Macari, Marcos; Furlan, R. L.; Gregorut, F. P.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.
Fonte: Carfax Publ CoPublicador: Carfax Publ Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: 1035-1042
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1. The effect of endotoxin, interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin on fever response was studied in 80 broilers (Hubbard strain). Endotoxin (E. coli, LPS) was injected iv (1.5 mu g/kg) and icv (1.5 mu g/bird); interleukin-1 (human recombinant IL-1 beta, 80 pg/bird) and prostaglandin E(2) (5 mu g/bird) were injected icv. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, iv) pretreatment was also used before iv endotoxin injection. 2. The results showed that indomethacin was able to block the fever response induced by iv endotoxin injection, and IL-1 beta and PGE(2) were both effective in producing fever when injected icv. These data suggest a prostaglandin-mediated fever response by broilers, and also a strong evidence of the involvement of endogenous pyrogen (interleukin-1) in fever response in birds.
Neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are thought to be driven in part by the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta), a 39- to 43-amino acid peptide product resulting from an alternative cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. Recent descriptions of in vitro neurotoxic effects of A beta support this hypothesis and suggest toxicity might be mediated by A beta-induced neuronal calcium disregulation. In addition, it has been reported that "aging" A beta results in increased toxic potency due to peptide aggregation and formation of a beta-sheet secondary structure. In addition, A beta might also promote neuropathology indirectly by activating immune/inflammatory pathways in affected areas of the brain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). Here we report that A beta can modulate cytokine secretion [interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8)] from human astrocytoma cells (U-373 MG). Freshly prepared and aged A beta modestly stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from U-373 MG cells. However, in the presence of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), aged, but not fresh, A beta markedly potentiated (3- to 8-fold) cytokine release. In contrast, aged A beta did not potentiate substance P (NK-1)- or histamine (H1)-stimulated cytokine production. Further studies showed that IL-1 beta-induced cytokine release was potentiated by A beta-(25-35)...
Articular cartilage chondrocytes have the unique ability to elaborate large amounts of extracellular pyrophosphate (PPi), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) appears singular among cartilage regulatory factors in stimulating PPi production. TGF beta caused a time and dose-dependent increase in intracellular and extracellular PPi in human articular chondrocyte cultures. TGF beta and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) antagonistically regulate certain chondrocyte functions. IL-1 beta profoundly inhibited basal and TGF beta-induced PPi elaboration. To address mechanisms involved with the regulation of PPi synthesis by IL-1 beta and TGF beta, we analyzed the activity of the PPi-generating enzyme NTP pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH) and the PPi-hydrolyzing enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Human chondrocyte NTPPPH activity was largely attributable to plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1, PC-1. Furthermore, TGF beta induced comparable increases in the activity of extracellular PPi, intracellular PPi, and cellular NTPPPH and in the levels of PC-1 protein and mRNA in chondrocytes as well as a decrease in alkaline phosphatase. All of these TGF beta-induced responses were completely blocked by IL-1 beta. Thus, IL-1 beta may be an important regulator of mineralization in chondrocytes by inhibiting TGF beta-induced PPi production and PC-1 expression.
Autonomic neurons help to regulate immune responses, and there are reciprocal interactions between the nervous and immune systems. This study seeks to define some of the molecular mechanisms that may underlie such interactions. Immunoblot analysis indicated that cultured sympathetic neurons synthesize and release the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). In addition, RNA blot analysis of cultured sympathetic neurons demonstrated that the neurons contain mRNA encoding IL-1 beta. It was previously shown that explant cultures of sympathetic ganglia and dissociated cocultures of neurons with ganglionic nonneuronal cells synthesize substance P, whereas in situ levels of substance P and its mRNA are low. An antagonist at the interleukin 1 receptor markedly depressed this increase in substance P in cultures, suggesting that endogenous IL-1 beta mediates the synthetic response, at least in part. Because pure neuronal cultures do not contain substance P and neurons synthesize and release IL-1 beta, the actions of the cytokine require the presence of ganglion nonneuronal cells. These observations suggest a role for autonomic neurons in influencing immune responses by synthesizing and secreting at least two known immunoregulators, the cytokine IL-1 beta and the neuropeptide substance P.
