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Cortes supremas e sociedade civil na América Latina: estudo comparado Brasil, Argentina e Colômbia; Supreme Courts and civil society in Latin America: comparative study of Brazil, Argentina and Colombia

Cardoso, Evorah Lusci Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2012 Português
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Cortes e sociedade civil na América Latina estão em transformação, assim como a sua relação. Casos de grande repercussão social, decisões judiciais que incidem sobre políticas públicas, concentração de efeitos das sentenças, mecanismos de deliberação dentro dos processos são fenômenos relacionados a essas transformações. A tese deste trabalho é de que tanto o desenho institucional das cortes influencia a mobilização social jurídica, quanto a presença de uma forte mobilização social em torno das cortes pode influenciar não só a sua agenda de casos, mas também o seu desenho institucional. E esta relação precisa ser estudada de modo dinâmico e funcional. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas com organizações não governamentais, think tanks, acadêmicos, magistrados e agência financiadora na Argentina, Brasil e Colômbia. É a narrativa comparada desses atores que oferece as variáveis de desenho institucional e mobilização social jurídica relevantes para compreender essas transformações. O trabalho, por fim, aponta para a necessidade de reformulação das agendas dos atores envolvidos sobre como pensar a inter-relação entre cortes e sociedade civil, tanto em termos de experimentação prática...

La démocratie à l’épreuve du projet : les effets d’un processus de planification concertée à Porto Alegre

Lussier, Laurent
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Il est très commun d’entendre dans les discussions sur l’urbanisme que la participation du public est nécessaire, mais la manière de faire participer reste encore sujette à énormément d’expérimentation et d’incertitudes. Cette étude s’intéresse au design institutionnel des processus de participation en urbanisme, sous l’angle de leurs effets de démocratisation. L’étude cherchera à identifier les aspects déterminants des processus de participation en urbanisme afin d’offrir, à ceux qui les conçoivent, un éclairage sur les implications des choix qu’ils effectuent. L’analyse se construira à partir de l’étude du fonctionnement concret d’une opération de planification concertée à Porto Alegre, dans le secteur Lomba do Pinheiro. Elle s’appuiera sur un découpage des modalités du processus élaboré à partir d’une revue des ouvrages techniques sur la participation en aménagement. Après avoir décrit la culture de la participation et de planification propre à Porto Alegre et comment celle-ci s’est construite, l’analyse décrira, à partir d’observations sur l’évolution du processus et de ses résultats, les effets du processus en termes d’impact sur l’espace bâti, de transformation des relations sociales et de possibilité de faire apparaître des conflits. Les conclusions feront voir l’importance des modalités plus informelles du travail des organisateurs...

Théories du choix rationnel : perspectives et implications en design institutionnel

Doire St-Louis, Alexandre
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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En raison de sa force explicative et opérationnelle, la théorie du choix rationnel est utilisée au sein de plusieurs disciplines des sciences sociales. Alors que la majorité des économistes conçoivent la théorie du choix rationnel comme un processus de maximisation de l’utilité, la portée de ce modèle est le sujet de nombreuses critiques. Pour plusieurs, certaines préférences ne peuvent être modulées à l’intérieur de ce cadre. Dans ce mémoire, trois conceptions alternatives de la théorie du choix rationnel sont présentées : la rationalité comme présence virtuelle, la rationalité comme mécanisme intentionnel et la rationalité en tant que science du choix. Une analyse critique de celles-ci est effectuée. En design institutionnel, ces trois conceptions de la rationalité offrent des perspectives distinctes. La première met l’emphase sur les motivations non-égocentriques. La seconde mise sur l’aspect adaptatif du processus. La rationalité jouant un rôle privilégié, mais non exclusif, les mécanismes causaux doivent également être considérés. La troisième implique de formuler des règles institutionnels différentes dépendamment du modèle de l’agent rationnel qui est mis de l’avant. L’établissement de règles institutionnelles varie en fonction de la conception adoptée parmi ces théories du choix rationnel.; Because of its explanatory and operational strengths...

