding the complex social and ecological contexts in which infectious diseases occur. A diverse group of scientists met in Hawaii in March 2005 to discuss the linked social and ecological contexts in which infectious diseases emerge. A subset of the meeting was a group that focused on "transdisciplinary approaches" to integrating knowledge across and beyond academic disciplines in order to improve prevention and control of emerging infections. This article is based on the discussions of that group. Here, we outline the epidemiological legacy that has dominated infectious disease research and control up until now, and introduce the role of new, transdisciplinary and systems-based approaches to emerging infectious diseases. We describe four cases of transboundary health issues and use them to discuss the potential benefits, as well as the inherent difficulties, in understanding the social-ecological contexts in which infectious diseases occur and of using transdisciplinary approaches to deal with them.

Controlling emerging infectious diseases like SARS

Becker, Niels; Glass, Kathryn; Li, Zheng Feng; Aldis, Geoffrey
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
To control emerging infectious diseases like SARS, it is necessary to resort to basic control measures that limit exposures to infectious individuals. These measures include isolating cases at diagnosis, quarantining household members and tracing contacts of diagnosed cases, providing the community with advice on how to reduce exposures, and closing schools. To justify such intervention it is important to understand how well each of these measures helps to limit transmission. In this paper, we determine the effect of a number of different interventions on the effective reproduction number and estimate requirements to achieve elimination of the infectious disease. We find that the strategy of tracing and quarantining contacts of diagnosed cases can be very successful in reducing transmission.