Human interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) exerts its diverse biological effects by binding to specific receptors on target cells. Two types of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) have been identified: the type I IL-1R (p80) and the type II IL-1R (p68). Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have identified the binding site on IL-1 beta for the murine type I IL-1R. Analogs of the IL-1 beta protein containing defined amino acid substitutions were produced and tested for competitive binding to the two IL-1Rs. Substitutions of the amino acids at seven positions resulted in analogs that had greater than or equal to 100-fold reductions in competitive binding to the type I IL-1R, while maintaining substantial binding to the type II IL-1R. These seven amino acids (Arg-4, Leu-6, Phe-46, Ile-56, Lys-93, Lys-103, and Glu-105) are clustered in the IL-1 beta molecule, forming a discontinuous binding site. The side chains of all seven residues are exposed on the surface of IL-1 beta. The cumulative binding energies contributed by each of the residues predict a binding affinity that is consistent with the observed Kd of the wild-type protein for the type I IL-1R.
Transcription of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene was studied by mRNA hybridization with a cDNA probe in the human promonocytic cell line U-937. Phorbol ester and lipopolysaccharide increased the steady-state level of IL-1 beta mRNA. Glucocorticoids markedly decreased IL-1 beta mRNA levels by two mechanisms. Transcription of the IL-1 gene was inhibited, as shown by in vitro transcription assays with nuclei isolated from glucocorticoid-treated cells. Moreover, kinetic analyses and pulse-labeling of mRNAs showed that glucocorticoids selectively decrease the stability of IL-1 beta mRNA, without affecting the stability of beta-actin and FOS mRNAs. Inhibition of the formation and effects IL-1 is a mechanism by which glucocorticoids can exert antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.
Development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) after infection by Shigella dysenteriae 1 or enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli has been associated with the production of Shiga toxins (verotoxins). The putative target of Shiga toxins in HUS is the renal microvascular endothelium. This report shows that preincubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) enhances the cytotoxic potency of Shiga toxin toward HUVEC. A preincubation of HUVEC with IL-1 beta is required for sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin. Sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin is IL-1 beta dose dependent. Development of the IL-1 beta response is time dependent, beginning within 2 h of IL-1 beta preincubation and increasing over the next 24 h. That these responses were due to IL-1 beta was demonstrated by heat inactivation of IL-1 beta, by neutralization of IL-1 beta by specific antibody, and by the ability of an IL-1 beta receptor antagonist to inhibit the effect of IL-1 beta. Shiga toxin-related inhibition of HUVEC protein synthesis preceded loss of cell viability. IL-1 beta incubation with HUVEC induced the receptor for Shiga toxin, globotriaosylceramide. Lipopolysaccharide included during IL-1 beta preincubation with HUVEC increased sensitivity to Shiga toxin in an additive manner. We conclude that IL-1 beta may induce Shiga toxin sensitivity in endothelial cells and contribute to the development of HUS.
Interleukin 1 induced proteoglycan loss from cartilage in vitro was prevented by a biochemical inhibitor of metalloproteinase activity. The inhibitor also partially relieved the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis caused by interleukin 1. The loss of glycosaminoglycan by rat and human femoral head cartilage in response to human recombinant interleukin 1 beta (rhIL-1 beta) was established, and the modulation of this loss by the metalloproteinase inhibitor U27391 was investigated. Rat femoral head cartilage consistently lost glycosaminoglycan in response to rhIL-1 beta whereas only a proportion (30%) of normal human femoral head cartilage did so. Concentrations of 10-100 mumol/l U27391 inhibited the action of rhIL-1 beta on rat femoral head cartilage, reversing both the loss of glycosaminoglycan and the inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis. U27391 also prevented the reduction in glycosaminoglycan content of those human femoral head cartilage explants responsive to rhIL-1 beta. Metalloproteinase inhibition therefore prevents rhIL-1 beta induced glycosaminoglycan loss by rat and human femoral head cartilage, suggesting that inhibitors of such enzymes may prove to be of therapeutic benefit in erosive diseases in humans.