The institutional choices of politicians : how and why legislators shape Lower Chambers

Danesi, Silvina L.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Cette thèse s’intéresse aux choix institutionnels des législateurs. Elle propose une analyse diachronique et comparative du développement des Chambre Nationale des Députés argentines et chiliennes des années 1940 aux années 2000. Inspiré de la théorie du Cartel (Cox et McCubbins, 1993), ce travail se concentre sur le rôle des partis politiques dans ce développement institutionnel. Il montre qu’en dépit de leurs différences, les partis uniques, coalitions, forces majoritaires ou minoritaires qui ont dirigé ces chambres ont adopté un large éventail de règles et de normes organisationnelles qui les avantagent. Ils se sont, en un mot, comportés comme des coalitions procédurales. L’analyse des modifications des règles de fonctionnement de ces chambres et de leurs systèmes de direction et de commissions montre que les partis et coalitions au pouvoir ont, pendant cette période, renforcé leur pouvoir, contrôlé l’agenda législatif, structuré les systèmes de commission et adopté des règles qui leur ont profité. Les résultats obtenus suggèrent en particulier que les coalitions qui ont dirigé la chambre Chilienne ont installé certains de leurs membres à plusieurs postes comme les présidences d’assemblée et de commissions. Ils montrent l’existence d’un pouvoir de véto sur l’agenda législative plus importante au Chili qu’en Argentine. L’étude du cas argentin montre que les partis au pouvoir ont...

Public Expenditure Analysis

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This book provides tools of analysis for discovering equity in tax burdens as well as in public spending and judging government performance in its role in safeguarding the interests of the poor and those otherwise disadvantaged members of society, such as women, children, and minorities. The book further provides a framework for a rights-based approach to citizen empowerment-in other words, creating an institutional design with appropriate rules, restraints, and incentives to make the public sector responsive and accountable to an average voter. Various chapters in this book provide tools of analysis for addressing the following test questions: public burden test; poverty reduction test; social protection test; gender safeguard test; responsiveness test; and accountability test.

Institutional Reform and the Judiciary : Which Way Forward?

Islam, Roumeen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The author presents some general lessons in institution-building that has relevance for judiciary reform. She emphasizes the value of simplicity in design commensurate with country capacity, the importance of innovation and experimentation, and of economic openness in effective institution-building. The author underscores how the incentives of individuals depend on both the details of institutional design within the judiciary and also some critical institutions external to the judiciary. Finally she argues for the need to ground reform initiatives on a solid empirical and comparative approach. The author illustrates some of these issues by drawing on a recent project conducted by the World Bank and other institutions.

Hospital Governance and Incentive Design : The Case of Corporatized Public Hospitals in Lebanon

Eid, Florence
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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There are three potential levels of government activity in the health sector: regulation, finance, and direct provision of services, with the government owning and managing hospitals and primary care clinics. Eid focuses on service provision. In recent years corporatization has been introduced as an institutional design for public hospitals-as a means of improving efficiency and reducing transfers in a publicly owned, decentralized health system. Eid treats decentralization as a reallocation of decision rights to lower levels of the public sector. She shows how such a strategy creates new needs for monitoring and control of decentralized units. To improve the understanding of the role of governance and incentives in corporatized hospitals, Eid explores the design of corporate boards of public hospitals, the institutional linchpin of such systems. She shows how principal-agent theory, particularly the multitasking and common agency approaches, can provide a useful analytical lens in understanding hospital board design in the case of Lebanon. She also shows the implications of corporatization for health policy and management.

Democratization and political reform in the Asia-Pacific: Is there an ‘Asian Model’ of institutional design?

Reilly, Benjamin
Fonte: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 43 pages
Português
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One of the little-noticed consequences of the democratization of the Asia-Pacific has been reforms to key political institutions such as electoral systems, political parties, and parliaments. I argue that, across the region, these reforms have been motivated by common aims of increasing government stability, reducing political fragmentation, and limiting the potential for ethnic politics. As a result, similar strategies of institutional design are evident in areas such as the increasing prevalence of ‘mixed-member majoritarian’ electoral systems, attempts to develop aggregative political party systems, and constraints upon the formation of small, ethnic or regional parties. I argue that these political reforms have increasingly converged on an identifiable "Asian model" of institutional design.