Transforming growth factors beta 1 and beta 2 (TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2) are well-characterized strong inducers of collagen gene expression. A 100 pM concentration of TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 increases pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA levels in human skin fibroblasts 6.6-fold and 7.0-fold respectively, and also increases the accumulation of procollagens in the cell culture medium. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is an inflammatory mediator which also regulates connective tissue metabolism. A small concentration of IL-1 beta (0.01-1.0 unit/ml) slightly increases pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA levels (2.2-fold). Here we provide evidence that IL-1 beta prevents the stimulatory effect of TGFs-beta on collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. An IL-1 beta concentration of 1 unit/ml is enough to keep pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA levels at control values in cells stimulated by 100 pM-TGF-beta 1. Thus the results indicate that IL-1 beta inhibits collagen synthesis in cells activated by TGFs-beta, whereas it does not significantly change or might even stimulate collagen gene expression in non-activated cells.
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production in the brain and the spleen was investigated in rabbits made febrile by intravenous (I.V.) injection of endotoxin, or human recombinant IL-1 beta (hIL-1 beta). The endotoxin used in the present study was the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhosa endotoxin. Monophasic fever was induced by I.V. injection of a low dose of LPS (0.02 micrograms kg-1) and biphasic fever by I.V. injection of a large dose of LPS (4 micrograms kg-1), a sublethal dose of LPS (40 micrograms kg-1) or hIL-1 beta (2 micrograms kg-1). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies revealed that, although no IL-1 beta production was observed in the brain at 1 and 3 h after injection of a low dose of LPS (0.02 micrograms kg-1) or of hIL-1 beta (2 micrograms kg-1), IL-1 beta production was demonstrated in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and some cells around the blood vessels in the parenchyma 1 h after 4 micrograms kg-1 LPS. IL-1 beta production was detected throughout the brain after 40 micrograms kg-1 LPS. Pretreatment with indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, did not affect IL-1 beta production in the brain induced by 4 micrograms kg-1 LPS. The cell type which produces IL-1 beta in the OVLT following LPS injection was confirmed to be a macrophage by electron microscopy. The cells producing IL-1 beta in the parenchyma were determined to be microglial cells. In the spleen...
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play an important role in severe infections, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-10 are anti-inflammatory cytokines that counteract their effects. Chlorpromazine and dexamethasone protect mice against lethal endotoxaemia by decreasing circulating concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. We investigated whether administration of chlorpromazine or dexamethasone to human volunteers is able to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production capacity in whole blood. Blood samples were taken before and several time-points after medication. Circulating cytokine concentrations were low in all samples. LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production in whole blood was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment, while chlorpromazine had no effect. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with LPS, the addition of chlorpromazine (1-100 ng/ml) had no modulatory action on TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra or IL-10 synthesis. The chlorpromazine concentrations measured in circulation of volunteers were eight to 40 times lower than the concentrations shown to be effective in mice. In conclusion...
Interleukin 1 beta in biopsy specimens from inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease was studied. Compared with normal colonic mucosal biopsy specimens, a significantly greater amount of interleukin 1 beta was present in rectal mucosa before (median (range) 4.3 (2.0-11.8) v 119.2 (30.1-286.8) pg/mg; p less than 0.01) and produced during organ culture (39.1 (9.4-106.8) v 97.6 (28.2-991.6) pg/mg; p less than 0.01). Values of interleukin 1 beta after culture correlated with concentrations of thromboxane B2. Organ culture of inflamed biopsy specimens in the presence of 5 aminosalicylic acid and dexamethasone reduced the amount of interleukin 1 beta detected. At the doses studied, 5 aminosalicylic acid also reduced the amount of leukotriene B4 detected after culture.
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is normally present in only low concentrations in serum. In the hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), however, serum levels exceed 140 mg/l. This syndrome is further characterized by recurrent inflammatory febrile attacks together with an acute phase response and appearance of cytokines in the circulation. The role of IgD in the pathogenesis of HIDS and its relation to the increased cytokine concentrations is unclear. Therefore, we tested whether IgD, IgG and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) isolated from human serum influence the synthesis of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-1ra, as measured by specific radioimmunoassays, in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Incubation of PBMC with IgD and AGP for 24 hr led to increased release of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-lra. The magnitude of stimulation of IgD exceeded that of AGP; the effect by IgD was dose-dependent and showed a 30-fold (TNF-alpha) to almost 150-fold (IL-1 beta) increase at the highest concentration (50 mg/l), while AGP (750 micrograms/ml) only increased the cytokine secretion fourfold (TNF-alpha) to almost 30-fold (IL-1 beta). The effect of IgD on IL-1ra was less dramatic but a fivefold increase was observed at 50 mg/l compared with a 2.5-fold increase with AGP. IgD potentiated the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on secretion of both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha...
Exposure of cultured human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMO) to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enhances surface expression of the p55 subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Addition of IL-2 to IFN-gamma treated monocytes will stimulate subsequent release of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) due to enhancement of the transcriptional rate and stability of mRNA accumulation of both genes. The present study was aimed to investigate whether IFN-gamma and IL-2 will favour the release of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha by different subsets of human PBMO. To this end PBMO were separated into four fractions with densities ranging from 1.058 to 1.075 kg/l by means of discontinuous bovine serum albumin (BSA) gradient centrigugation. Following incubation of monocyte subsets in the presence or absence of IFN-gamma and IL-2 for a culture period of 24-48 h, cell-free culture supernatants were collected and assayed for IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha activity by ELISA. Surface p55 IL-2R expression was detected by CD25 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) anti-IL-2R1 using immunofluorescence analysis. Although IL-2R1 expressing PBMO were equally distributed among the four fractions, IL-1 beta secretion was found to reside mainly in the most dense fraction. The major TNF-alpha activity was detected...
In patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), evidence of cell-mediated immunity and monocyte functional abnormalities has been reported. We studied the production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peripheral blood monocytes from 22 patients with HNSC (12 larynx and ten oral cavity cancers) in comparison with monocyte cytokine production of age-matched healthy subjects. Pure monocytes were incubated with and without lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (10 micrograms ml-1) for 4 h at 37 degrees C and IL-1 beta and IL-6 concentrations were determined in supernatants by specific ELISA. There was no significant difference in IL-1 beta levels in monocyte supernatants from cancer in comparison to control subjects; conversely, a higher IL-6 production by unstimulated and LPS-activated cells from HNSC patients than from controls was found. No relationship was observed between cytokine production and cancer stage. The regression analysis evidenced a significant correlation between IL-1 beta and IL-6 monocyte-release in HNSC patients and in controls, so suggesting a possible autocrine control of IL-6 production by other cytokines.
Using peritoneal fluid or pleural effusion obtained from 20 patients with lung, ovarian or metastatic breast cancer, we separated tumour cells from malignant effusion-associated mononuclear cells (MEMNCs) using discontinuous Ficoll-Hypaque density gradients. CD3+ T lymphocytes represented the main population of MEMNCs. The mean +/- s.d. CD4/CD8 ratio of MEMNC suspensions was 1.18 +/- 0.40. MEMNCs proliferated and expanded in vitro with human interleukin 2 (IL-2) either as CD3+ CD8+ cells or as CD3+ CD4+ cells or as mixed populations of CD8+ and CD4+ cells. Preferential cytolytic activity against autologous tumour cells was demonstrated in IL-2-activated MEMNC cultures with excess CD3+ CD8+ cells. In contrast, effectors derived from IL-2-activated cultures with excess CD3+ CD4+ cells lysed both autologous and allogeneic tumour target cells. The addition on day 0 of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to MEMNCs cultured in the presence of IL-2 was effective in promoting the growth of CD3+ CD8+ cells and augmenting the cytotoxicity against autologous tumour. Simultaneously, the production of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) was increased in these cultures. This is the first report suggesting that IL-1 beta synergises with IL-2 to induce autologous tumour-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within the MEMNC population. Selective enrichment in T-cell subsets by IL-1 beta may be useful in cellular adoptive immunotherapy using cells isolated from malignant effusions.