The Institutional Design of European Competition Policy

MANGANELLI, Antonio; NICITA, Antonio; ROSSI, Maria Alessandra
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper analyzes the institutional design of the European competition policy system. Besides the multi-level public enforcement, the paper describes other two fundamental dimensions of the European competition policy system: the relationship between public and private enforcement and that between competition law enforcement and sector specific regulation, with particular regards with the Electronic Communications sector. The main effort of the paper consists in representing the EU Competition policy system as a web of vertical and horizontal relationships among a large set of actors, sometimes coordinated by formal or informal mechanisms but still characterized by competence overlaps and strategic interdependencies. Finally the paper aims at assessing the relevant economic trade-offs associated to these overlaps and interactions in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of the system, giving some policy suggestions for the future evolution of its overall design.; Florence School of Regulation

Institutional design of democratic conditionality in regional organizations

CLOSA, Carlos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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66.19%
Democratic conditionality accession clauses have become increasingly common in certain international organisations. Similarly, provisions on suspension of membership because of breaches of democratic order have emerged. Why do regional organisations introduce these kin of clauses? In most cases, they developed after 1989 in a new geopolitical climate in which democratic ideals acquired normative hegemony. This does not exclude a purposive rational institutional design. On the one hand, accession clauses developed a posteriori of the creation of the organization being applied hence to new members rather to the ones creating them. These clauses have been used as an instrument for fostering clubness and imposing institutional features of applying states. On the other hand, in the case of suspension, institutional design serves to trade-off two competing principles: commitment to democratic conditionality and respect for sovereignty of member states and it does so by leaving wide discretion in implementing provisions for suspension clauses.

Time-consistent institutional design

BRENDON, Charles; ELLISON, Martin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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We propose a new normative approach to designing institutional commitments in environments that are subject to a time inconsistency problem, à la Kydland and Prescott (1977). This approach captures the idea that institutions should be chosen in a way that is time consistent: if a commitment is found to be best in some sense today, it should remain best in the same sense tomorrow. This property is not satisfied by the usual Ramsey plan, but it can be achieved by placing appropriate restrictions on the choice set of possible commitments. Using a canonical capital tax problem as a laboratory, we consider the implications for institutional design of restricting choice to sets that exhibit this form of time consistency. We show that any optimal plan within a time-consistent choice set must converge to a steady state that differs from the long-run outcome under Ramsey policy. In particular, this outcome exhibits positive long-run capital taxes. This occurs because a time-consistent policy cannot have both high initial capital taxes and zero long-term rates. A policymaker who discounts the future will always be willing to accept long-run distortions in order to tax the inelastic initial capital stock.

Multi-Stakeholder Governance and Voluntary Programme Interactions: Legitimation politics in the institutional design of corporate social responsibility

FRANSEN, Luc
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A variety of innovative institutional forms have emerged within the context of voluntary attempts to address pressing social and environmental issues. Among such institutions, the prevailing wisdom is that those characterized as encompassing multi-stakeholder governance are generally seen as having greater legitimacy than other forms of voluntary action, and such institutions have proliferated as a result. At the same time, business-driven programmes that exclude societal stakeholder groups are believed to be increasingly emerging as competitors to multi-stakeholder-governed programmes. This paper explores the relationship between these two trends and, in particular, highlights the potential for competition between multi-stakeholder and business-driven programmes to lead to a diverse range of outcomes which are shaped by legitimation politics. This perspective emphasizes the open-ended and contingent nature of voluntary programme interactions and the importance of strategy and choice of voluntary programmes and their participants in shaping the institutional design of programmes. Drawing upon a review of prior research and an in-depth case study of business-driven voluntary programmes within the European multi-product retail industry...