Acute phase proteins are released from the liver in response to cytokines, and measurement of serum concentrations offers a valuable means of assessing inflammatory bowel disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a participating prominent component of the acute phase response in active Crohn's disease. This study aimed at determining the comparative role of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in driving CRP production in inflammatory bowel disease, and to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in the profile of cytokines generated in these two conditions. Serum CRP, the release of the cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-6 from monocytes, and the ability of monocyte conditioned medium to stimulate CRP synthesis by hepatocytes in an in vitro system was measured in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Monocytes from patients with Crohn's disease produced more 1L beta-1 than monocytes from patients with ulcerative colitis or normal controls. There was no increased tendency for monocytes from Crohn's disease patients to produce more 1L-6, so the greater circulating values of IL-6 reported by a number of authors in Crohn's disease may reflect the participation of a larger number of cells of the monocyte-macrophage series...
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence points to a important role for inflammatory cytokines for the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. AIM: To compare the secretion rate of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by morphologically normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease. RESULTS: Organ cultures of intestinal biopsy specimens taken from areas of affected mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease spontaneously produced increased amounts of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 compared with controls but also biopsy specimens taken in macroscopically and microscopically unaffected areas in the same patients. Concentrations of IL-1 beta and IL-6 measured in the supernatant fluid of biopsy cultures were positively correlated with the degree of tissue involvement measured by both endoscopic and histological grading. By contrast, TNF-alpha concentrations were not correlated to endoscopic and histological grading. CONCLUSIONS: These consistently raised TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretions by normal appearing mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease provide evidence for a sustained immune stimulation in Crohn's disease even in the absence of patent inflammation. The results shed a new light on the role of inflammatory cytokines in the onset of intestinal tissue damage in Crohn's disease and suggest that the range of intestinal lesions in Crohn's disease may be wider than suspected on the basis of regular endoscopic and histological examinations.
BACKGROUND: Whole gut lavage is currently used as preparation before radiological or endoscopic examination of the large bowel. AIM: To validate the gut lavage technique for the assessment of mucosal inflammation, by measuring intestinal IgG and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the fluid obtained. PATIENTS: Sixteen children with Crohn's disease (CD), 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 22 age matched controls. METHODS: Isotonic, non-absorbable polyethylene glycol based lavage solution was given orally or by nasogastric tube. Clear fluid was collected, filtered, and treated with protease inhibitors. IgG, IL-1 beta and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-ra) were measured by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In patients with UC and CD, IgG and IL-1 beta levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than in controls. A positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found with disease activity scores. IL-1-ra levels were not significantly different in UC and CD, when compared with controls, but the IL-1-ra:IL-1 beta ratio was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in patients with UC and CD, and negatively (p < 0.001) correlated with IgG levels in lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Gut lavage fluid IgG and IL-1 beta levels and IL-1-ra:IL-1 beta ratio may provide objective discrimination between active and inactive disease in children with inflammatory bowel disease.
Concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in supernatants of sonicated endoscopical mucosal biopsy specimens from 31 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 19 controls. IL-1 beta was detected in 53% of the patient supernatants (p = 0.0001), IL-2 in 35% (p = 0.0031), compared with none of the controls. Soluble IL-2R was present in 55% and 26% of the specimens, respectively (p = 0.07). The concentrations of IL-1 beta (p = 0.00015), IL-2 (p = 0.0019), and sIL-2R (p = 0.0073) were highest in the most inflamed biopsy specimens, compared with less inflamed specimens and controls. There were no significant differences in IL-1 beta, IL-2, and sIL-2R concentrations between ulcerative colitis (16) and Crohn's disease patients (15). The results suggest that enhanced cellular immunity operates in vivo at the mucosal level in active inflammatory bowel disease.