The Institutional Economics of Water : A Cross-Country Analysis of Institutions and Performance

Saleth, R. Maria; Dinar, Ariel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This book provides a detailed and comprehensive evaluation of water reform and water sector performance from the perspectives of institutional economics and political economy. It integrates institutional theory with resource economics, and set against an exhaustive review of the theoretical and empirical literature, the authors develop an alternative methodology to quantitatively assess the performance of institutions in the context of water. This methodology is built on the principle of 'institutional ecology', the 'institutional decomposition and analysis' framework, and the 'subjective theory' of institutional change. Using this new methodology, plus information collected through an international survey of 127 water experts, the authors present a detailed empirical analysis of the process of institution-performance interaction in the water sector. Relying on the institutional transaction cost approach and an extensive cross-country review of recent water sector reforms, they also provide evidence on the relative role of various factors that influence the extent and depth of water institutional reforms in 43 countries and regions around the world. The book concludes with far reaching implications for the theory and policy of water sector reform in particular and institutional reform in general.

Applying the Decision Rights to a Case of Hospital Institutional Design

Eid, Florence
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Corporatization, a hybrid between public sector ownership and privatization, is an organizational form that is increasingly being adopted in the social sectors. In the health sector, the high costs of public hospitals, new technological developments, changes in demand for primary and secondary health care, and efficiency considerations have necessitated shifts in organizational boundaries, leading to conversions in hospital ownership. In the past decade hospitals have been converted from public to nonprofit and from nonprofit to for-profit in industrial and developing countries alike. The debate around these conversions has centered mostly on the tradeoff between equity and efficiency involved in the shift from public to private provision of services. Eid argues that more important than this dichotomy is creating appropriate incentives and matching incentives with goals through institutional design. Because corporatization combines elements of both private and public ownership, it is difficult to design. Among the challenges is deciding where on the spectrum from a budgetary unit to a privatized enterprise a hospital should lie. Another challenge is aligning incentives-not just within the hospital but also between the hospital and the ministry of health. Eid draws on the decision rights approach to analyze how an innovative hospital in Lebanon...

The Banco Central do Brasil's institutional framework after ten years

Carré,Emmanuel
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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The Banco Central do Brazil (BACEN) adopted inflation targeting in 1999. This monetary policy regime originates in institutional design which remains crucial today for the expectations management, and is in permanent evolution. After 10 years, the BACEN institutional framework is assessed, asking if there is still room for improvement. Various institutional procedures are analysed, and lessons are drawn from the international experience of a panel of sixteen countries. Some proposals for the BACEN institutional framework are made.

Exploring Mechanisms of Institutional Design wich Promote Compliance

Tena Sánchez, Jordi
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This paper explores institutional design strategies that promote compliance by regulated agents. Without a doubt, this is one of the central topics in contemporary political theory. Many illustrious traditions in political theory have held that institutions should be designed in such a way that they are capable of ensuring compliance of a nation of devils. This paper argues that such a viewpoint is erroneous and that effective regulatory institutions must assume virtue but must also be prepared for non-compliance; a view shared by some of the most renowned contemporary authors in the field of institutional design. In what follows, the contributions of scholars such as P. Pettit, I Ayres, J. Braithwaite, V. Braithwaite, T. Makkai, N. Gunningham, or P. Grabosky, among others, are reviewed. The possible problems and limitations that may arise with these proposals are then discussed and future lines of work suggested.; En el presente trabajo se exploran estrategias de diseño institucional que promuevan el cumplimiento por parte de los agentes regulados. Éste es sin duda uno de los temas centrales en las ciencias sociales contemporáneas. Desde algunas ilustres tradiciones de teoría política se ha sostenido que las instituciones deben diseñarse de modo tal que sean capaces de asegurar el cumplimiento de un pueblo de demonios. En el presente trabajo se sostiene que dicho punto de vista es erróneo y que las instituciones reguladoras efectivas deben asumir la virtud pero estar preparadas para el incumplimiento. Éste es el punto de vista de algunos de los autores contemporáneos más notables en el terreno del diseño institucional. En lo que sigue...

Accountability, cumplimiento y políticas públicas: una propuesta teórica de diseño institucional y un estudio de caso en la Región de La Araucanía, Chile

García Ojeda, Mauricio
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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En la tesis analizamos las condiciones bajo las cuales, en el marco de una relación principal-agente multinivel configurada en torno a la implementación de programas de política pública e integrada por ciudadanos beneficiarios, políticos electos y burócratas designados, es posible orientar hacia el cumplimiento al último agente de esta relación (agente ejecutor), que es el implementador directo de programas en las organizaciones burocráticas estatales jerárquicas que operan a través de sucesivas delegaciones descendentes. La propuesta teórica de diseño institucional se refiere a que una vía para orientar hacia el cumplimiento al agente ejecutor es que su desempeño esté regulado por una rendición de cuentas articulada desde la accountability vertical interna (control desde la propia organización burocrática) y desde la accountability vertical social (control desde los ciudadanos como beneficiarios del programa de política pública) y además, que esta accountability se sitúe en el nivel exigitivo, es decir, que el agente esté obligado a informar y que la evaluación de su gestión sea vinculante respecto al incentivo que recibe, que es la renovación contractual, la que, por tanto, está condicionada a su desempeño. Para fundamentar lo anterior...

International Bureaucrats and the Formation of Intergovernmental Organizations: Institutional Design Discretion Sweetens the Pot

Johnson, T; Urpelainen, J
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Bureaucrats working in international intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) regularly help states design new IGOs. Sometimes international bureaucrats possess limited discretion in institutional design; sometimes, they enjoy broad discretion. In fact, they gain discretion even when they openly oppose state preferences. This contravenes conventional thinking about delegation: discretion should decrease as preference divergence between states and international bureaucrats increases. We develop a principal-agent theory of how much discretion states grant to international bureaucrats in the design of new IGOs. This is novel: while principal-agent theories of international delegation are common, scholars have not analyzed principal-agent relationships in the creation of new IGOs. We argue that even an international bureaucracy that disagrees with states' design preferences may enjoy substantial design leeway, due to states' need for bureaucratic expertise. In developing this argument, we employ a formal principal-agent model, case studies, and an original dataset.

Between crime and war: Illicit flows and the institutional design of international policy responses.

Scheiber, Christine
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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While the reasons why states create international institutions have attracted sustained academic interested in international relations for more than three decades, the question why states design these institutions in such a variety of ways is only emerging on the academic agenda. This study seeks to contribute to the institutional design debate by transferring the principles of transaction cost economics theory from the context of in- ter-firm to that of inter-state cooperation. Transaction cost economics shares with other functionalist design theories the core assumption that actors adopt the design that best addresses the specific hazards a given problem poses to their cooperative undertaking, whereby they have to balance the merits and drawbacks associated with individual design options. Specifically, states face a dilemma between adopting a mode of governance, which fosters higher levels of compliance (hard law with high levels of obligation, precision and delegation) and one, which allows for flexible adjustments to changing circumstances (soft law). Which type of design is most appropriate, depends on the underlying problem constellation-categorised here based on the three variables asset specificity, behavioural uncertainty...

Precious stones, black gold and the extractive industries: Accounting for the institutional design of multi-stakeholder initiatives.

Kantz, Carola
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Why was the Kimberley Process (KP) able to devise a soft law institution 'with teeth' whereas the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) failed. In various policy fields and particularly in the extractive industries, multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) are becoming more important for regulating business behaviour. However, International Relations (IR) has as yet failed to explain why some succeeded in designing a strong international institution whereas others failed. To answer the research question the thesis first establishes a methodology for assessing strong and weak institutionalisation of MSIs. I argue that functional regime theory is inadequate at assessing MSIs as it does not capture institutional variety within soft law. Based on the Global Governance literature, the thesis establishes four indicators - membership, obligation, monitoring and enforcement, which allow us to evaluate the degree of institutionalisation. How can we account for institutional variety of MSIs. Mainstream IR theories are not able to explain the differences between the two case studies as they gloss over the differences in normative and material structures assuming that complete rationality and concerns for efficiency are critical when determining institutional design. I argue that norm entrepreneurs push for strong institutionalisation by the social mechanism of norm diffusion. Succeeding in diffusing the norm by using political strategies such as framing and structural power galvanises support for strong institutionalisation. Nevertheless...